Chapter 3 Mudawwanah – Wuḍuu’ With (Water That Has) السُّؤْر (the Remnants) of Animals, Chickens, and Dogs (That Have Drank from It)

الْوُضُوءِ بِسُؤْرِ الدَّوَابِّ وَالدَّجَاجِ وَالْكِلابِ

Wuḍuu’ With (Water That Has) السُّؤْر (the Remnants) of Animals, Chickens, and Dogs (That Have Drank from It)

قَالَ‮ ‬وَسَأَلْتُ‮ ‬مَالِكًا عَنْ‮ ‬سُؤْرِ‮ ‬الْـحِمَارِ‮ ‬وَالْبَغْلِ‮ ‬فَقَالَ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬بَأْسَ‮ ‬بِهِ

He (Ibn al-Qaasim) said, “I asked Maalik about water that has سؤر الحمار و البغْل (the remnants of the the donkey and the mule).  He (Maalik) said there is nothing wrong with it.

قُلْتُ‮ ‬أَرَأَيْتَ‮ ‬إنْ‮ ‬أَصَابَ‮ ‬غَيْرَهُ‮ ‬؟ قَالَ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬هُوَ‮ ‬وَغَيْرُهُ‮ ‬سَوَاءٌ‮  ‬قَالَ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬وَقَالَ‮ ‬مَالِكٌ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬بَأْسَ‮ ‬بِعَرَقِ‮ ‬الْبِرْذَوْنِ‮ ‬وَالْبَغْلِ‮ ‬وَالْـحِمَارِ

I (Ṣahnuun) said, “How do you view the contact other things with it (the water)?”  He (Ibn al-Qaasim) said, “It (the remnants of donkeys and mules) and other things are the same.”  He (Ibn al-Qaasim) said, “Maalik said there’s no harm in performing Wuḍuu’ with عَرْقُ‏ ‬البِرْذَوْن (the sweat of (the work horse) and الْـحِمَارِ (the donkey) and الْبَغْلِ (the mule) (in it).”

‮ ‬قَالَ‮ ‬وَقَالَ‮ ‬مَالِكٌ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬الإِنَاءِ‮ ‬يَكُونُ‮ ‬فِيهِ‮ ‬الْـمَاءُ‮ ‬يَلَغُ‮ ‬فِيهِ‮ ‬الْكَلْبُ‮  ‬قَالَ‮ ‬مَالِكٌ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬إنْ‮ ‬تَوَضَّأَ‮ ‬بِهِ‮ ‬وَصَلَّى أَجْزَأَهُ‮ ‬قَالَ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬وَلَمْ‮ ‬يَكُنْ‮ ‬يَرَى الْكَلْبَ‮ ‬كَغَيْرِهِ‮ ‬قَالَ‮ ‬وَقَالَ‮ ‬مَالِكٌ‮ ‬إنْ‮ ‬شَرِبَ‮ ‬مَائًا مِنْ‮ ‬الإِنَاءِ‮ ‬مَا‮ ‬يَأْكُلُ‮ ‬الْـجِيَفَ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬الطَّيْرِ‮ ‬وَالسِّبَاعِ‮ ‬لَمْ‮ ‬يَتَوَضَّأْ‮ ‬بِهِ

He (Ibn al-Qaasim) said, “Maalik said, If a water container has water in it that the dog has licked.” He (Ibn al-Qaasim) said, “Maalik said, ‘If he performed Wuḍuu’ with it and prayed it is allowed.” He (Ibn al-Qaasim) said, “He (Maalik) was was not of the opinion that the dog was similar to other (animals).”  He (Ibn al-Qaasim) said, “Maalik said, ”If he (the dog) drank water from a container when he has eaten  الْـجِيفَ‮ ‬مَـنْ‮ ‬الطَّيْرِ (the dead bird) or السِّبَاعِ (animal), then he (the worshipper) should not perform Wuḍuu’ with it (that water).”

قَالَ‮ ‬وَقَالَ‮ ‬مَالِكٌ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬إنْ‮ ‬وَلَغَ‮ ‬الْكَلْبُ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬إنَاءٍ‮ ‬فِيهِ‮ ‬لَبَـنٌ‮ ‬فَلاَ‮ ‬بَأْسَ‮ ‬بِأَنْ‮ ‬يُؤْكَلَ‮ ‬ذَلِكَ‮ ‬اللَّبَـنُ‮ ‬قُلْتُ‮ ‬هَلْ‮ ‬كَانَ‮ ‬مَالِكٌ‮ ‬يَقُولُ‮ ‬يُغْسَلُ‮ ‬الإِنَاءُ‮ ‬سَبْعَ‮ ‬مَرَّاتٍ‮ ‬إذَا وَلَغَ‮ ‬الْكَلْبُ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬الإِنَاءِ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬اللَّبَـنِ‮ ‬وَفِي‮ ‬الْـمَاءِ؟ قَالَ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬قَالَ‮ ‬مَالِكٌ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬قَدْ‮ ‬جَاءَ‮ ‬هَذَا الْـحَدِيثُ‮ ‬وَمَا أَدْرِي‮ ‬مَا حَقِيقَتُهُ‮ ‬

Maalik said, “If a dog licks from a container in which there was milk, there was no objection to that milk being drunk.”  I said, “didn’t Maalik used to say, “the bowl that a dog licked  should be washed seven times when the dog licked milk or water in the bowl ?”  He (Ibn al-Qaasim) said, “Maalik said, “This hadiith has come and I do not know about its authenticity.”

قَالَ‮ ‬وَكَأَنَّهُ‮ ‬كَانَ‮ ‬يَرَى أَنَّ‮ ‬الْكَلْبَ‮ ‬كَأَنَّهُ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬أَهْلِ‮ ‬الْبَيْتِ‮ ‬وَلَيْسَ‮ ‬كَغَيْرِهِ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬السِّبَاعِ‮ ‬،‮ ‬وَكَانَ‮ ‬يَقُولُ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬إنْ‮ ‬كَانَ‮ ‬يُغْسَلُ‮ ‬فَفِي‮ ‬الْـمَاءِ‮ ‬وَحْدَهُ‮ ‬وَكَانَ‮ ‬يُضَعِّفُهُ‮ ‬،‮ ‬وَقَالَ‮  ‬لاَ‮ ‬يُغْسَلُ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬سَمْنٍ‮ ‬وَلاَ‮ ‬لَبَـنٍ‮ ‬وَيُؤْكَلُ‮ ‬مَا وَلَغَ‮ ‬فِيهِ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬ذَلِكَ‮ ‬وَأَرَاهُ‮ ‬عَظِيمًا أَنْ‮ ‬يَعْمِدَ‮ ‬إلَى رِزْقٍ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬رِزْقِ‮ ‬اللَّهِ‮ ‬فَيَلْقَى الْكَلْبَ‮ ‬وَلَغَ‮ ‬فِيهِ‮

He (Ibn al-Qaasim) said it seemed he (Maalik) viewed the dog as being part of the household and not wild or from among predatory creatures.  He used to say, “If he washes, it should be the bowl containing water solely, and he said (the opinion) was weak.  He (Maalik) said, “It is not washed when it contains fat nor milk, though what has been licked from among these things can be eaten. I view it as magnificent that it is intended as رِزْق (a blessing) from  رِزْقِ (the blessings) of Allah.  Its the dog’s share, so he licks it.”

قُلْتُ‮ ‬إنْ‮ ‬شَرِبَ‮ ‬مِنَ‮ ‬اللَّبَـنِ‮ ‬مَا‮ ‬يَأْكُلُ‮ ‬الْـجِيفَ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬الطَّيْرِ‮ ‬وَالسِّبَاعِ‮ ‬وَالدَّجَاجِ‮ ‬الَّتِي‮ ‬تَأْكُلُ‮ ‬النَّتـْنَ‮ ‬أَيُؤْكَلُ‮ ‬اللَّبَـنَ‮ ‬أَمْ‮ ‬لاَ؟ قَالَ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬أَمَّا مَا تَيَقَّنْتَ‮ ‬أَنَّ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬مِنْقَارِهِ‮ ‬قَذَرًا فَلاَ‮ ‬يُؤْكَلُ‮ ‬،‮ ‬وَمَا لَمْ‮ ‬تَرَهُ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬مِنْقَارِهِ‮ ‬فَلاَ‮ ‬بَأْسَ‮ ‬بِهِ‮ ‬وَلَيْسَ‮ ‬هُوَ‮ ‬مِثْلَ‮ ‬الْـمَاءِ‮ ‬لأَنَّ‮ ‬الْـمَاءَ‮ ‬يُطْرَحُ‮ ‬وَلاَ‮ ‬يُتَوَضَّأُ‮ ‬بِهِ

I (Ṣahnuun) said, “ (Are you of the opinion) if those creatures which eat جِيف ( dead carcasses) like birds, beast of prey, and chickens which eat  النَّتْـنَ ( rotting things) can drink the milk or not?  He (Ibn al-Qaasim) said, “If you are certain that whatever was in its مِنْقار (beak) was unclean, then it is not eaten.  As for what you didn’t see in its beak, there is no objection to it (the food being eaten).”  It is not like the water (used in performing Wuḍuu’) because the water is thrown away and Wuḍuu’ is not performed with it.

