Chapter On the Two ʿĪd Prayers from the Risālah of Ibn Abī Zayd

Chapter On the Two ‘Īd Prayers 

[This is Fitr and Aḍḥaa. He clarifies the time for going out to them and how they are done, and clarifies the path by which one returns from them and what he does and what he says when he goes out to them. He also explains the takbirs in the days of Mina and the time in which the takbir occurs on the days of Mina and clarifies what it is recommended to do on the day of the ʿĪd. He begins with their judgement]

17.1 Its judgement

Praying the two ʿĪd prayers is an obligatory sunna. [What is meant is that both of them are confirmed sunnah. So it is a confirmed sunnah and is an individual sunnah in respect of the one obliges to go to Jumuʿah: a legally responsible free man, etc. It is not sunna for a slave, child, madman, women or traveller. The traveller is the one who is more than three miles outside the land of Jumu’ah, but it  is recommended for the one who is not commanded to it to pray it. So it is desirable for the slave, woman, child and the one a parsang (a distance is about 3 or 3½ miles) outside the land of Jumuʿah although there is an exception for the hajji traveller at Mina. They are not commanded to establish it nor is it desirable or sunnahbecause the standing at the Mash’ar takes the place of his praying Jumu’ah. As for the people of Mina, their praying for it in a group is a blameworthy innovation.

There is no harm in a man praying it for himself. It is recommended for someone who misses the ʿĪd prayer with the Imam to pray it alone. If a woman goes to it, she does not wear clothes meant to attract people’s attention nor does she put

on perfume out of fear of sedition, i.e. doing that is unlawful is the fear is probable, and it is disliked if it is uncertain. The old woman and others are equal in this. ]

17.2. How to do the prayer

17.2a. The time of setting out

The imam and the people should leave for the prayer early in the morning so that by the time they arrive at the prayer place the time for the prayer has come.

[The time for setting out for the ʿĪd prayer for the Imam and people is after sunrise so when they reach the place of prayer, it is time for the prayer. This is for the one whose house is near. As for the one whose house is far, he leaves before that so that he can catch the prayer with the Imam. This is the clarification of the time of setting out, not the time of the prayer which he mentions: when he arrives, it is the time of the prayer. Its time is when the sun is the height of one or two Arab spears, which is 12 spans, by the medium span. This is is relation to what the eye sees. In actual terms, it is when the sun has traverses the distance which only Allah knows. It is recommended to go out for it to the place of prayer except with an excuse.

Makkah and other places are the same in that. Imam Mālik said that the people of Makkah prayed in the Masjid al-Haram, i.e. in sight of the Ka’bah. It is an act of worship lacking elsewhere. It is reported that every day 120 mercies descend on this House, 60 for those doing tawaf, 40 for those praying, and 20 for those looking at it.

It is recommended to walk when going to the ‘id prayers rather than returning because he has finished an act of nearness. It is recommended to eat before going to the prayer on the ʿĪd al-Fitr but not the ʿĪd al-Aḍḥaa.]

17.2b. No adhan or iqamah

There is no adhān or iqāmah for the ʿId prayers. [In the well-known position there is no call for the prayer to gather based on what is found in Muslim from ‘Ata’. Jabir reported that there is no adhān on the Day of Fitr before the Imam goes out nor after he goes out and there is no iqāmah or call in the mosque of the prayer and nothing is done to announce the prayer, like beating a drum, for instance. When there time comes, there is no adhān or iqāmah or call. The Imam simply begins the prayer.]

17.2c. Two rak’ats recited outloud

The imam leads the prayer in two rakʿats, reciting out loud in each of them. [He leads the people by reaching the place of prayer or the mosque after the nafilah when the people are gathered. He prays two rakʿats based on what is in the two Sahīh collections that the Prophet prayed it as two rakʿats. It was like that with the khalifs after them.There is no disagreement that he recites outloud.]

17.2d. What is recited

In both he recites the Fātihah and a surah such as Sūrat al-ʿA’laa (87) or Sūratu-sh-Shams (91).

[According to what is in the Muwatta‘ and (Sahīh) Muslim the Messenger of Allah used to recite Qaf (87) and al-Qamar (54) in Adha and Fitr. ]

17.2e. The Takbirs

In the first rak’a he says seven takbīrs including the takbīr al-ihram (opening takbīr). In the second he says five takbīrs not including the takbīr for standing up from sajdah.

[He does not raise his hands in any takbir, either in the first or second except the takbir al-Ihram in the well-known position. It is reported from Malik that he recommended it in every takbīr. The takbīrs are connected to each other except for the amount of the takbīr of those following. It is desirable for him to separate them by that amount. If the Imam says the takbīr more than seven in the first or more than five in the second, the follower does not follow him, even if that is the school of the imam. He says the takbīr before recitation, even if the school of the Imam is to delay, as the literal evidence of the people of the School indicates. If the Imam forgets a takbīr of the ‘id prayer, he goes back as long as he has not moved into ruku’. When he places his hands on his knees, he does not go back.

If he goes back, some of them deduce that it is not invalid and others deduce that it is invalid. The reason for that is he returns from a fard to a sunnah. If he places his hands on his knees having missed a takbīr inadvertantly, he continues and prostrates before the salaam. Anyone who comes after the Imam has finished the takbirs and finds him reciting, says that the takbīr in the well known position as opposed to Ibn Wahb. He said it is because he becomes someone who is making up in the judgement of the Imam. The opinion of the one with the well-known position is that he is not making up by the insignificance of the matter.

It is like that when he catches of the takbīrs. He says the takbīr with him for what he caught of it and then completes what remains of the Imam beginning the recitation. He does not say that takbīr for what he has missed in thetakbīrs of the Imam. If he finds him in the ruku‘, he says the takbīr al-iḥraam and owes nothing. If he catches the recitation in the second rakʿat, he says five takbīrs since the takbīr of standing is cancelled for him. When he makes up the first, he says the takbīr seven times counting the takbīr of standing in them since he missed the takbīr al-iḥraam.]

17.2f. Tashahhud

There are two sajdahs in each rak’a and the prayer is completed with the tashahhud followed the salaam. [After the two prostrations comes the tashahhud, i.e. the prayer on the Prophet and supplication. He includes all of it. There is the salam after the tashahhud.]

Published in: Uncategorized on May 24, 2020 at 01:55  Leave a Comment  

The Chapter On the Zakat al-Fitr from Risaalah Ibn Abi Zayd

The Chapter On the Zakat al-Fitr

27.1. Its ruling

The Zakat al-Fitr is an obligatory sunnah which the Messenger of Allah made compulsory for all Muslims, whether old or young, male or female, free or servant. [It is a confirmed sunna. It seems that is is obligatory in the School. There is disagreement about the words “the Messenger of Allah made it compulsory”. It is said that it means he stipulated it and so it is sunnah, and that does not contradict his words, “On all, whether old or young.” The shaykh uses the terms for what is less than obligatory. The Messenger of Allah said, “Zakat al-Fitr after Ramadan obligatory for the Muslims – servant or free, male or female, young or old, being a sa’ of dates or a sa’ of barley.” It is said that it means that he made it compulsory. That what the author of the Mukhtasar of Sīdī Khalīl thinks.]

27.2. Its amount

27.2a. Its measure

Its amount is one sa’a measuring by the sa’a of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

[It is four mudds by the mudd of the Prophet. A sa’a is a measure of volume equivalent to 4 mudds. A mudd is the amount contained by a man’s cupped hands.]

27.2b.What it is paid in

It should be paid in kind using the staple food of the people of the region, which might be wheat or barley or sult barley or dates or dried cheese or raisins or millet or sorghum or rice. It is also said that if the staple food of the people is al-‘alas, which is a small grain similar to wheat, that the Zakat al-Fitr can be paid with that. [The land where the zakat is paid, whether their food is like his food or better or worse. If his food is better than their food and he pays the zakat in it, that is allowed. If it is less valuable than their food, and he pays it with it out of avarice, then the apparent words of Ibn al-Hajib mean that it does does not satisfy the requirement by agreement. If he pays it from other than these nine types, it is not allowed in the well-known position. This is when some or all of them exist as foods. If they do not exist, all or some, and other things are used as food, they satisfy the requirement.]