قَالَ‮ ‬سَحْنُونٌ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬أَخْبَرَنِي‮ ‬ابْنُ‮ ‬وَهْبٍ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬عَمْرِو بْنِ‮ ‬الْـحَارِثِ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬يَحْيَى بْنِ‮ ‬سَعِيدٍ‮ ‬وَبُكَيْرِ‮ ‬بْنِ‮ ‬عَبْدِ‮ ‬اللَّهِ‮ ‬بْنِ‮ ‬الأَشَجِّ‮ ‬أَنَّهُمَا كَانَا‮ ‬يَقُولانَِ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬بَأْسَ‮ ‬أَنْ‮ ‬يَتَوَضَّأَ‮ ‬الرَّجُلُ‮ ‬بِفَضْلِ‮ ‬سُؤْرِ‮ ‬الْـحَمِيرِ‮ ‬وَالْبِغَالِ‮ ‬وَغَيْرِهِمَا مِنْ‮ ‬الدَّوَابِّ‮ ‬وَقَالَ‮ ‬ابْنُ‮ ‬شِهَابٍ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬الْـحِمَارِ‮ ‬مِثْلَهُ

Saḥnuun said “Ibn Wahb related from ʿAmr bin Haarith from Yahyaa bin Saʿiid and Bakiir bin ʿAbdullaah al-Ashj that the two them used to say there is no object to the man performing Wuḍuu’ (with water) in which was the remnants of the donkey, the mule, and other creatures.”  Ibn Shihaab said something similar to this with regard to the donkey.

وَقَالَ‮ ‬عَطَاءُ‮ ‬بْنُ‮ ‬أَبِي‮ ‬رَبَاحٍ‮ ‬وَرَبِيعَةُ‮ ‬بْنُ‮ ‬أَبِي‮ ‬عَبْدِ‮ ‬الرَّحْمَنِ‮ ‬وَأَبُو الزِّنَادِ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬الْـحِمَارِ‮ ‬وَالْبَغْلِ‮ ‬مِثْلَهُ‮ ‬،‮ ‬وَتَلاَ‮ ‬عَطَاءٌ‮ ‬قَوْلَ‮ ‬اللَّهِ‮ ‬تَعَالَى وَالْـخَيْلَ‮ ‬وَالْبِغَالَ‮ ‬وَالْـحَمِيرَ‮ ‬لِتَرْكَبُوهَا وَزِينَةً‮ ‬وَقَالَهُ‮ ‬مَالِكٌ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬حَدِيثِ‮ ‬ابْنِ‮ ‬وَهْبٍ

ʿAtaa bin Abii Ribaah and Rabiiʿah bin Abii ʿAbdur Rahmaan and Abū Zinaad all said something similar with regards to the donkey and the mule.  ʿAtaa used to recite the words of Allah the Most High: “And the horse and the mule and the donkey (He has created) so that you can ride them and as an adornment…”  Maalik mentioned from the the hadiith of Ibn Wahb.

قَالَ‮ ‬عَلِيُّ‮ ‬ابْنُ‮ ‬زِيَادٍ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬مَالِكٍ‮  ‬فِي‮ ‬الَّذِي‮ ‬يَتَوَضَّأُ‮ ‬بمَاءٍ‮ ‬قَدْ‮ ‬وَلَغَ‮ ‬فِيهِ‮ ‬الْكَلْبُ‮ ‬ثُمَّ‮ ‬صَلَّى‮ ‬،‮ ‬قَالَ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬أَرَى عَلَيْهِ‮ ‬إِعَادَةً‮ ‬وَإِنْ‮ ‬عَلِمَ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬الْوَقْتِ‮ ‬قَالَ‮ ‬عَلِيٌّ‮ ‬وَابْنُ‮ ‬وَهْبٍ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬مَالِكٍ‮ ‬وَلاَ‮ ‬يُعْجِبُنِي‮ ‬الْوُضُوءُ‮ ‬بِفَضْلِ‮ ‬الْكَلْبِ‮ ‬إذَا كَانَ‮ ‬الْـمَاءُ‮ ‬قَلِيلاً‮ ‬قَالَ‮ ‬وَلاَ‮ ‬بَأْسَ‮ ‬بِهِ‮ ‬إذَا كَانَ‮ ‬الْـمَاءُ‮ ‬كَثِيرًا كَهَيْئَةِ‮ ‬الْـحَوْضِ‮ ‬يَكُونُ‮ ‬فِيهِ‮ ‬مَاءٌ‮ ‬كَثِيرٌ‮ ‬أَوْ‮ ‬بَعْضُ‮ ‬مَا‮ ‬يَكُونُ‮ ‬فِيهِ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬الْـمَاءِ‮ ‬الْكَثِيرِ‮ ‬

ʿAlī bin Ziyaad related from Maalik concerning the person who performed Wuḍuu’ with water which a dog had licked then prayed, “I am not of the opinion he has to repeat the prayer even if he knows on time.”  He (Ibn al-Qaasim) said, “ʿAlī and Ibn Wahb related from Maalik, “The Wuḍuu’ (with water) that has the remnant of the dog in it is not appealing to me if it is a small amount of water.  Its not objectionable it is a lot of water like the case of the الحوض (cistern) wherein there is a lot of water in it or whatever water is in it is a good amount.

ابْنُ‮ ‬وَهْبٍ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬ابْنِ‮ ‬جُرَيْجٍ‮ ‬إنَّ‮ ‬رَسُولَ‮ ‬اللَّهِ‮ ‬صَلَّى اللَّهُ‮ ‬عَلَيْهِ‮ ‬وَسَلَّمَ‮ ‬وَرَدَ‮ ‬وَمَعَهُ‮ ‬أَبُو بَكْرٍ‮ ‬وَعُمَرُ‮ ‬عَلَى حَوْضٍ‮ ‬فَخَرَجَ‮ ‬أَهْلُ‮ ‬الْـحَوْضِ‮ ‬فَقَالُوا‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬يَا رَسُولَ‮ ‬اللَّهِ‮ ‬إنَّ‮ ‬الْكِلابَ‮ ‬وَالسِّبَقَالَ‮ ‬تَلَغُ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬هَذَا الْـحَوْضِ‮ ‬،‮ ‬فَقَالَ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬لَهَا مَا أَخَذَتْ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬بُطُونِهَا وَلَنَا مَا بَقِيَ‮ ‬شَرَابًا وَطَهُورًا وَأَخْبَرَنَي‮ ‬عَبْدُ‮ ‬الرَّحْمَنِ‮ ‬بْنُ‮ ‬زَيْدٍ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬زَيْدِ‮ ‬بْنِ‮ ‬أَسْلَمَ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬عَطَاءِ‮ ‬بْنِ‮ ‬يَسَارٍ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬أَبِي‮ ‬هُرَيْرَةَ‮ ‬بِهَذَا عَنْ‮ ‬رَسُولِ‮ ‬اللَّهِ‮ ‬صَلَّى اللَّهُ‮ ‬عَلَيْهِ‮ ‬وَسَلَّمَ

Ibn Wahb has related from Ibn Jarayj that “the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلّم had returned to a ḥawd along with Abū Bakr and ʿUmar, and the people who owned the ḥawd came and said, “Oh Messenger of Allah, the dogs and beast of prey have drunk from this ḥawd.”  He صلى الله عليه وسلّم said, ‘For them is what they take in their stomachs and for us is what is left; a drink that is pure.’ ”  He told me ʿAbdur Rahmaan bin Zayd related this from Zayd bin Aslam from ʿAtaa bin Yasaar from Abū Hurayrah from the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلّم.