27.3. Who pays the zakat of children and servants

The Zakat al-Fitr of a servant is paid by his master and that of a young child, who has no personal wealth, by his father. A man has to pay the zakat of every Muslim for whose maintenance he is responsible, and he should also pay for his mukātab (indentured servant) because even if he is not responsible for his maintenance, the mukātab (indentured servant) is nevertheless still his servant. [The father pays for the child who has no wealth. It is understood from this that he does not pay for an adult. It is not absolute: if he is male, adult and wealthy, he does not pay for him. If he becomes adult within the time it is due, he prays for him. He pays for the female, even if she is adult, until she marries. What is understood by “no personal wealth” is that if he has wealth, he does not pay for him. That is the case. It is paid by Muslims, but not unbelievers.]

27.4. When it is paid

It is recommended to pay the Zakat al-Fitr at daybreak on the day of the ‘Id al-Fitr.

[In Muslim it reports that the Prophet used to command that the zakat al-fitr be paid before people went out to the place of prayer. This is the time of recommendation and not the time of obligation.

There are two well-known statements about that. One is that it becomes obligatory at sunset of the last of the day of Ramadan and ends at the rising of dawn on the day of the ‘id. It is permitted that it be paid a day or two before the day of Fitr. It is not cancelled when its time passes because it is a right of the poor for which liability remains. He does not sin as long as the day of Fitr still remains. If he delays it when he is able to pay it, he sins. He gives to a free poor Muslim. He does not give it to an unbeliever, nor to a wealthy man.]

Published in: Uncategorized on May 23, 2020 at 08:19  Leave a Comment  

Tafsīr al-Jalālayn: Sūratu-l-Fātiḥah Explained

81BFfhwYsYLكتاب: تفسير الجلالين

Tafsīr al-Jalālayn Sūratu-l-Fātiḥah

.سورة الفاتحة 

Sūratu-l-Fātiḥah

.تفسير الآيات (1- 2) {بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ (1) الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ (2)}

    2 Explanation of Verses 1 and

{بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ (1) الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ (2)}

1. In the Name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful:

{الحمد للَّهِ} جملة خبرية قصد بها الثناء على الله بمضمونها من أنه  تعالى مالك: لجميع الحمد من الخلق أو مستحق لأن يحمدوه والله علم على المعبود بحق 

2.  (All) Praise belongs to Allah, is a noun sentence wherein the praise of Allah  (alone) is intended by certifying that  that creation belongs to Allah the Most High King, or (and) that He [alone] is most entitled (to be praise) because they (the creation) praise Him; and that Allah is the proper name of the One Who is solely worthy of being worship.

{رَبّ العالمين} أي مالك جميع الخلق من الإنس والجنّ والملائكة والدواب وغيرهم وكل منها يطلق عليه عالم، يقال: عالم الإنس وعالم الجنّ إلى غير ذلك. وغلب في جمعه بالياء والنون أولو العلم على غيرهم وهو من العلامة لأنه علامة على موجده.

Lord of all Worlds, that is, [He is] the One Who is the Owner of creation, from among: humans, jinn, angels, animals and other forms of creation, each of which is referred to as a world (ʿaalim); it is said ‘the world of men’, or ‘world of the jinn’ and so forth. The plural form of (ʿaalim) is affixed at its end the letters yaa (يَـ)’ and nuun like in the word (عَالَمِين [‘āalamīyn] worlds) which is used to denote, ūlū ‘ilm (knowledgeable creatures) from the rest of creation. The expression [‘ālamīn] is derived from  the word ( عَلَامَة [‘alāmah] sign) , because He (Allah) created it (the world) .

تفسير الآية رقم (3): {الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ (3)}

{الرحمن الرحيم} أي ذي الرحمة وهي إرادة الخير لأهله.

3. The Compassionate, the Merciful: that is to say, the One who possesses ‘mercy’, and it (possessing mercy) is to desire good for those who deserve it.

تفسير الآية رقم (4): {مَالِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّينِ (4)}

{مالك يَوْمِ الدين} أي الجزاء وهو يوم القيامة وخص بالذكر لأنه لا ملك ظاهرا فيه لأحد إلا لله تعالى بدليل لمن الملك اليوم لله الواحدالقهارِ} [40: 16] ومن قرأ مالك فمعناه مالك الأمر كله في يوم القيامة: أي هو موصوف بذلك دائما ك {غافر الذنب} [40: 3] فصح وقوعه صفة لمعرفة.

4. Master of the Day of Judgement: that is to say, (master of الجزاء) The Day of reward and punishment, (master of يوم القيامة) The Day of Resurrection. The specific mention [of the Day of Judgement] is that there will clearly no dominion for anyone in it (The Day of Judgement) except Allah, the Most, as is indicated by [Allah’s words] ‘to whom does the sovereignty belong today? It belongs to Allah, the One, the Almighty [Q. 40:16] (if one reads mālik [instead of malik], then this signifies that He (Allah) is the owner of every affair on the Day of Resurrection, that is to say, He is always characterized by this [expression], in the same way as [He is described as] ‘Forgiver of sin’ (ghāfir al-dhanb). Thus, one can take it as an adjective for a proper noun). 

تفسير الآية رقم (5): {إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ (5)}

{إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ} أي نخصك بالعبادة من توحيد وغيرهونطلب المعونة على العبادة وغيرها.

5. You [alone] do we worship, and You [alone] do we ask for help: that is to say, we reserve worship for You [alone] by way of acknowledging Your Oneness (tawhīd) and so on, and we ask for [Your] assistance in worship and in other things.

تفسير الآية رقم (6): {اهْدِنَا الصِّرَاطَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ (6)}

{اهدنا الصراط المستقيم} أي أرشدنا إليه ويبدل منه.

6. Guide us to the straight path: that is, ‘show us the way to it’. This can be substituted for it (Guide us to the straight path);

تفسير الآية رقم (7): {صِرَاطَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ غَيْرِ الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا الضَّالِّينَ (7)}

{صِرَاطَ الذين أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ} بالهداية ويبدل من الذين بصلته غَيْرِ المغضوب عَلَيْهِمْ} وهم اليهود وَلاَ} وغير الضالين} وهم النصارى ونكتة البدل إفادة أن المهتدين ليسوا يهوداً ولا نصارى. والله أعلم بالصواب، وإليه المرجع والمآب وصلى الله على سيدنا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه وسلم تسليما كثيرا دائما أبدا، وحسبنا الله ونعم الوكيل، ولا حول ولا قوة إلا بالله العلي العظيم.

the path of those whom You have favored (through guidance), (the entire relative clause الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ al-ladhiina anʿamta ʿalayhim can be used interchangeably (to arrive at a similar meaning) with غَيْرِ المغضوب عَلَيْهِمْ (ghayri-l-maghduubi ʿalayhim) other than [the path of] those upon whom wrath has fallen, which refers to the Jews, and  وَلَا الضَّالِّينَ  (wa laaḍ-ḍaaliin or ghayriḍ-ḍaaliin) nor of those who are astray, which refers to the Christians. 

What is implied by this substitution is that those who are among the guided ones are neither the Jews nor the Christians. But Allah knows best what is right, and to Him is the Return and the [final] Resort. May Allah bless our master Muhammad, his Family and Companions and grant them everlasting peace. Sufficient is Allah for us; an excellent Guardian is He. There is no power and no strength save in Allah, the High, the Tremendous.

The Fatihah is a Makkan revelation.