وَقَدْ‮ ‬قَالَ‮ ‬عُمَرُ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬تُخْبِرْنَا‮ ‬يَا صَاحِبَ‮ ‬الْـحَوْضِ‮ ‬فَإِنَّا نَرِدُ‮ ‬عَلَى السِّبَاعِ‮ ‬وَتَرِدُ‮ ‬عَلَيْنَا فَالْكَلْبُ‮ ‬أَيْسَرُ‮ ‬مُؤْنَةً‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬السِّبَاعِ‮ ‬،‮ ‬وَالْهِرُّ‮ ‬أَيْسَرُهُمَا لأَنَّهُ‮ ‬مِمَّا‮ ‬يَتَّخِذُهُ‮ ‬النَّاسُ

ʿUmar said, “Do not tell us oh owner of the ḥawd; for we come behind the beasts of prey and they come behind us.”  Thus, the dog is an easier burden on us than the beast of prey and the cat is an easier burden than both of them, because of what human beings receive from it.

قَالَ‮ ‬ابْنُ‮ ‬الْقَاسِمِ‮ ‬وَقَالَ‮ ‬مَالِكٌ‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬بَأْسَ‮ ‬بِلُعَابِ‮ ‬الْكَلْبِ‮ ‬يُصِيبُ‮ ‬ثوْبَ‮ ‬الرَّجُلِ‮ ‬وَقَالَهُ‮ ‬رَبِيعَةُ‮ . ‬وَقَالَ‮ ‬ابْنُ‮ ‬شِهَابٍ‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬بَأْسَ‮ ‬إذَا اُضْطُرِرْتَ‮ ‬إلَى سُؤْرِ‮ ‬الْكَلْبِ‮ ‬أَنْ‮ ‬يُتَوَضَّأَ‮ ‬بِهِ

Ibn al-Qaasim said, “Maalik said, ‘there is no harm if اللُّعَاب (the saliva) of the dog comes in contact with the garment of a man’ and Rabiiʿah said it (also).”  Ibn Shihaab said, “There is no objection if you perform Wuḍuu’ with water that has the remnants of a dog.

وَقَالَ‮ ‬مَالِكٌ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬يُؤْكَلُ‮ ‬صَيْدُهُ‮ ‬فَكَيْفَ‮ ‬يُكْرَهُ‮ ‬لُعَابُهُ‮ ‬؟ قُلْتُ‮ ‬فَالدَّجَاجُ‮ ‬الْـمُخَلَّاةُ‮ ‬الَّتِي‮ ‬تَأْكُلُ‮ ‬القَذَرَ‮ ‬بمَنْزِلَةِ‮ ‬الطَّيْرِ‮ ‬الَّتِي‮ ‬تَأْكُلُ‮ ‬الْـجِيَفَ‮ ‬إنْ‮ ‬شَرِبَتْ‮ ‬مَنْ‮ ‬إنَاءٍ‮ ‬فَتَوَضَّأَ‮ ‬بِهِ‮ ‬رَجُلٌ‮ ‬أَعَادَ‮ ‬مَا دَامَ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬الْوَقْتِ‮ ‬فَإِنْ‮ ‬مَضَى فَلاَ‮ ‬إعَادَةَ‮ ‬عَلَيْهِ‮ ‬وَإِنْ‮ ‬كَانَتْ‮ ‬الدَّجَاجُ‮ ‬مَقْصُورَةً‮ ‬فَهِيَ‮ ‬بمَنْزِلَةِ‮ ‬غَيْرِهَا مِنْ‮ ‬الحَمَامِ‮ ‬وَمَا أَشْبَهَ‮ ‬ذَلِكَ‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬بَأْسَ‮ ‬بِسُؤْرِهَا ؟ قَالَ‮ ‬نَعَمْ

He (Ibn al-Qaasim) said, “Maalik said, its صَيْد (hunted game) is eaten, then how is its saliva disliked.”  I (Ṣahnuun) said, “The wild chicken which eats the filth in the house of the birds which feast on dead carcasses then drinks from the water container and a man performs Wuḍuu’ with it, he should renew (his Wuḍuu’) as long as it is in the time.  If the time has passed, he should not renew it, but if the chicken is confined, and  in the house is other birds like pigeons and what is similar, the performance of Wuḍuu’ with water that has its (the chickens) remnants in it is not objectionable?’ ”  He (Ibn al-Qaasim) said, “Yes.”

قَالَ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬وَقَدْ‮ ‬سَأَلْنَا مَالِكًا عَنْ‮ ‬الخُبْزِ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬سُؤْرِ‮ ‬الْفَأْرَةِ‮ ‬،‮ ‬قَالَ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬بَأْسَ‮ ‬بِهِ‮ ‬قَالَ‮ ‬فَقُلْنَا لَهُ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬هَلْ‮ ‬يُغْسَلُ‮ ‬بَوْلُ‮ ‬الْفَأْرَةِ‮ ‬يُصِيبُ‮ ‬الثَّوْبَ‮ ‬؟ قَالَ‮ ‬نَعَمْ‮ ‬قَالَ‮ ‬وَسَأَلْتُ‮ ‬مَالِكًا عَنْ‮ ‬الدَّجَاجِ‮ ‬وَالإِِوَزِّ‮ ‬تَشْرَبُ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬الإِنَاءِ‮ ‬أَيُتَوَضَّأُ‮ ‬بِهِ‮ ‬قَالَ‮ ‬لاَإلَّا أَنْ‮ ‬تَكُونَ‮ ‬مَقْصُورَةً‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬تَصِلُ‮ ‬إلَى النَّتَْـنِ‮ ‬وَكَذَلِكَ‮ ‬الطَّيْرُ‮ ‬الَّتِي‮ ‬تَأْكُلُ‮ ‬الْـجِيَفَ

Ibn al-Qaasim said, “We asked Maalik about the bread from the remnants of the rat.  He said, “It is not objectionable.”  We asked does he wash off the urine of the rat if it gets on the garment.”  He said, “Yes.”  He said “I asked Maalik about chicken and geese drinking from the water container, does he perform Wuḍuu’ with it?”  He said, “No, unless they are confined away from contact with  النَّتْـنَ (what is rotting); and likewise birds that feast on dead carcasses.”

قَالَ‮ ‬ابْنُ‮ ‬الْقَاسِمِ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬وَلاَ‮ ‬أَرَى‮ ‬يَتَوَضَّأُ‮ ‬بِهِ‮ ‬وَإِنْ‮ ‬لَمْ‮ ‬يَجِدْ‮ ‬غَيْرَهُ‮ ‬وَلْيَتَيَمَّمْ‮ ‬إذَا عَلِمَ‮ ‬أَنَّهَا تَأْكُلُ‮ ‬النَّتـْنَ‮ ‬

Ibn al-Qaasim said, “It is not my opinion that he should perform Wuḍuu’ with it and if he is does not find other (water) than it, let him perform tayammum if he knows (for sure) that it (the chicken) ate النَّتْـن (what was rotten).”

وَقَالَ‮ ‬مَالِكٌ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬وَإِنْ‮ ‬كَانَتْ‮ ‬مَقْصُورَةً‮ ‬فَلاَ‮ ‬بَأْسَ‮ ‬بِسُؤْرِهَا

Maalik said, “If it (the chicken) was confined, there is no objection to its remnants.

قَالَ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬وَسَأَلْتُ‮ ‬ابْنَ‮ ‬الْقَاسِمِ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬خُرْءِ‮ ‬الطَّيْرِ‮ ‬وَالدَّجَاجِ‮ ‬الَّتِي‮ ‬لَيْسَتْ‮ ‬بِـمُخَلَّاةٍ‮ ‬تَقَعُ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬الإِنَاءِ‮ ‬فِيهِ‮ ‬الْـمَاءُ‮ ‬مَا قَوْلُ‮ ‬مَالِكٍ‮ ‬فِيهِ‮ ‬؟ قَالَ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬كُلُّ‮ ‬مَا لاَ‮ ‬يُفْسِدُ‮ ‬الثَّوْبَ‮ ‬فَلاَ‮ ‬يُفْسِدُ‮ ‬الْـمَاءَ‮ ‬،‮ ‬وَأَنَّ‮ ‬ابْنَ‮ ‬مَسْعُودٍ‮ ‬ذَرَقَ‮ ‬عَلَيْهِ‮ ‬طَائِرٌ‮ ‬فَنَفَضَهُ‮ ‬بِإِصْبَعِهِ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬حَدِيثِ‮ ‬وَكِيعٍ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬سُفْيَانَ‮ ‬بْنِ‮ ‬عُيَيْنَةَ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬عَاصِمٍ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬أَبِي‮ ‬عُثْمَانَ‮ ‬النَّهْدِيِّ

He (Ṣahnuun) said, “I asked Ibn al-Qaasim about Maalik’s view on خُرْء (feces) of birds and chickens which are not  مُخْلاَة (free to roam) falling into the water container in which there is water.”  He said, “Whatever doesn’t spoil (the purity) on the garment doesn’t spoil (the purity of the water).  A bird ذَرَقَ (dropped excrement) on Ibn Masʿuud and so he knocked it off with his finger, according to a strong hadiith related by Sufyaan bin ʿUyaaynah from ʿAasim from Abū ʿUthmaan an-Nahdii.

ابْنُ‮ ‬وَهْبٍ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬عَمْرِو بْنِ‮ ‬الْـحَارِثِ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬يَحْيَى بْنِ‮ ‬سَعِيدٍ‮ ‬أَنَّهُ‮ ‬قَالَ‮ ‬كَانَ‮ ‬يَكْرَهُ‮ ‬فَضْلَ‮ ‬الدَّجَاجِ‮ ‬ابْنُ‮ ‬وَهْبٍ‮ ‬عَنِ‮ ‬ابْنُ‮ ‬لَهِيعَةَ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬يَزِيدَ‮ ‬بْنِ‮ ‬أَبِي‮ ‬حَبِيبٍ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬الإِوَزِّ‮ ‬وَالدَّجَاجِ‮ ‬مِثْلَهُ‮ ‬وَقَالَ‮ ‬اللَّيْثُ‮ ‬بْنُ‮ ‬سَعْدٍ‮ ‬مِثْلَهُ‮ ‬وَقَالَ‮ ‬مَالِكٌ‮ ‬إذَا كَانَتْ‮ ‬بِـمَكَانٍ‮ ‬تُصِيبُ‮ ‬فِيهِ‮ ‬الأَذَى فَلاَ‮ ‬خَيْرَ‮ ‬فِيهِ‮ ‬وَإِذَا كَانَتْ‮ ‬بِـمَكَانٍ‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬تُصِيبُ‮ ‬فِيهِ‮ ‬الأَذَى فَلاَ‮ ‬بَأْسَ‮ ‬بِهِ‮ ‬وَقَالَ‮ ‬حَنْظَلَةَ‮ ‬بْنِ‮ ‬أَبِي‮ ‬سُفْيَانَ‮ ‬الْـجُمَحِيِّ‮ ‬رَأَيْتُ‮ ‬طَائِرًا ذَرَقَ‮ ‬عَلَى سَالِمِ‮ ‬بْنِ‮ ‬عَبْدِ‮ ‬اللَّهِ‮ ‬فَمَسَحَهُ‮ ‬عَنْهُ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬حَدِيثِ‮ ‬ابْنِ‮ ‬وَهْبٍ

Ibn Wahb related from ʿAmr bin al-Haarith from Yahyaa bin Saʿiid that he said the remnants of the chicken is disliked.  Ibn Wahb related the same thing from Ibn Lahiiʿah from Yaziid bin Abii Habiib concerning the chicken and the duck, and al-Layth bin Saʿd said the same thing also.  Maalik said, “If it (the chicken) is in a place in which it eats offensive substance, there is no good in it (its excrement), while if it is in a place in which it doesn’t eat offensive substances, there is no objection to it (its excrement).” And he said, “Hindhalah bin Abii Sufyaan al-Jamhii said, “I saw a bird drop excrement on Saalim Ibn ʿAbdullaah and he wiped it off himself”, according to a hadith from Ibn Wahb.

Chapter 1 Mudawwanah – The Established Number of Times Each Act of Wuḍuu’ Must Be Performed‬

Chapter 2 Mudawwanah – Wuḍuu with Water of Bread and Leather Skin and النَّبِيذ (Date Wine) and The Water into Which Insects and Other Things Have Fallen

Chapter 4 Mudawwanah – Facing the Qiblah While Urinating and Defecating

Chapter 5 Mudawwanah – The Chapter About الاسْتِنْجَاءُ (al-Istinjaa’) Because of الرّيح (Gas)

Chapter 6 Mudawwanah – The Chapter About Performing Wuḍuu’ Because of Touching the Penis

Chapter 7 Mudawwanah – Wuḍuu’ Because of Sleep

Chapter 8 Mudawwanah – The Chapter Concerning سَلَس الْبَوْلِ (Incontinence of Urine), and الْـمَذْيُ (Prostatic Fluid), الدُّود (Worms), الدَّمّ (Blood) Coming from الدَّبْر (the Rectum)

Chapter 9 Mudawwanah -The Chapter Concerning the Wuḍuu’ of الْـمَجْنُونُ (The Person Overcome by Insanity), السّضكْرَانُ (The Drunken Person) and الْـمَغْمِي (The Person Who is Unconscious) When They Regain Consciousness

Chapter 10 Mudawwanah – The Chapter Concerning الْـمَلاَمَسَة (Touching) and الْقُبْلَة (Kissing)

Chapter 11 Mudawwanah – The Chapter Concerning the One Who Has Doubt About Wuḍuu’ and الْـحَدَثِ (Impurity/ Impure Substance)

Chapter 12 Mudawwanah – Wuḍuu with Water That Is Used by الْـحَائِض (The Menstruating Woman), الْـجُنُب (The Person Who is in a State of Major Sexual Impurity), and وَالنَّصْرَانِيّ (The Christian)

Chapter 13 Mudawwanah – The Chapter Concerning What Has Been Said About Doing the Parts of Wuḍuu in Reverse

Chapter 14 Mudawwanah – The Chapter Concerning the Person Who Forgets to Do الـْمَضْمَضَة (Rinsing the Mouth with Water While Swishing It Around and Spitting It Out), الاِسْتِنْشَاق (Inhaling Water Up into the Nostrils) and مَسْحَ الأُذُنَيْـنِ (Wiping Over Both Ears); and About the Person Who Separates Some Parts of His Wuḍuu’ or Ghusl Either Intentionally or out of Forgetfulness

Chapter 15 Mudawwanah – The Chapter About Wiping Over the Head

Chapter 16 Mudawwanah – The Chapter Concerning the Person Whose Wuḍuu’ is Deficient or He Forgets of His Wuḍuu’ or Ghusl

Chapter 17 Mudawwanah – The Chapter About Wiping the Water from Wuḍuu’ With a Handkerchief

Chapter 18 Mudawwanah – The Chapter About General Aspects of Wuḍuu’ and the Movement of the Beard

Chapter 2 Mudawwanah – Wuḍuu with Water of Bread and Leather Skin and النَّبِيذ (Date Wine) and The Water into Which Insects and Other Things Have Fallen

الْوُضُوء بِـمَاء الْـخُبْزِ  والاَدَامِ  وَالـنَّبِيذِ  وَالـمَاء الـذِي  يَقَعْ  فِيهِ  الـخُشَاشُ  وَ  غَيْرِ  ذَلِكَ

Wuḍuu with Water of Bread and Leather Skin and النَّبِيذ (Date Wine) and The Water into Which Insects and Other Things Have Fallen

قَالَ  :  وَقَالَ   مَالِكٌ   :  لاَ  يَتَوَضَّأُ  مِنْ  قَالَ  :  إنَّمَا سَأَلْنَاهُ  عَنْ  الخُبْزِ  قُلْتُ  :  فَمَا قَوْلُهُ  فِي  الْفُولِ  وَالْعَدَسِ  وَالْحِنْطَةِ  وَمَا أَشْبَهَ  ذَلِكَ  ؟ قَالَ  :  إنَّمَا سَأَلْنَاهُ  عَنْ  الخُبْزِ  وَهَذَا مِثْلُ  اخْبَر وَأَخْبَرَنَا  بَعْضُ  أَصْحَابِنَا أَنَّ  إِسَانَا سَأَلَ   مَالِكًا الْـجِلْدِ   يَقَعُ  فِي   الْـمَاءِ   فَيَخْرُجُ  مَكَانَهُ  أَوْ   الثَّوْبِ   هَلْ  تَرَى بَأْسًا أَنْ  يُتَوَضَّأَ  بِذَلِكَ  الْـمَاءِ  قَالَ  :  فَقَالَ  ؟   مَالِكٌ   :  لاَ  أَرَى بِهِ  بَأْسًا قَالَ  فَقَالَ  لَهُ  :  فَمَا بَالُ  الْـخُبْزِ  ؟

(Ibn al-Qaasim said), that Maalik said he did not perform Wuḍuu’ with water in which bread had fallen.  (I [Ṣahnuun] said), What is his view about الْـفُول (beans) and الْعَدَس (lentils), الْـحُـمُّص (chick peas), الْـحِنْطَة (wheat) and other things similar to this.  (He [Ibn al-Qaasim] said) I asked him about bread and this is the example he gave.  (Ibn al-Qaasim said), some of the companions told me that a person asked Maalik about leather or clothing falling into the water and it is removed?  Do you think that it is OK to perform Wuḍuu’ with that water?  (He said) Maalik said, I am not of the opinion that it is alright to do so.  He then asked him, What is the condition of the bread.?