Published in: Uncategorized on May 4, 2020 at 03:07  Leave a Comment  

Story of The Sokoto Caliphate – Sultans, Wazirs, and Emirs 1804 – 1997

Story of The Sokoto Caliphate – Sultans, Wazirs, and Emirs 1804 – 1997

The Sokoto Caliphate was an independent Islamic Sunni Caliphate in West Africa that was founded during the jihad of the Fulani War in 1804 by Usman dan Fodio.[1] It was abolished when the British conquered the area in 1903 and established the Northern Nigeria Protectorate. Developed in the context of multiple independent Hausa kingdoms, at its height the caliphate linked over 30 different emirates and over 10 million people in the most powerful state in the region and one of the most significant empires in Africa in the nineteenth century. The caliphate was a loose confederation of emirates that recognized the suzerainty of the “commander of the faithful”, the sultan or caliph.[2] The caliphate brought decades of economic growth throughout the region.

To read more about the Sokoto Caliphate, its development and the history of its leaders click on the picture below:

You can also click on the following link:

Story of The Sokoto Caliphate – Sultans, Wazirs, and Emirs 1804 – 1997

 

Published in: Uncategorized on April 13, 2020 at 22:42  Leave a Comment  

Abdullahi bin Fodio as a Muslim Jurist

ʿAbdullahi bin Fodio as a Muslim Jurist   by Abubakar Aliu Gwandu

A Thesis submitted to the Faculty of Arts at the University of Durham for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy

This work is a critical and objective study of ʿAbdullahi as a Muslim jurist.

Chapter one deals with the background to ʿAbdullahi’s society and gives a brief account of the political  social, economic and religious conditions of the peoples of the Hausa States in the 18th century.

Chapter two gives a brief account of ʿAbdullahi’s life. It covers his education and preaching, and the part which he played in the Sokoto Jihad. It concludes with a brief sketch of his character.

In chapter three we have tried to trace the personalities that most influenced ʿAbdullahi’s thinking. It is hoped that a knowledge of these personalities would help to account for ʿAbdullah!’s views.

Chapter four deals with ʿAbdullahi’s ideas on constitutional theory and government, and in particular his conception of the Caliphate and various departments of its administration.

Chapter five deals with ʿAbdullahi’s ideas on Islamic society and the vital role which he ascribed to religious  revival in the process of social reform. It deals with his ideas on the significance of rituals and the relationship between the various sections of Islamic society, and his attitude towards non-conformists like rebels and zindīqs. It deals with ʿAbdullahi’s ideas on the institution of  marriage, the upbringing of children, and the lawful and unlawful means of the acquisition of wealth.

In chapter six we have attempted to make a critical assessment of ʿAbdullahi as a mujtahid or an independent Muslim jurist. We dealt first with the principles which guided him in formulating his opinions. While stressing his independent juristic approach, we placed him as a mujtahid within the Mālikī School of Law. We also showed how his choice of sources extended to the three orthodox schools of law.

To read the complete thesis click on the following link:

ʿAbdullahi bin Fodio as a Muslim Jurist

 

Published in: Uncategorized on April 11, 2020 at 19:15  Leave a Comment  

Who was Malcolm X’s Shaykh?

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By Omar Zaki 

This article was originally published by the Sudanese Community and Information Centre – London. Apr 5, 2014

Malcolm X (El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz) is by far one of the most influential activists of our time and increasingly so in a period when young Muslim generations have gained ‘a new  kind of consciousness’ as Malcolm once said, in light of increasing violation of Muslims civil liberties and Islamophobia primarily in the West, since 9/11.

To many Muslims, Malcolm X holds a great place of respect and admiration as a man who spoke and fought for not only the rights of African-Americans but for the oppressed people of the third world. Even Rosa Parks whose act of refusing to move from a white only seat triggered the civil rights movement, stated that Malcolm X was her hero.

Throughout the active political years of his life with the Nation of Islam until his end,  Malcolm X had few but interesting encounters with Sudan and Sudanese. He travelled to Sudan in 1959 visiting Khartoum and Omdurman and spoke of Sudanese in glowing terms saying, ‘’I was impressed the most by the Muslims of the Sudan. Their religious piety and hospitality are unmatched anywhere. I really felt in heaven and home there.’’

In 1962 Malcolm X felt increased resentment from high ranking Nation of Islam members in Chicago for his public recognition and were suspicious that he wanted to succeed Elijah Muhammed. Malcolm sought to deflect these feelings by reducing his media appearances and promote Elijah Muhammed’s cult by defending the NOI against orthodox Muslims. The Muslim community in America looked at the NOI from the outset as a heretical cult but rarely spoke against it outright.

One of the first Orthodox Muslims to publicly criticise the NOI was a Sudanese student at Pennsylvania University called Yahya Hayari. Malcolm responded both private and publicly with a letter to the Pittsburg Courier against Hayari saying it’s ‘’difficult for me to believe that you’re a Muslim from the Sudan’’, he further aggressively defended Muhammed and accused Hayari for sounding ‘’like a brainwashed, American negro’’ that had ‘’been in Christian America too long’’ yet Hayari continued prompting Malcolm.

In the same year, another Sudanese student from Dartmouth College called Ahmed Osman, who attended services at No. 7 Mosque (the active Harlem Mosque that Malcolm himself set up) engaged with Malcolm  during a question and answer session. He directly challenged Malcolm on Elijah Muhammed’s prophetic claims and that whites were literally ‘’devils’’. Osman was ‘’greatly impressed by Malcolm’’ but not by his answer. Afterwards the two exchanged letters and Osman sent literature from the Islamic Centre in Geneva with which Malcolm was grateful for and requested more. Despite Osman’s insistence for Malcolm to join true Islam, he was unprepared.  These engagements between Yahya, Ahmed and Malcolm must of helped lay the tracks for Malcolm’s searching into orthodox Islam as he would later incorporate their discourses against the NOI.

In chapter 18 of Malcolm’s autobiography edited by Alex Haley, when he discusses his Hajj and the warm exchanges with various Muslims who expressed their solidarity with the struggle of African-Americans in the US, he pointed out a Sudanese ‘high official’ who hugged him and said ‘’You champion the American black people!’’. When at Mecca, Malcolm befriended a Sudanese called Shiekh Ahmed Hassoun who taught in Mecca for 35 years and would serve as Malcolm’s spiritual advisor and later taught at the Muslim Mosque Inc. which Malcolm created four days after his departure from the NOI in 1964.  It was Shiekh Ahmed who prepared Malcolm’s body for burial at the Faith Temple Church of God in West Harlem where he lay in state and oversaw his burial.

It is common that Sudanese feel their country is rarely recognised or mentioned some way in contemporary history, however many I believe will take pride in knowing that Sudanese were involved closely in the inspiring picture of Malcolm X’s incredible life.

Omar Zaki is an active half-Sudanese student with an BA History degree from the School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) and former Union Secretary for the SOAS Student’s Union. 

Published in: Uncategorized on April 8, 2020 at 16:40  Leave a Comment  

Hadith on the Benefits of Reading Surah Al-Kahf

(Sahih Muslim » The Book of Prayers (Kitab Al-Salat)

وَحَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ الْمُثَنَّى، حَدَّثَنَا مُعَاذُ بْنُ هِشَامٍ، حَدَّثَنِي أَبِي، عَنْ قَتَادَةَ، عَنْ سَالِمِ، بْنِ أَبِي الْجَعْدِ الْغَطَفَانِيِّ عَنْ مَعْدَانَ بْنِ أَبِي طَلْحَةَ الْيَعْمَرِيِّ، عَنْ أَبِي الدَّرْدَاءِ، أَنَّ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏ “‏ مَنْ حَفِظَ عَشْرَ آيَاتٍ مِنْ أَوَّلِ سُورَةِ الْكَهْفِ عُصِمَ مِنَ الدَّجَّالِ ‏”‏

Abu Darda’ reported Allah’s Apostle (may peace be upon him) as saying: If anyone learns by heart the first ten verses of the Surah al-Kahf, he will be protected from the Dajjal.