فَقَالَ  لَهُ   مَالِكٌ   :  أَرَأَيْتَ  إذَا   أَخَذَ   رَجُلٌ   جِلْدًا   فَأَنْقَعَهُ   أَيَّامًا   فِي   مَاءٍ   أَيَتَوَضَّأُ  بِذَلِكَ   الْـمَاءِ   وَقَدْ  ابْتَلَّ   الْـجِلْدُ   فِي  ذَلِكَ  الْـمَاءِ   ؟ فَقَالَ  :  لاَ،  فَقَالَ   مَالِكٌ   :  هَذَا مِثْلُ  الْـخُبْزِ  وَلِكُلِّ  شَيْءٍ  وَجْهٌ  وَقَالَ   مَالِكٌ   لاَ  يَتَوَضَّأُ  بِشَيْءٍ  مِنْ  الأَنْبِذَةِ  وَ  لاَ  الْعَسَلِ  الْـمَمْزُوجِ  بِالْـمَاءِ  قَالَ  :  وَالتَّيَمُّمُ  أَحَبُّ  إلَيَّ مِنْ  ذَلِكَ  مَالِكٌ   :  لاَ  يَتَوَضَّأُ  مِنْ  شَيْءٍ  مِنْ  الطَّعَامِ  إلَيَّ  أَنْ  وَالشَّرَابِ  وَلاَ  يَتَوَضَّأُ  بِشَيْءٍ  مِنْ  أَبْوَالِ  الإِبِلِ  وَلاَ  مِنْ  أَلْبَانِهَا  ،  قَالَ  :  وَلَكِنْ  أَحَبُّ   يَتَمَضْمَضَ   مِنْ   اللَّبَـنِ  وَاللَّحْمِ  وَيَغْسِلَ  الْغُمَرَ  إذَا أَرَادَ  الصَّلاةََ  قَالَ  :  وَقَالَ  .  مَالِكٌ  لاَ  يَتَوَضَّأُ  بِـمَاءٍ   قَدْ  تَوَضَّأَ  بِهِ  مَرَّةً  وَلاَ  خَيْرَ  فِيهِ

Maalik said to him, Are you of the opinion that a man took leather and soaked it for days in water which he used to perform Wuḍuu’ and and the leather saturated with water? He said, Maalik said, ‘No this is the same for the bread.  Each thing has its correlation.’  (He said) that Maalik said, “Do not perform Wuḍuu’ with الأنبِذ (that which is fermented) nor honey that is mixed in with the water.  He said,”tayammum is better to me than this.”  (He said) that he said, “Do not perform Wuḍuu’ with anything that is derived from food or drink nor perform Wuḍuu’ with camel urine nor its milk.”  He said, “but, it is better to me that you rinse your mouth of milk and meat and wash with an Abundant amount of water if you wish to perform salaah (prayer).”  (He said), Maalik said, “Don’t perform Wuḍuu’ with water with which you have already performed Wuḍuu’.  He said, “There is no good in it.”

قُلْتُ  :  فَإِنْ  أَصَابَ  مَاءٌ  قَدْ  تَوَضَّأَ  بِهِ  مَرَّةً  ثَوْبَ  رَجُلٍ  ؟ قَلَ  إِنْ  كَانَ  الَّذِي  تَوَضَّأَ  بِهِ  طَاهِرًا فَإِنَّهُ  لاَ  يُفْسِدُ  عَلَيْهِ  ثَوْبَهُ  قُلْتُ  :  فَلَوْ  قَالَ  :  قُلْتُ  لَمْ  يَجِدْ  رَجُلٌ   مَاءً   إلاَّ  مَا قَدْ  تَوَضَّئُ  بِهِ  مَرَّةً   أَيَتَيَمَّمُ   أَمْ  يَتَوَضَّأُ  بِـمَا قَدْ  تَوَضَّئُ  بِهِ  مَرَّةً   قَالَ  يَتَوَضَّأُ  بِذَلِكَ  الْـمَاءِ  الَّذِي  قَدْ  تَوَضَّئ  ُ  بِهِ  مَرَّةً   أَحَبُّ  إلَيَّ إذَا كَانَ  الَّذِي  تَوَضَّأَ  بِهِ  طَاهِرًا قَالَ   مَالِكٌ   فِي  النُّخَاعَةِ   وَالْبُصَاقِ   وَالْـمُخَاطِ   يَقَعُ  فِي   الْـمَاءِ   قَالَ  لاَ  بَأْسَ  بِالْوُضُوءِ  مِنْهُ

(I said), “What is the situation if the garment of a man touches the water which he has already used to perform Wuḍuu’ once?  He said that if the water he perform Wuḍuu’ with was pure, the garment doesn’t become spoiled by it.”  (I said), “Suppose, a man can’t find water except the water he has already used to perform Wuḍuu’?  Should he perform tayammum or should he perform Wuḍuu’ with the water he has already used?”  He said, “He should perform Wuḍuu’ with the water he has already used to perform Wuḍuu’ once.  This to me is better, providing that the water that he has already used to perform Wuḍuu’ is pure.”  (He said) Maalik said, “If saliva, phlegm and nasal mucous fall into the water, it is OK to perform Wuḍuu’ with it.

قَالَ :   قَالَ  مَالِكٌ  كُلُّ  مَا وَقَعَ  مِنْ  خُشَاشِ  الأََرْضِ  فِي  إنَاءٍ  فِيهِ  مَاءٌ  أَوْ  فِي  قِدْرٍ  فِيهِ  ( طَعَامٌ ) فَإِنَّهُ  يَتَوَضَّأُ  بِذَلِكَ  الْـمَاءِ  وَيُؤْكَلُ  مَا فِي  الْقُدُرِ  ،  وَخُشَاشُ  الأََرْضِ  الزُّنْبُورُ  وَالْعَقْرَبُ  وَالصِّرَارُ  وَالخُنْفُسَاءُ  وَبَنَاتُ  وَرْدَانَ  وَمَا أَشْبَهَ  هَذَا مِنْ  الأََشْيَاءِ  قَالَ :  وَقَالَ   مَالِكٌ  فِي   بَنَاتِ  وَرْدَانَ   وَالْعَقْرَبِ   وَالْـخُنْفُسَاءِ  وَخُشَاشِ   الأََرْضِ  وَدَوَابِّ   الْـمَاءِ  مِثْلِ   السَّرَطَانِ  وَالضِّفْدَعِ   مَا مَاتَ  مِنْ  هَذَا فِي  طَعَامٍ   أَوْ  شَرَابٍ  فَإِنَّهُ  لاَ  يُفْسِدُ  الطَّعَامَ  وَلاَ  الشَّرَابَ

(He said) Maalik said, the worshiper can perform Wuḍuu’ with from a container and eat food from a pot in which خُـشَاشِ  الأََرْضِ  insects that crawl on the ground have fallen.”  The insects that crawl on the ground are: الزُّنْـبُر (the hornet),  الْـعَقْرَب (the scorpion), الصَّرَّار (the cricket), الْـخُنْفُسَاء (the dung beetle), and  بَنَاتُ‏  الْوَرْدَان (the cockroach).  (He  said),  Maalik said, “In regards to the cockroach and the scorpion and the dung beetle and the (other) insects that crawl on the ground and those which crawl in the water like سَرَاطَـان (crayfish) and الضَّفْدَع (the frog), whichever one of these die in the food or drink, do not spoil the food or drink.

قَالَ  وَ  كَانَ  مَالِكٌ   لاَ  أَرَى بَأْسًا  :  بِأَبْوَالِ   مَا   يُؤْكَلُ   كُلُّ   لحْمِهِ   مِمَّا لاَ  يَأْكُلُ   الجِيَفَ   وَأَرْوَاثَهَا إذَا أَصَابَ   الثَّوْبَ

(He said) Maalik was not of the opinion that the urine of a meat eating animal and its dung as distinguished from that of the animal which did not eat الجَيْف (the dead) and were harmful if they come in contact with the clothing.

قَالَ‮  ‬ابْنُ‮ ‬الْقَاسِمِ‮  ‬‭:‬‮ ‬وَأَرَى أَنَّهُ‮ ‬إنْ‮ ‬وَقَعَ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬الْـمَاءِ‮ ‬فَإِنَّهُ‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬يُنَجِّسُهُ‮ ‬قَالَ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬وَسُئِلَ‮  ‬مَالِكٌ‮  ‬عَنْ‮  ‬حِيتَانٍ‮ ‬مُلِّحَتْ‮ ‬فَأُصِيبَ‮ ‬فِيهَا‮  ‬ضَفَادِعُ‮  ‬قَدْ‮  ‬مَاتَتْ‮  ‬،‮ ‬قَالَ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬أَرَى بِأَكْلِهَا بَأْسًا لأنَّ‮ ‬هَذَا مِنْ‮ ‬صَيْدِ‮ ‬الْبَحْرِ‮ ‬

Ibn al-Qaasim said he had the opinion, that if it fell in the water, it does not render it (the water) impure.  (He said) Maalik was asked about حِيتَان (fish) that were salty when الضفدع (the frog) comes in contact with it and died.  He said, he had no opinion about eating them because they were among the things which were caught from the sea.

Chapter 1 Mudawwanah – The Established Number of Times Each Act of Wuḍuu’ Must Be Performed‬

Chapter 3 Mudawwanah – Wuḍuu’ With (Water That Has) السُّؤْر (the Remnants) of Animals, Chickens, and Dogs (That Have Drank from It)

Chapter 4 Mudawwanah – Facing the Qiblah While Urinating and Defecating

Chapter 5 Mudawwanah – The Chapter About الاسْتِنْجَاءُ (al-Istinjaa’) Because of الرّيح (Gas)

Chapter 6 Mudawwanah – The Chapter About Performing Wuḍuu’ Because of Touching the Penis

Chapter 7 Mudawwanah – Wuḍuu’ Because of Sleep

Chapter 8 Mudawwanah – The Chapter Concerning سَلَس الْبَوْلِ (Incontinence of Urine), and الْـمَذْيُ (Prostatic Fluid), الدُّود (Worms), الدَّمّ (Blood) Coming from الدَّبْر (the Rectum)

Chapter 9 Mudawwanah -The Chapter Concerning the Wuḍuu’ of الْـمَجْنُونُ (The Person Overcome by Insanity), السّضكْرَانُ (The Drunken Person) and الْـمَغْمِي (The Person Who is Unconscious) When They Regain Consciousness

Chapter 10 Mudawwanah – The Chapter Concerning الْـمَلاَمَسَة (Touching) and الْقُبْلَة (Kissing)

Chapter 11 Mudawwanah – The Chapter Concerning the One Who Has Doubt About Wuḍuu’ and الْـحَدَثِ (Impurity/ Impure Substance)

Chapter 12 Mudawwanah – Wuḍuu with Water That Is Used by الْـحَائِض (The Menstruating Woman), الْـجُنُب (The Person Who is in a State of Major Sexual Impurity), and وَالنَّصْرَانِيّ (The Christian)

Chapter 13 Mudawwanah – The Chapter Concerning What Has Been Said About Doing the Parts of Wuḍuu in Reverse

Chapter 14 Mudawwanah – The Chapter Concerning the Person Who Forgets to Do الـْمَضْمَضَة (Rinsing the Mouth with Water While Swishing It Around and Spitting It Out), الاِسْتِنْشَاق (Inhaling Water Up into the Nostrils) and مَسْحَ الأُذُنَيْـنِ (Wiping Over Both Ears); and About the Person Who Separates Some Parts of His Wuḍuu’ or Ghusl Either Intentionally or out of Forgetfulness

Chapter 15 Mudawwanah – The Chapter About Wiping Over the Head

Chapter 16 Mudawwanah – The Chapter Concerning the Person Whose Wuḍuu’ is Deficient or He Forgets of His Wuḍuu’ or Ghusl

Chapter 17 Mudawwanah – The Chapter About Wiping the Water from Wuḍuu’ With a Handkerchief

Chapter 18 Mudawwanah – The Chapter About General Aspects of Wuḍuu’ and the Movement of the Beard

The Set Number of Times Each Act of Wuḍuu’ is Performed

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The Set Number of Times Each Act of Wuḍuu’ is Performed

Taken from Muqaddimah of Ibn Rushd  al Jadd

Al-Qaadii Ibn Rushd Al-Jadd (the grandfather) said, “ توقيت في‏‮ ‬‬الوضوء‮ ‬ (the set number of times each act of wuḍuu’ is performed) consists of seven matters: The first matter is that a set number of times [for the performance of each action is not واجب (required)], however, what is required is اسباغ‏‮ ‬‬الوضوء – the proper performance of wuḍuu’ʾ whether it is perform one or more times.  The second matter is that the repetition of the washing in wuḍuu’ for three times is مُسْـتَحَبٌّ (preferred) even if the wuḍuu’ʾ can be properly perform without it.  The third matter is that what is above three washings is dislike, especially if wuḍuu’ʾ can be perform properly without going above three.  The fourth matter is that three washings is better than two when it is a choice between two and three.  The fifth matter is that limiting (wuḍuu’ʾ) to one washing is disliked and that there are reasons for why it is disliked.  It has been said that it is disliked because it is the leaving-off of what is more excellent entirely and it has been said that it is disliked because it is feared that it will not be thorough and its proof is what has been transmitted from Maalik that he said, “one washing is disliked except for the one who is cognizant of wuḍuu’ʾ.”  The sixth matter is the preference of repetition for what is washed not what is wiped.  The seventh matter is that the repetition is with a renewal of the water and for that reason it is not said in the returning of the hands over the head in the wiping of it that the repetition (renewal of the water) is for the wiping of it (the head).  And the viewing of it ( the matter) is the hadiths differ about the number of times each act of wuḍuu’ʾ is performed.  It has been narrated that  the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلّم use to perform (the acts of) wuḍuu’ʾ once, twice and three times on some of the limbs and three times on others.  The difference here is not a contradictory difference.  It is an informational difference and informs through expansion.

Click link below:

Muqaddimah of Ibn Rushd by Qaadii Abū Walid Muhammad bin Ahmad Ibn Rushd  p. 84 ‘The Section on  توقيت الوضوء – Dar al-Gharb  Alr Islami (Arabic) edition – Beirut, Lebanon)

Chapter 1 Mudawwanah – The Established Number of Times Each Act of Wuḍuu’ Must Be Performed‬

بسم اللّه الرّحمن الرّحيم

توقيت في  الوصوء

The Established Number of Times Each Act of Wuḍuu’ Must Be Performed‬

قَالَ  سَحْنُونٌ   :  قُلْتُ   لِعَبْدِ  الرَّحْمَنِ  بْنِ  الْقَاسِمِ   :  أَرَأَيْتَ  الْوُضُوءَ  أَكَانَ   مَالِكٌ   يُوَقِّتُ  فِيهِ  وَاحِدَةً  أَوْ  اثْنَتََينِ  أَوْ  ثَلاثَا ؟    قَالَ  :  لاَ  إلاَّ  مَا أَسْبَغَ  وَلَمْ  يَكُنْ  مَالِكٌ   قَالَيُوَقِّتُ  ،  وَقَدْ  اخْتَلَفَتْ  الآثَارُ  فِي  التَّوْقِيتِ

I (Sahnuun bin Saʿiid) said to ʿAbdur Rahmaan bin al-Qaasim, “Did you see the Wuḍuu’ that Maalik performed?  Did Maalik determine that the actions connected to wuḍuu’ should be done once, twice, or three times?” He said, “No, except that he performed it properly.”  Maalik did not determine a number of times for doing each act of wuḍuu’ and the hadiths differ about the number of times that are required for the performance of each act of wuḍuu’.