Sahih Muslim » The Book of Prayers (Kitab Al-Salat)

وَحَدَّثَنَا ابْنُ الْمُثَنَّى، وَابْنُ، بَشَّارٍ – وَاللَّفْظُ لاِبْنِ الْمُثَنَّى – قَالاَ حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ، جَعْفَرٍ حَدَّثَنَا شُعْبَةُ، عَنْ أَبِي إِسْحَاقَ، قَالَ سَمِعْتُ الْبَرَاءَ، يَقُولُ قَرَأَ رَجُلٌ الْكَهْفَ وَفِي الدَّارِ دَابَّةٌ فَجَعَلَتْ تَنْفِرُ فَنَظَرَ فَإِذَا ضَبَابَةٌ أَوْ سَحَابَةٌ قَدْ غَشِيَتْهُ قَالَ فَذَكَرَ ذَلِكَ لِلنَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقَالَ ‏ “‏ اقْرَأْ فُلاَنُ فَإِنَّهَا السَّكِينَةُ تَنَزَّلَتْ عِنْدَ الْقُرْآنِ أَوْ تَنَزَّلَتْ لِلْقُرْآنِ ‏”‏ ‏.‏

Ibn Ishaq reported:

I heard al-Bara’ as saying that a man recited al-Kahf when an animal was there in the house and it began to take fright. And as he looked around, he found a cloud overshadowing it. He mentioned that to the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ). Upon this he said: O so and so, recite on (the surah) as-Sakina descends at the (recitation of the Qur’an) or on account (of the recitation) of the Qur’an.

Jami` at-Tirmidhi » Chapters On Al-Fitan

حَدَّثَنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ حُجْرٍ، أَخْبَرَنَا الْوَلِيدُ بْنُ مُسْلِمٍ، وَعَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ يَزِيدَ بْنِ جَابِرٍ، دَخَلَ حَدِيثُ أَحَدِهِمَا فِي حَدِيثِ الآخَرِ عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ يَزِيدَ بْنِ جَابِرٍ عَنْ يَحْيَى بْنِ جَابِرٍ الطَّائِيِّ عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ جُبَيْرٍ عَنْ أَبِيهِ جُبَيْرِ بْنِ نُفَيْرٍ عَنِ النَّوَّاسِ بْنِ سَمْعَانَ الْكِلاَبِيِّ قَالَ ذَكَرَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم الدَّجَّالَ ذَاتَ غَدَاةٍ فَخَفَّضَ فِيهِ وَرَفَّعَ حَتَّى ظَنَنَّاهُ فِي طَائِفَةِ النَّخْلِ ‏.‏ قَالَ فَانْصَرَفْنَا مِنْ عِنْدِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ثُمَّ رَجَعْنَا إِلَيْهِ فَعَرَفَ ذَلِكَ فِينَا فَقَالَ ‏”‏ مَا شَأْنُكُمْ ‏”‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ قُلْنَا يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ ذَكَرْتَ الدَّجَّالَ الْغَدَاةَ فَخَفَّضْتَ فِيهِ وَرَفَّعْتَ حَتَّى ظَنَنَّاهُ فِي طَائِفَةِ النَّخْلِ ‏.‏ قَالَ ‏”‏ غَيْرُ الدَّجَّالِ أَخْوَفُ لِي عَلَيْكُمْ إِنْ يَخْرُجْ وَأَنَا فِيكُمْ فَأَنَا حَجِيجُهُ دُونَكُمْ وَإِنْ يَخْرُجْ وَلَسْتُ فِيكُمْ فَامْرُؤٌ حَجِيجُ نَفْسِهِ وَاللَّهُ خَلِيفَتِي عَلَى كُلِّ مُسْلِمٍ إِنَّهُ شَابٌّ قَطَطٌ عَيْنُهُ قَائِمَةٌ شَبِيهٌ بِعَبْدِ الْعُزَّى بْنِ قَطَنٍ فَمَنْ رَآهُ مِنْكُمْ فَلْيَقْرَأْ فَوَاتِحَ سُورَةِ أَصْحَابِ الْكَهْفِ قَالَ يَخْرُجُ مَا بَيْنَ الشَّامِ وَالْعِرَاقِ فَعَاثَ يَمِينًا وَشِمَالاً يَا عِبَادَ اللَّهِ اثْبُتُوا ‏”‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ قُلْنَا يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ وَمَا لُبْثُهُ فِي الأَرْضِ قَالَ ‏”‏ أَرْبَعِينَ يَوْمًا يَوْمٌ كَسَنَةٍ وَيَوْمٌ كَشَهْرٍ وَيَوْمٌ كَجُمُعَةٍ وَسَائِرُ أَيَّامِهُ كَأَيَّامِكُمْ ‏”‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ قُلْنَا يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ أَرَأَيْتَ الْيَوْمَ الَّذِي كَالسَّنَةِ أَتَكْفِينَا فِيهِ صَلاَةُ يَوْمٍ قَالَ ‏”‏ لاَ وَلَكِنِ اقْدُرُوا لَهُ ‏”‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ قُلْنَا يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ فَمَا سُرْعَتُهُ فِي الأَرْضِ قَالَ ‏”‏ كَالْغَيْثِ اسْتَدْبَرَتْهُ الرِّيحُ فَيَأْتِي الْقَوْمَ فَيَدْعُوهُمْ فَيُكَذِّبُونَهُ وَيَرُدُّونَ عَلَيْهِ قَوْلَهُ فَيَنْصَرِفُ عَنْهُمْ فَتَتْبَعُهُ أَمْوَالُهُمْ فَيُصْبِحُونَ لَيْسَ بِأَيْدِيهِمْ شَيْءٌ ثُمَّ يَأْتِي الْقَوْمَ فَيَدْعُوهُمْ فَيَسْتَجِيبُونَ لَهُ وَيُصَدِّقُونَهُ فَيَأْمُرُ السَّمَاءَ أَنْ تُمْطِرَ فَتُمْطِرَ وَيَأْمُرُ الأَرْضَ أَنْ تُنْبِتَ فَتُنْبِتَ فَتَرُوحُ عَلَيْهِمْ سَارِحَتُهُمْ كَأَطْوَلِ مَا كَانَتْ ذُرًى وَأَمَدِّهِ خَوَاصِرَ وَأَدَرِّهِ ضُرُوعًا قَالَ ثُمَّ يَأْتِي الْخَرِبَةَ فَيَقُولُ لَهَا أَخْرِجِي كُنُوزَكِ فَيَنْصَرِفُ مِنْهَا فَتَتْبَعُهُ كَيَعَاسِيبِ النَّحْلِ ثُمَّ يَدْعُو رَجُلاً شَابًّا مُمْتَلِئًا شَبَابًا فَيَضْرِبُهُ بِالسَّيْفِ فَيَقْطَعُهُ جِزْلَتَيْنِ ثُمَّ يَدْعُوهُ فَيُقْبِلُ يَتَهَلَّلُ وَجْهُهُ يَضْحَكُ فَبَيْنَمَا هُوَ كَذَلِكَ إِذْ هَبَطَ عِيسَى ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلاَمُ بِشَرْقِيِّ دِمَشْقَ عِنْدَ الْمَنَارَةِ الْبَيْضَاءِ بَيْنَ مَهْرُودَتَيْنِ وَاضِعًا يَدَيْهِ عَلَى أَجْنِحَةِ مَلَكَيْنِ إِذَا طَأْطَأَ رَأْسَهُ قَطَرَ وَإِذَا رَفَعَهُ تَحَدَّرَ مِنْهُ جُمَانٌ كَاللُّؤْلُؤِ قَالَ وَلاَ يَجِدُ رِيحَ نَفَسِهِ يَعْنِي أَحَدٌ إِلاَّ مَاتَ وَرِيحُ نَفَسِهِ مُنْتَهَى بَصَرِهِ قَالَ فَيَطْلُبُهُ حَتَّى يُدْرِكَهُ بِبَابِ لُدٍّ فَيَقْتُلَهُ قَالَ فَيَلْبَثُ كَذَلِكَ مَا شَاءَ اللَّهُ ‏.‏ قَالَ ثُمَّ يُوحِي اللَّهُ إِلَيْهِ أَنْ حَرِّزْ عِبَادِي إِلَى الطُّورِ فَإِنِّي قَدْ أَنْزَلْتُ عِبَادًا لِي لاَ يَدَانِ لأَحَدٍ بِقِتَالِهِمْ ‏.‏ قَالَ وَيَبْعَثُ اللَّهُ يَأْجُوجَ وَمَأْجُوجَ وَهُمْ كَمَا قَالَ اللَّهُ‏:‏ ‏(‏ مِنْ كُلِّ حَدَبٍ يَنْسِلُونَ ‏)‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ فَيَمُرُّ أَوَّلُهُمْ بِبُحَيْرَةِ الطَّبَرِيَّةِ فَيَشْرَبُ مَا فِيهَا ثُمَّ يَمُرُّ بِهَا آخِرُهُمْ فَيَقُولُ لَقَدْ كَانَ بِهَذِهِ مَرَّةً مَاءٌ ثُمَّ يَسِيرُونَ حَتَّى يَنْتَهُوا إِلَى جَبَلِ بَيْتِ الْمَقْدِسِ فَيَقُولُونَ لَقَدْ قَتَلْنَا مَنْ فِي الأَرْضِ هَلُمَّ فَلْنَقْتُلْ مَنْ فِي السَّمَاءِ ‏.‏ فَيَرْمُونَ بِنُشَّابِهِمْ إِلَى السَّمَاءِ فَيَرُدُّ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمْ نُشَّابَهُمْ مُحْمَرًّا دَمًا وَيُحَاصَرُ عِيسَى ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ وَأَصْحَابُهُ حَتَّى يَكُونَ رَأْسُ الثَّوْرِ يَوْمَئِذٍ خَيْرًا لأَحَدِهِمْ مِنْ مِائَةِ دِينَارٍ لأَحَدِكُمُ الْيَوْمَ ‏.‏ قَالَ فَيَرْغَبُ عِيسَى ابْنُ مَرْيَمَ إِلَى اللَّهِ وَأَصْحَابُهُ قَالَ فَيُرْسِلُ اللَّهُ إِلَيْهِمُ النَّغَفَ فِي رِقَابِهِمْ فَيُصْبِحُونَ فَرْسَى مَوْتَى كَمَوْتِ نَفْسٍ وَاحِدَةٍ قَالَ وَيَهْبِطُ عِيسَى وَأَصْحَابُهُ فَلاَ يَجِدُ مَوْضِعَ شِبْرٍ إِلاَّ وَقَدْ مَلأَتْهُ زَهَمَتُهُمْ وَنَتَنُهُمْ وَدِمَاؤُهُمْ قَالَ فَيَرْغَبُ عِيسَى إِلَى اللَّهِ وَأَصْحَابُهُ قَالَ فَيُرْسِلُ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمْ طَيْرًا كَأَعْنَاقِ الْبُخْتِ قَالَ فَتَحْمِلُهُمْ فَتَطْرَحُهُمْ بِالْمَهْبِلِ وَيَسْتَوْقِدُ الْمُسْلِمُونَ مِنْ قِسِيِّهِمْ وَنُشَّابِهِمْ وَجِعَابِهِمْ سَبْعَ سِنِينَ قَالَ وَيُرْسِلُ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمْ مَطَرًا لاَ يَكُنُّ مِنْهُ بَيْتُ وَبَرٍ وَلاَ مَدَرٍ قَالَ فَيَغْسِلُ الأَرْضَ فَيَتْرُكُهَا كَالزَّلَفَةِ قَالَ ثُمَّ يُقَالُ لِلأَرْضِ أَخْرِجِي ثَمَرَتَكِ وَرُدِّي بَرَكَتَكِ ‏.‏ فَيَوْمَئِذٍ تَأْكُلُ الْعِصَابَةُ مِنَ الرُّمَّانَةِ وَيَسْتَظِلُّونَ بِقِحْفِهَا وَيُبَارَكُ فِي الرِّسْلِ حَتَّى إِنَّ الْفِئَامَ مِنَ النَّاسِ لَيَكْتَفُونَ بِاللَّقْحَةِ مِنَ الإِبِلِ وَإِنَّ الْقَبِيلَةَ لَيَكْتَفُونَ بِاللَّقْحَةِ مِنَ الْبَقَرِ وَإِنَّ الْفَخِذَ لَيَكْتَفُونَ بِاللَّقْحَةِ مِنَ الْغَنَمِ فَبَيْنَمَا هُمْ كَذَلِكَ إِذْ بَعَثَ اللَّهُ رِيحًا فَقَبَضَتْ رُوحَ كُلِّ مُؤْمِنٍ وَيَبْقَى سَائِرُ النَّاسِ يَتَهَارَجُونَ كَمَا تَتَهَارَجُ الْحُمُرُ فَعَلَيْهِمْ تَقُومُ السَّاعَةُ ‏”‏ ‏.‏ قَالَ أَبُو عِيسَى هَذَا حَدِيثٌ حَسَنٌ صَحِيحٌ غَرِيبٌ لاَ نَعْرِفُهُ إِلاَّ مِنْ حَدِيثِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ يَزِيدَ بْنِ جَابِرٍ ‏.‏

It was narrated from An-Nawwas bin Sam’an, who said:

“The Messenger of Allah(s.a.w) mentioned the Dajjal one morning, he belittled him and mentioned his importance until we thought that he might be amidst a cluster of date-palms.” He said: “We departed from the presence of the Messenger of Allah(s.a.w), then we returned to him, and he noticed that(concern) in us. So he said: ‘What is wrong with you?'” We said: ‘O Messenger of Allah! You mentioned the Dajjal this morning, belittling him, and mentioning his importance until we thought that he might be amidst a cluster of the date-palms.’ He said: ‘It is not the Dajjal that I fear for you. If he were to appear while I am among you, then I will be his adversary on your behalf. And if he appears and I am not among you, then each man will have to fend for himself. And Allah will take care of every Muslim after me. He is young, with curly hair, his eyes protruding, resembling someone from ‘Abdul-Uzza bin Qatan. Whoever among you sees him, then let him recite the beginning of Surah Ashab Al-Kahf.'”He said: ‘He will appear from what is between Ash-Sham and Al-‘Iraq, causing devastation toward the right and toward the left. O worshippers of Allah! Hold fast!'” We said: ‘O Messenger of Allah! How long will he linger on the earth?’ He said: ‘Forty days, a day like a year, a day like a month, a day like a week, and the remainder of his days are like your days.'” We said: ‘O Messenger of Allah! Do you think that during the day that is like a year, the Salat of one day will be sufficient for us?’ He said: ‘No. You will have to estimate it.’ We said: ‘O Messenger of Allah! How fast will he move through the earth.’ He said: ‘Like a rain storm driven by the wind. He will come upon a people and call them, and they will deny him, and reject his claims. Then he will leave them, and their wealth will follow him. They will awaken in the morning with nothing left. Then he will come upon a people and call them, and they will respond to him, believing in him. So he will order the Heavens to bring rain, and it shall rain, and he will order the land to sprout, and it will sprout. Their cattle will return to them with their coats the longest, their udders the fullest and their stomachs the fattest.’ He said: ‘Then he will come upon some ruins, saying to it: “Bring me your treasures!” He will turn to leave it, and it will follow him, like drone bees. Then he will call a young man, full of youth, and he will strike him with the sword cutting him into two pieces. Then he will call him, and he will come forward with his face beaming and laughing. So while he is doing that, ‘Eisa bin Mariam, peace be upon him, will descend in eastern Damascus at the white minaret, between two Mahrud, with his hands on the wings of two angels. When he lowers his head, drops fall, and when raises it, gems like pearls drop from him.’ He said: ‘His (the Dajjal’s) breath does not reach anyone but he dies, and his breath reaches as far as his sight.’ He said: ‘So he pursues him(the Dajjal) and he catches up with him at the gate of Ludd where he kills him.’ He said: ‘So he remains there as long as Allah wills.’ He said: ‘Then Allah reveals to him: “Take my slaves to At-Tur, for I have sent down some creatures of Mine which no one shall be able to kill.'” He said: ‘Allah dispatches Ya’juj and Ma’juj, and they are as Allah said: They swoop down from every mount.’ “He said: ‘The first of them pass by the lake of Tiberias, drinking what is in it. Then the last of them pass by it saying: “There was water here at one time.” They travel until they reach a mountain at Bait Al-Maqdis. They will say: “We have killed whoever was in the earth. Come! Let us kill whoever is in the skies.” They will shoot their arrows into the Heavens, so Allah will return their arrows to them red with blood. Eisa bin Mariam and his Companions be surrounded, until the head of a bull on that day would be better to them than a hundred Dinar to one of you today.’ “He (s.a.w) said: “Eisa will beseech Allah, as will his companions.’ He said: ‘So Allah will send An-Naghaf down upon their necks. In the morning they will find that they have all died like the death of a single soul.’ He said: ” ‘Eisa and his companions will come down, and no spot nor hand-span can be found, except that it is filled with their stench, decay and blood. So ‘Eisa will beseech Allah, as will his companions.’ So Allah will send upon them birds like the necks of Bukht(milch)camels.’ They will carry them off and cast them into an abyss. The Muslims will burn their bows, arrows and quivers for seventy years.’ “He(s.a.w) said: ‘Allah will send upon them a rain which no house of hide nor mud will bear. The earth will be washed, leaving it like a mirror. Then it will be said to the earth: “bring forth your fruits and return your blessings.” So on that day, a whole troop would eat a pomegranate and seek shade under its skin. Milk will be so blessed that a large group of people will be sufficed by one milking of a camel. And that a tribe will be sufficed by one milking of a cow, and that a group will be sufficed by the milking of sheep. While it is like that, Allah will send a wind which grabs the soul of every believer, leaving the remainder of the people copulating publicly like the copulation of donkeys. Upon them the Hour shall begin.'”