ابْنُ  الْقَاسِمِ  :  لَمْ  يَكُنْ  مَالِك  يُوقَّتُ  فِي  الْوصُوءِ  مَرَّةً  وَلاَ  مَرََّتَيَـنِ  وَلاَ  ثَلاَثًا

Ibn al-Qaasim said, “Maalik did not determine that the acts of wuḍuu’ were to be performed once, twice or three times.

إنَّمَا قَالَ  اللَّهُ  تَبَارَكَ  وَتَعَالَى  .  يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ  آمَنُوا إذَا قُمْتُمْ  إلَى الصَّلاةَِ  فَاغْسِلُوا وُجُوهَكُمْ  وَأَيْدِيَكُمْ  إلَى الْـمَرَافِقِ  وَامْسَحُوا بِرُءُوسِكُمْ  وَأَرْجُلَكُمْ  إلَى الْكَعْبَينِ

He said, “Allah Blessed and High is He has said, ‘Oh you who believe! when you rise for prayer wash your faces and your hands up to your elbows…’

قَالَ  فَلَمْ  يُوَقِّتْ  تَبَارَكَ  وَتَعَالَى وَاحِدَةً  مِنْ  ثَلاَثٍ .  ابْنُ  الْقَاسِمِ   :  مَا رَأَيْتُ  عِنْدَ   مَالِكٍ   فِي  الْغُسْلِ  وَالْوُضُوءِ  قَالَ  تَوْقِيتًا لاَ  وَاحِدَةً  وَلاَ  اثْنَتَيْـنِ  وَلاَ  ثَلاَثًا  ،  وَلَكِنَّهُ  كَانَ  يَقُولُ  :  يَتَوَضَّأُ  أَوْ  يَغْتَسِلُ  وَيُسْبِغُهُمَا جَمِيعًا

He said, “Allah did not determine that the number of times to perform these acts was one, two, or three.  Ibn al-Qaasim said, I did not see with Maalik, in regards to wuḍuu’ and ghusl that a determination was made as to the number of times that is required to perform each act of wuḍuu’ – not once nor twice nor three times – but he used to say, “Perform wuḍuu’ and perform ghusl and perform them both properly and completely.”

قال ابْنُ  وَهْبٍ  عَنْ  مَالِكِ  بْنِ  أَنَسٍ   عَنْ   عَمْرِو بْنِ  يَحْيَى بْنِ  عُمَارَةَ  بْنِ  أَبِي  حَسَنٍ  الْـمَازِنِيِّ   عَنْ  أَبِيهِ   يَحْيَى   أَنَّهُ  سَمِعَ  جَدَّهُ   أَبَا حَسَنٍ   يَسْأَلُ  عَبْدَ  اللَّهِ  بْنَ  زَيْدِ  بْنِ  عَاصِمٍ    ،  وَكَانَ  مِنْ  أَصْحَابِ  رَسُولِ  اللَّهِ  صَلَّى اللَّهُ  عَلَيْهِ  وَسَلَّمَ  وَهُوَ  جَدُّ  عَمْرِو بْنِ  يَحْيَى  :  هَلْ   تَسْتَطِيعُ  أَنْ  تُرِيَنِي  كَيْفَ كَانَ  رَسُولُ  اللَّهِ   صَلَّى اللَّهُ  عَلَيْهِ   وَسَلَّمَ  يَتَوَضَّأُ : قَالَ  عَبْدُ  اللَّهِ   نَعَمْ  ،  قَالَ  :  فَدَعَا   عَبْدُ  اللَّهِ  بِوَضُوءٍ  فَأَفْرَغَ  عَلَى  يَدَيْهِ  فَغَسَلَ  يَدَيْهِ  مَرَّتَيْـنِ  مَرَّتَيْـنِ  ثُمَّ  تَـمَضْمَضَ  وَاسْتَنْثَرَ  ثَلاَثًا ثُمَّ  غَسَلَ  وَجْهَهُ  ثَلاَثًا ثُمَّ  غَسَلَ  يَدَيْهِ  إلَى الْـمَرْفِقَيْـنِ  مَرَّتَيْـنِ  مَرَّتَيْـنِ  ،  ثُمَّ  مَسَحَ  رَأْسَهُ  بِيَدَيْهِ  فَأَقْبَلَ  وَأَدْبَرَ  بِهِمَا ،  بَدَأَ  مِنْ  مُقَدَّمِ  رَأْسِهِ  حَتَّى ذَهَبَ  بِهِمَا إلَى قَفَاهُ  ثُمَّ  رَدَّهُمَا حَتَّى رَجَعَ  بِهِمَا إلَى الْـمَكَانِ  الَّذِي  مِنْهُ  بَدَأَ  ،  ثُمَّ  غَسَلَ  رِجْلَيْهِ

Ibn Wahb  transmitted from Maalik (who transmitted) from ʿAmr bin Yaḥyaa bin ʿUmaarah bin Abii Hasan al-Maazinii (who transmitted) from his father Yaḥya that he heard his grandfather Abū Hasan asking ʿAbdullah bin Zayd ʿAasim – who was from among the Companions of the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلّم, “Can you show me how did the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلّم performed wuḍuu’? ”  ʿAbdullah bin Zayd bin ʿAasim said, “Yes.”  He then called for water in order to make wuḍuu’.  He poured water over his hands washing his hands twice, then he rinsed his mouth and sniffed water out of his nose three times, then he washed his face three times,  then he washed his hands up to the elbows twice, then he wipe over his head from the front to the back with both hands.  He began at the front of his head then he went to the nape (of the neck), then he returned them (his two hands) back to the place where he began, then he washed his feet.”

قَالَ   مَالِكٌ   :   وَعَبْدُ  الْعَزِيزِ  بْنُ  أَبِي  سَلَمَةَ   أَحْسَنُ   مَا سَمِعْنَا   فِي  ذَلِكَ  وَأَعَمُّهُ  عِنْدَنَا فِي  مَسْحِ  الرَّأْسِ  هَذَا

Maalik said, ʿAbdul ʿAziiz Abū Salamah judged what we heard to be sound concerning that (matter) and he included with it wiping over the head.

قَالَ   سَحْنُونٌ   :  وَذَكَرَ   ابْنُ  وَهْبٍ  عَنْ   يُونُسَ  بْنِ  يَزِيدَ  عَنْ   ابْنِ  شِهَابٍ   أَنَّ   عَطَاءَ  بْنَ  يَزِيدَ  اللَّيْثِيَّ   أَخْبَرَهُ  أَنَّ   حُمْرَانَ  مَوْلَى عُثْمَانَ  بْنِ  عَفَّانَ   { أَخْبَرَهُ   أَنَّ   عُثْمَانَ  بْنَ  عَفَّانَ   دَعَا  يَوْمًا بِوَضُوءٍ  ،  فَتَوَضَّأَ  فَغَسَلَ  كَفَّيْهِ  ثَلاَثَ  مَرَّاتٍ  ثُمَّ  تَـمَضْمَضَ  وَاسْتَنْثَرَ  ثَلاَثَ  مَرَّاتٍ  ثُمَّ  غَسَلَ  وَجْهَهُ ثَلاَثَ  مَرَّاتٍ  ثُمَّ  غَسَلَ  يَدَهُ  الْيُمْنَى إلَى الْـمَرْفِقِ  ثَلاَثَ  مَرَّاتٍ  ثُمَّ  غَسَلَ  يَدَهُ  الْيُسْرَى أَيْضًا إلَى  الْـمَرْفِقِ  ثَلاَثَ  مَرَّاتٍ  ثُمَّ  مَسَحَ  رَأْسَهُ  وَأُذُنَيْهِ  ثُمَّ  غَسَلَ  صَلَّى رِجْلَهُ  الْيُمْنَى إلَى الْكَعْبِ  ثَلاَثَ  مَرَّاتٍ  ثُمَّ  غَسَلَ  رِجْلَهُ  الْيُسْرَى إلَى الْكَعْبِ  ثَلاَثَ  مَرَّاتٍ  ،  وَأَخْبَرَنَا أَنَّ  رَسُولَ  اللَّهِ  :  مَنْ  تَوَضَّأَ  نَحْوَ وُضُوئِي  هَذَا صَلَّى اللَّهُ  عَلَيْهِ  وَسَلَّمَ  تَوَضَّأَ  نَحْوَ  وُضُوئِي  هَذَا  ،  ثُمَّ  قَالَ  رَسُولُ  اللَّهِ  اللَّهُ  عَلَيْهِ  وَسَلَّمَ  ثُمَّ  قَامَ  فَرَكَعَ  رَكْعَتَيْـنِ  لاَ  يُحَدِّثُ  فِيهِمَا نَفْسَهُ  غُفِرَ  لَهُ  مَا تَقَدَّمَ  مِنْ  ذَنْبِهِ