Published in: Uncategorized on April 8, 2020 at 02:26  Leave a Comment  

From the Muwatta of Imam Malik Chapter: 45, Madinah The Section: About What Has Been Transmitted  Concerning the Plague

From the Muwatta of Imam Malik Chapter: 45, Madina 

The Section: About What Has Been Transmitted  Concerning the Plague

 باب مَا جَاءَ فِي الطَّاعُونِ         

وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الْحَمِيدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ زَيْدِ بْنِ الْخَطَّابِ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ الْحَارِثِ بْنِ نَوْفَلٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَبَّاسٍ، أَنَّ عُمَرَ بْنَ الْخَطَّابِ خَرَجَ إِلَى الشَّامِ، حَتَّى إِذَا كَانَ بِسَرْغَ لَقِيَهُ أُمَرَاءُ الأَجْنَادِ، أَبُو عُبَيْدَةَ بْنُ الْجَرَّاحِ وَأَصْحَابُهُ، فَأَخْبَرُوهُ أَنَّ الْوَبَأَ قَدْ وَقَعَ بِأَرْضِ الشَّامِ، قَالَ ابْنُ عَبَّاسٍ  فَقَالَ عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ ادْعُ لِي الْمُهَاجِرِينَ الأَوَّلِينَ. فَدَعَاهُمْ فَاسْتَشَارَهُمْ، وَأَخْبَرَهُمْ أَنَّ الْوَبَأَ قَدْ وَقَعَ بِالشَّامِ، فَاخْتَلَفُوا فَقَالَ بَعْضُهُمْ  قَدْ خَرَجْتَ لأَمْرٍ، وَلاَ نَرَى أَنْ تَرْجِعَ عَنْهُ. وَقَالَ بَعْضُهُمْ  مَعَكَ بَقِيَّةُ النَّاسِ وَأَصْحَابُ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلْى الله عليه وسلّم، وَلاَ نَرَى أَنْ تُقْدِمَهُمْ عَلَى هَذَا الْوَبَإِ. فَقَالَ عُمَرُ  ارْتَفِعُوا عَنِّي. ثُمَّ قَالَ  ادْعُ لِي الأَنْصَارَ. فَدَعَوْتُهُمْ فَاسْتَشَارَهُمْ، فَسَلَكُوا سَبِيلَ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ وَاخْتَلَفُوا كَاخْتِلاَفِهِمْ، فَقَالَ  ارْتَفِعُوا عَنِّي. ثُمَّ قَالَ  ادْعُ لِي مَنْ كَانَ هَا هُنَا مِنْ مَشْيَخَةِ قُرَيْشٍ مِنْ مُهَاجِرَةِ الْفَتْحِ. فَدَعَوْتُهُمْ، فَلَمْ يَخْتَلِفْ عَلَيْهِ مِنْهُمُ اثْنَانِ فَقَالُوا  نَرَى أَنْ تَرْجِعَ بِالنَّاسِ وَلاَ تُقْدِمَهُمْ عَلَى هَذَا الْوَبَإِ، فَنَادَى عُمَرُ فِي النَّاسِ  إنِّي مُصْبِحٌ عَلَى ظَهْرٍ فَأَصْبِحُوا عَلَيْهِ. فَقَالَ أَبُو عُبَيْدَةَ  أَفِرَاراً مِنْ قَدَرِ اللَّهِ ؟ فَقَالَ عُمَرُ  لَوْ غَيْرُكَ قَالَهَا يَا أَبَا عُبَيْدَةَ، نَعَمْ نَفِرُّ مِنْ قَدَرِ اللَّهِ إِلَى قَدَرِ اللَّهِ، أَرَأَيْتَ لَوْ كَانَ لَكَ إِبِلٌ، فَهَبَطَتْ وَادِياً لَهُ عُدْوَتَانِ، إِحْدَاهُمَا مُخْصِبَةٌ وَالأُخْرَى جَدْبَةٌ، أَلَيْسَ إِنْ رَعَيْتَ الْخَصِبَةَ رَعَيْتَهَا بِقَدَرِ اللَّهِ، وَإِنْ رَعَيْتَ الْجَدْبَةَ رَعَيْتَهَا بِقَدَرِ اللَّهِ، فَجَاءَ عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنُ عَوْفٍ – وَكَانَ غَائِباً فِي بَعْضِ حَاجَتِهِ – فَقَالَ  إِنَّ عِنْدِي مِنْ هَذَا عِلْماً, سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلْى الله عليه وسلّم يَقُولُ  « إِذَا سَمِعْتُمْ بِهِ بِأَرْضٍ فَلاَ تَقْدَمُوا عَلَيْهِ، وَإِذَا وَقَعَ بِأَرْضٍ وَأَنْتُمْ بِهَا، فَلاَ تَخْرُجُوا فِرَاراً مِنْهُ ». قَالَ  فَحَمِدَ اللَّهَ عُمَرُ، ثُمَّ انْصَرَفَ

Hadith No: 22

Narrated by / on  the Authority of Abdullah bin Abbas Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Abd al-Hamid ibn Abd ar-Rahman ibn Zayd ibn al-Khattab from Abdullah ibn Abdullah ibn al-Harith ibn Nawfal from Abdullah ibn Abbas that Umar ibn al-Khattab set out for ash Sham and when he was at Sargh, near Tabuk, the commanders of the army, Abu Ubayda ibn al-Jarrah and his companions, met him and told him that the plague had broken out in ash-Sham. Ibn Abbas said, “Umar ibn al-Khattab said, ‘(Send) all the first Muhājir to me.’ He assembled them and asked them for advice, informing them that the plague had broken out in ash Sham. They disagreed. Some said, ‘You have set out for something, and we do not think that you should leave it.’ Others said, ‘You have the companions of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and the rest of the people with you, and we do not think that you should send them towards this plague.’ Umar said, ‘Leave me.’ Then he said, ‘Summon the Ansar to me.’ They were summoned and he asked them for advice. They acted as the Muhājirun had and disagreed as they had disagreed. He said, ‘Leave me.’ “Then he said, ‘Summon to me whoever is here of the aged men of Quraysh from the Muhājirun of the conquest.’ He summoned them and not one of them differed. They said, ‘We think that you should withdraw the people and not send them towards the plague.’ Umar called out to the people, ‘I am leaving by camel in the morning,’ so they set out. Abu Ubayda said, ‘Is it flight from the qadar (decree) of Allah?‘ Umar said, ‘It would have been better that someone other than you had said it, Abu Ubayda. Yes! We run from the (qadar) decree of Allah to the qadar (decree) of Allah. What would you think if these camels had gone down into a valley which had two slopes, one of them fertile, and the other barren. If you pastured in the fertile part, wouldn’t you pasture them by the decree of Allah? If you pastured them in the barren part, wouldn’t you pasture them by the decree of Allah?’ ”Abd ar-Rahman ibn Awf arrived and he had been off doing something and he said, ‘I have some knowledge of this. I heard the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, say, “If you hear about it in a land, do not go forward to it. If it comes upon a land and you are in it, then do not depart in flight from it.” ‘ Umar praised Allah and then set off.”

وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ الْمُنْكَدِرِ، وَعَنْ سَالِمٍ أبِي النَّضْرِ مَوْلَى عُمَرَ بْنِ عُبَيْدِ اللَّهِ، عَنْ عَامِرِ بْنِ سَعْدِ بْنِ أبِي وَقَّاصٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، أَنَّهُ سَمِعَهُ يَسْأَلُ أُسَامَةَ بْنَ زَيْدٍ  مَا سَمِعْتَ مِنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلْى الله عليه وسلّم فِي الطَّاعُونِ ؟ فَقَالَ أُسَامَةُ  قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلْى الله عليه وسلّم  « الطَّاعُونُ رِجْزٌ، أُرْسِلَ عَلَى طَائِفَةٍ مِنْ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ، أَوْ عَلَى مَنْ كَانَ قَبْلَكُمْ، فَإِذَا سَمِعْتُمْ بِهِ بِأَرْضٍ فَلاَ تَدْخُلُوا عَلَيْهِ، وَإِذَا وَقَعَ بِأَرْضٍ وَأَنْتُمْ بِهَا، فَلاَ تَخْرُجُوا فِرَاراً مِنْهُ ».  قَالَ مَالِكٌ  قَالَ أَبُو النَّضْرِ  لاَ يُخْرِجُكُمْ إِلاَّ فِرَارٌ مِنْهُ. 

Hadith No: 23

Narrated by / on  the Authority of Yahya related to me from Malik from Muhammad ibn al-Munkadir and from Salim ibn Abin-Nadr, the mawla of Umar ibn Ubaydullah that Amir ibn Sad ibn Abi Waqqas heard his father ask Usama ibn Zayd, “Have you heard anything from the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, about the plague?” Usama said, “The Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, ‘The plague is a punishment that was sent down on a party of the Banu Israil or whoever was before them. When you hear of it in a land, do not enter it. If it comes upon a land and you are in it, do not depart in flight from it.’ “ Malik said that Abu’n-Nadr said, “That is, do not depart with no other intention but flight.”

وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عَامِرِ بْنِ رَبِيعَةَ  أَنَّ عُمَرَ بْنَ الْخَطَّابِ خَرَجَ إِلَى الشَّامِ، فَلَمَّا جَاءَ سَرْغَ، بَلَغَهُ أَنَّ الْوَبَأَ قَدْ وَقَعَ بِالشَّامِ، فَأَخْبَرَهُ عَبْدُ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنُ عَوْفٍ، أَنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلْى الله عليه قَالَ  « إِذَا سَمِعْتُمْ بِهِ بِأَرْضٍ فَلاَ تَقْدَمُوا عَلَيْهِ، وَإِذَا وَقَعَ بِأَرْضٍ وَأَنْتُمْ بِهَا، فَلاَ تَخْرُجُوا فِرَاراً مِنْهُ ». فَرَجَعَ عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ مِنْ سَرْغَ.

Hadith No: 24 

Narrated/Authority of Abdullah ibn Amir ibn Rabia Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Abdullah ibn Amir ibn Rabia that Umar ibn al-Khattab went out to ash-Sham. When he came to Sargh, near Tabuk, he heard that the plague had broken out in ash-Sham. Abd ar-Rahman ibn Awf told him that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, said, “If you hear that a land has a plague in it, do not go forward to it. If it comes upon a land which you are in, do not depart in flight from it.” Umar ibn al-Khattab came back from Sargh.

وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، عَنْ سَالِمِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ  أَنَّ عُمَرَ بْنَ الْخَطَّابِ إِنَّمَا رَجَعَ بِالنَّاسِ عَنْ حَدِيثِ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنِ عَوْفٍ.

Hadith No: 25

Narrated by / on  the Authority of Salim bin Abdullah Yahya related to me from Malik from Ibn Shihab from Salim ibn Abdullah that Umar ibn al-Khattab turned people back at Sargh according to the hadith of Abd ar-Rahman ibn Awf.

وَحَدَّثَنِي عَنْ مَالِكٍ، أَنَّهُ قَالَ  بَلَغَنِي أَنَّ عُمَرَ بْنَ الْخَطَّابِ قَالَ  لَبَيْتٌ بِرُكْبَةَ، أَحَبُّ إِلَىَّ مِنْ عَشَرَةِ أَبْيَاتٍ بِالشَّامِ. قَالَ مَالِكٌ  يُرِيدُ لِطُولِ الأَعْمَارِ وَالْبَقَاءِ، وَلِشِدَّةِ الْوَبَإِ بِالشَّامِ 

Hadith No: 26

Narrated by / on  the Authority of Yahya related to me that Malik said, “I heard that Umar ibn al-Khattab said, ‘A night in Rukba (a valley near Taif,) is more preferable to me than ten nights in ash-Sham.’ ” Malik said, “He meant (more preferable in regards to) the  lengthening and preservation of their lives, because of the severity of the plague in ash-Sham.”

Published in: Uncategorized on April 5, 2020 at 04:18  Leave a Comment  

Who Was Malcolm X’s Shaykh?

By Omar Zaki 

This article was originally published by the Sudanese Community and Information Centre – London. Apr 5, 2014

Malcolm X (El-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz) is by far one of the most influential activists of our time and increasingly so in a period when young Muslim generations have gained ‘a new  kind of consciousness’ as Malcolm once said, in light of increasing violation of Muslims civil liberties and Islamophobia primarily in the West, since 9/11.

To many Muslims, Malcolm X holds a great place of respect and admiration as a man who spoke and fought for not only the rights of African-Americans but for the oppressed people of the third world. Even Rosa Parks whose act of refusing to move from a white only seat triggered the civil rights movement, stated that Malcolm X was her hero.

Throughout the active political years of his life with the Nation of Islam until his end,  Malcolm X had few but interesting encounters with Sudan and Sudanese. He travelled to Sudan in 1959 visiting Khartoum and Omdurman and spoke of Sudanese in glowing terms saying, ‘’I was impressed the most by the Muslims of the Sudan. Their religious piety and hospitality are unmatched anywhere. I really felt in heaven and home there.’’

In 1962 Malcolm X felt increased resentment from high ranking Nation of Islam members in Chicago for his public recognition and were suspicious that he wanted to succeed Elijah Muhammed. Malcolm sought to deflect these feelings by reducing his media appearances and promote Elijah Muhammed’s cult by defending the NOI against orthodox Muslims. The Muslim community in America looked at the NOI from the outset as a heretical cult but rarely spoke against it outright.