Sahnuun said that Ibn al-Wahb related from Yuunis bin Yaziid from Ibn Shihaab that ʿAṭaaʾ bin Yaziid al-Laythii related to him that Hamaraan the slave of ʿUthmaan bin ʿAffaan informed him that ʿUthmaan bin ʿAffaan called one day for (water) in order to perform wuḍuuʾ.  In performing wuḍuuʾ, he washed his hands three times, then he rinse his mouth and sniffed water out of his nose three times.  Then he washed his face three times.  then he washed his face three times.  Then he washed his right hand up to the elbow three times.  Then he washed his left hand up to the elbow.  Then he wiped over his head and his ears.  Then he washed his right foot up to the ankle.  Then he washed his left foot up to the ankle.”  Then he said, “I saw the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلّم perform wuḍuuʾ in the same way that I perform this my wuḍuuʾ.  Then he said, I saw the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلّم performed wuḍuu’ like this wuḍuu’ of mine.  Then he stood and performed two rakʿahs in which, he did not say to himself he sought forgiveness for previous sins,

قَالَ  ابْنُ  وَهْبٍ   عَنْ  ابْنِ  شِهَابٍ   وَكَانَ  عُلَمَاؤُنَا بِالْـمَدِينَةِ   يَقُولُونَ  :  هَذَا الْوُضُوءُ  أَسْبَغُ  مَا تَوَضَّأَ  بِهِ  أَحَدٌ  لِلصَّـلاةِ

Ibn Shihaab said, “The ʿUlamaa’ of Madinah used to say, that this wuḍuuʾ is correct for the one who does it to perform Salaah.

قَالَ   سَحْنُونٌ   عَنْ   عَلِيِّ  بْنِ  زِيَادٍ   عَنْ   سُفْيَانَ  الثَّوْرِيِّ  عَنْ   زَيْدِ  بْنِ  أَسْلَمَ   عَنْ   عَطَاءِ  بْنِ  يَسَارٍ   عَنْ   ابْنِ  عَبَّاسٍ   قَالَ   أَلاَ  أُخْبِرُكُمْ  بِوُضُوءِ  رَسُولِ  صَلَّى اللَّهُ  عَلَيْهِ  وَسَلَّمَ  ،  قَالَ  :  فَدَعَا بِـمَاءٍ  فَأَرَاهُمْ  مَرَّةً  مَرَّةً  فَجَعَلَ  فِي  يَدِهِ  الْيُمْنَى ثُمَّ  يَصَبُّ  بِهَا عَلَى  يَدِهِ  الْيُسْرَى فَتَوَضَّأَ  مَرَّةً  مَرَّةً

ʿSaḥnuun related from Alī bin Ziyaad who related from Sufyaan ath-Thawrii who related from Zayd bin Aslam who related from ʿAtaa bin Yasaar who related from Ibn ʿAbbaas that he said, “Shall I not inform you about the wuḍuu’ of the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلّم ?”  He said, “He called for some water and showed them performing each action once.  He put his right hand in the water and pour water with it onto his left and performed wuḍuu’ once.

عَلِيٍّ   عَنْ   سُفْيَانَ   عَنْ   عَبْدِ  اللَّهِ  بْنِ  جَابِرٍ   قَالَ  :  سَأَلْتُ   الْـحَسَنَ  الْبَصْرِيَّ   عَنْ  الْوُضُوءِ  فَقَالَ  :  يُجْزِيكَ  مَرَّةٌ  أَوْ  مَرَّتَانِ  أَوْ  ثَلاَثٌ

ʿAlī related from Sufyaan who related from ʿAbdullaah bin Jaabir who said that he asked Ḥasan al-Basrii about wuḍuu’, He said, “Once, twice or three times will suffice for you.

عَنْ   سُفْيَانَ   عَنْ   جَابِرِ  بْنِ  يَزِيدَ  الجُعْفِيِّ   عَنْ  الشَّعْبِيِّ   قَالَ  قَالَ  :  يُجْزِيكَ  مَرَّةٌ  إذَا أَسْبَغْتَ

ʿAlī related from Sufyaan who related from Jaabir bin Yaziid al-Jaʿfii who related from ash-Shaʿbii that he said, “Once will suffice if you perform wuḍuu’ properly.”

عَنْ   ابْنِ  وَهْبٍ  أَنَّ  رَسُولَ  اللَّهِ  صَلَّى اللَّهُ  عَلَيْهِ  وَسَلَّمَ  تَـمَضْمَضَ  وَاسْتَنْثَرَ  مِنْ  غَرْفَةٍ  وَاحِدَةٍ

Ibn Wahb said that the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلّم  rinsed his mouth and blew water from his nose more than once.

Chapter 2 Mudawwanah – Wuḍuu with Water of Bread and Leather Skin and النَّبِيذ (Date Wine) and The Water into Which Insects and Other Things Have Fallen

Chapter 3 Mudawwanah – Wuḍuu’ With (Water That Has) السُّؤْر (the Remnants) of Animals, Chickens, and Dogs (That Have Drank from It)

Chapter 4 Mudawwanah – Facing the Qiblah While Urinating and Defecating

Chapter 5 Mudawwanah – The Chapter About الاسْتِنْجَاءُ (al-Istinjaa’) Because of الرّيح (Gas)

Chapter 6 Mudawwanah – The Chapter About Performing Wuḍuu’ Because of Touching the Penis

Chapter 7 Mudawwanah – Wuḍuu’ Because of Sleep

Chapter 8 Mudawwanah – The Chapter Concerning سَلَس الْبَوْلِ (Incontinence of Urine), and الْـمَذْيُ (Prostatic Fluid), الدُّود (Worms), الدَّمّ (Blood) Coming from الدَّبْر (the Rectum)

Chapter 9 Mudawwanah -The Chapter Concerning the Wuḍuu’ of الْـمَجْنُونُ (The Person Overcome by Insanity), السّضكْرَانُ (The Drunken Person) and الْـمَغْمِي (The Person Who is Unconscious) When They Regain Consciousness

Chapter 10 Mudawwanah – The Chapter Concerning الْـمَلاَمَسَة (Touching) and الْقُبْلَة (Kissing)

Chapter 11 Mudawwanah – The Chapter Concerning the One Who Has Doubt About Wuḍuu’ and الْـحَدَثِ (Impurity/ Impure Substance)

Chapter 12 Mudawwanah – Wuḍuu with Water That Is Used by الْـحَائِض (The Menstruating Woman), الْـجُنُب (The Person Who is in a State of Major Sexual Impurity), and وَالنَّصْرَانِيّ (The Christian)

Chapter 13 Mudawwanah – The Chapter Concerning What Has Been Said About Doing the Parts of Wuḍuu in Reverse

Chapter 14 Mudawwanah – The Chapter Concerning the Person Who Forgets to Do الـْمَضْمَضَة (Rinsing the Mouth with Water While Swishing It Around and Spitting It Out), الاِسْتِنْشَاق (Inhaling Water Up into the Nostrils) and مَسْحَ الأُذُنَيْـنِ (Wiping Over Both Ears); and About the Person Who Separates Some Parts of His Wuḍuu’ or Ghusl Either Intentionally or out of Forgetfulness

Chapter 15 Mudawwanah – The Chapter About Wiping Over the Head

Chapter 16 Mudawwanah – The Chapter Concerning the Person Whose Wuḍuu’ is Deficient or He Forgets of His Wuḍuu’ or Ghusl

Chapter 17 Mudawwanah – The Chapter About Wiping the Water from Wuḍuu’ With a Handkerchief

Chapter 18 Mudawwanah – The Chapter About General Aspects of Wuḍuu’ and the Movement of the Beard

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