One of the first Orthodox Muslims to publicly criticise the NOI was a Sudanese student at Pennsylvania University called Yahya Hayari. Malcolm responded both private and publicly with a letter to the Pittsburg Courier against Hayari saying it’s ‘’difficult for me to believe that you’re a Muslim from the Sudan’’, he further aggressively defended Muhammed and accused Hayari for sounding ‘’like a brainwashed, American negro’’ that had ‘’been in Christian America too long’’ yet Hayari continued prompting Malcolm.

In the same year, another Sudanese student from Dartmouth College called Ahmed Osman, who attended services at No. 7 Mosque (the active Harlem Mosque that Malcolm himself set up) engaged with Malcolm  during a question and answer session. He directly challenged Malcolm on Elijah Muhammed’s prophetic claims and that whites were literally ‘’devils’’. Osman was ‘’greatly impressed by Malcolm’’ but not by his answer. Afterwards the two exchanged letters and Osman sent literature from the Islamic Centre in Geneva with which Malcolm was grateful for and requested more. Despite Osman’s insistence for Malcolm to join true Islam, he was unprepared.  These engagements between Yahya, Ahmed and Malcolm must of helped lay the tracks for Malcolm’s searching into orthodox Islam as he would later incorporate their discourses against the NOI.

In chapter 18 of Malcolm’s autobiography edited by Alex Haley, when he discusses his Hajj and the warm exchanges with various Muslims who expressed their solidarity with the struggle of African-Americans in the US, he pointed out a Sudanese ‘high official’ who hugged him and said ‘’You champion the American black people!’’. When at Mecca, Malcolm befriended a Sudanese called Shiekh Ahmed Hassoun who taught in Mecca for 35 years and would serve as Malcolm’s spiritual advisor and later taught at the Muslim Mosque Inc. which Malcolm created four days after his departure from the NOI in 1964.  It was Shiekh Ahmed who prepared Malcolm’s body for burial at the Faith Temple Church of God in West Harlem where he lay in state and oversaw his burial.

It is common that Sudanese feel their country is rarely recognised or mentioned some way in contemporary history, however many I believe will take pride in knowing that Sudanese were involved closely in the inspiring picture of Malcolm X’s incredible life.

Omar Zaki is an active half-Sudanese student with an BA History degree from the School of Oriental and African Studies (SOAS) and former Union Secretary for the SOAS Student’s Union. 

Published in: Uncategorized on March 8, 2020 at 13:32  Comments (1)  

Educating Muslim Women: The West African Legacy of Nana Asma’u 1793-1864.

This is a Book Review by Amidu Olalekan Sanni

by Jean Boyd and Beverly Mack 

Until very recently a dominant stereotype in the Western discursive tradition portrayed Africa as a ‘Dark Continent’ and her women as subalterns who lived on the margins of history. The work under review not only invalidates this negative assumption, but also establishes the lasting influence of Nana Asma’u (1793-1864), ‘the most prolific woman writer and influential lady to emerge in the Western Soudan in the nineteenth-century’ (p. 173). This six-chapter work highlights the history of Sufism in West Africa—the esoteric platform on which Asma’u’s sociointellectual upbringing and engagement was built; the routines in the house of the state officials, especially in relation to harems, slaves, and concubines; and the events that led to the establishment of the Sokoto caliphate in 1808, especially those relating to migration and wars. The social infelicities of the antebellum migration, and the postwar social dislocations suffered by women inspired Nana Asma’u to establish ‘Yan Taru’ (The Associates), a movement that undertook the education, edification, social welfare, and empowerment of rural women through trained local facilitators (Jajis). This movement, which came into being by the first quarter of the nineteenth century, not only survived British colonialism but also continued into modern Nigeria in the form of women’s rights and activist groups, as demonstrable with Women in Nigeria (WIN) founded in 1982, and the Federation of Muslim Women Associations of Nigeria (FOMWAN) founded in 1985.

Yan Taru’s replication and transformation as far afield as North America is further proof of its universal relevance. This is a central, if not the central, subject matter of this work. In Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, the organisation promotes the original ideals of Nana Asma’u, albeit in an urban setting, through the appropriation of modern information facilities and intellectual enterprise.

For example, since 2005 it has published a bimonthly newsletter, Yan Taru, and in 1985 founded the Sankore Institute. The Institute has engaged not only in facilitating the ‘restoration of cultural ties between African-Americans and Africans’ (p. 219), but also in promoting African Islamic heritage, particularly the values of the Sokoto Qadiriyya community, as well as translating the writings of the Fodios into English (see http://www.siiasi.org/). This narrative goes a long way in establishing that women’s leadership in intellectual, social, and spiritual voyages had never been lacking in the West African Sufi tradition.

A particular merit of this work is that the personal experiences of the two authors arising from their extensive field studies and stays in Nigeria enhances the probative value of their analyses of works by and on Nana Asma’u. These analyses also provide insights into her intellectual credentials, social orientation, and the nature and quality of her interaction in a conservative cultural landscape in which she also collaborated with men in the production of poetry and prose pedagogic materials in Arabic, Fulfulde, and Hausa for the community, particularly women. The work also provides an objective assessment of women and their roles in the caliphate where they ‘are allowed more liberty’, and of the harem as a place of honour rather than ‘a place where women were sequestered, waiting to provide sex service in turn’ (p. 69).

There are, however, some inadequacies and drawbacks in this otherwise outstanding work. References to the landmass south of the Sahara as sub-Saharan Africa (p. 13) has become less than eirenic due to its inherent pejorative undertone; Sudanic Africa has become a more-acceptable term. Although past Eurocentric authors and travellers’ accounts may be pardoned for being unaware of local developments in the political and intellectual terrain of colonial and/or postcolonial Nigeria or for simply choosing to ignore them, this cannot be extended to modern authors bivouacking in the terrain of the narratives.

The claim that there were no records or minutes of events at the Sokoto caliphal courts during colonialism (p. 157) is not true, as can be gleaned from Muhammad S. Umar’s enlightening study Islam and Colonialism: Intellectual Responses of Muslims of Northern Nigeria to British Colonial Rule (Leiden: 2006). Also, the claim that ‘Asma’u’s works had not yet been published’ (p. 173) is absolutely incorrect. A cursory look at the bio-bibliographical notice on Asma’u in John Hunwick’s Arabic Literature of Africa (Leiden: 1995, pp. 162-172) indicates that a number of her works, some with English translations, have been published since the last quarter of the twentieth century, as has her major prose work on paraenetic, the Tanbīh al-ghāfilīn. In fact, as early as 1968 Isaac A. Ogunbiyi made available to the reading public materials from the works of Nana Asma’u, (Isaac. A. Ogunbiyi, ‘Further Light on Asma’u bint ’Uthman bin Fudi’, Research Bulletin of the Centre for Arabic Documentation 11 (1975): 26-37) and has followed this up with the publication as text editions and translations of her other works. Evidence of the circulation of Ogunbiyi’s pioneering publication of Asma’u, as later updated, among the Sokoto intellectual and academic elites is not altogether lacking, even while one of the authors of the title under review was in the Caliphate. Nikki Merritt, unnoticed by our authors, also presents an insightful description of Asma’u’s elegies (Nikki Merritt, ‘Nana Asma’u, Her Elegies and the Possibility of ‘insider alternatives’, African Languages and Cultures 7.2 (1994): 91-99). It is exceedingly strange that Boyd and Mack could fail to notice, even en passant, John Hunwick’s monumental reference work on West African Islamic intellectual legacy already noted above. The concluding chapter (pp. 187-231) on scholars of the twentieth and twenty-first centuries would also have benefitted from the insights afforded by recent studies on Muslim women’s education in Nigeria. These criticisms notwithstanding, this work brilliantly illustrates the enduring legacy of Asma’u as a quintessential local educator, a Muslim family woman, and above all, a social mobiliser with universal appeal.

Amidu Olalekan Sanni

Lagos State University, Nigeria

Oxford Center for Islamic Studies (OCIS), UK

Published in: Uncategorized on March 6, 2020 at 17:29  Leave a Comment  
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