The Removal of Impurity from the Garment of the Worshipper, His Body and His Prayer Area and What is Excusable in Regards to Blood and Festering Matter from Matn al ʿIzziyah

The Removal of Impurity from the Garment of the Worshipper, His Body and His Prayer Area

فصل – Section:

تَجِـبُ‮ ‬إِزَالَـةُ‮ ‬النَّجَاسَـةِ‮ ‬عَنِ‮ ‬ثَـوْبِ‮ ‬الـمصَلِّي‮ ‬وَبَدَنِهِ‮ ‬وَمَـكَانِـه (The removal of impurity from the garment of the one who is praying, and his body and his area of worship is required). وَهُـوَ‮ ‬مَـا تَـمَاسُّهُ‮ ‬الأَعْـضَاء‮ ‬(It is what his limbs come in contact with). إِذَا كَـانَ‮ ‬ذَاكِرًا لَهَا (If he remembers it [an impurity]) قَـادِرًا عَـلَى إِزَالََـتِهَا (and is able to remove it)‮ ‬بِالْـمَاءِ‮ ‬الـمَطْلَقِ (with water which is valid), فَـلَوْ‮ ‬أَزَالَـهَا (and he removes it) بِـغَيرِهِ  (by another means) وَصَـلَّى (and prays), لَـمْ‮ ‬تَـصِحَّ (the salaah is not valid). وَإِذَا سَـقَطَ‮ ‬عَـلَى مُـصَلِّي‮ ‬وَهُـوَ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬الصَّلاَةِ‮ ‬نَـجَاسَةٌ (If an impurity falls on the one who is praying while he is praying),‮ ‬بَـطَلَتْ‮ ‬صَـلاَتُـهُ (the salaah becomes invalid), وَكَذَا إِذَا ذَكَـرَ (It is the same if he remembers) وَهُـوَ‮ ‬فِـي‮ ‬الصَّلاَةِ (while in prayer) أَنَّ‮ ‬بِـثَوْبِـهِ (that his garment) أَوْ‮ ‬بَـدَنِـهِ (or his body) أَوْ‮ ‬مَـكَانِـه (or his area of worship) نَـجَاسَةٌ (is impure). وَإِذَا كَانَ‮ ‬الْـمَكَانُ‮ ‬نَـجِسًا (If his area of worship is impure) وَجَـعَلَ‮ ‬عَلَيهِ (and he places on it) سَائِرًا طَاهِرًا (a thick clean cover), (which is also thick in its appearance), جَـازَتْ‮ ‬عَـلَيْهِ‮ ‬مُطْلَقًا (then the salaah is allowed on it without restriction); أَعْـنِى لِـلْـمَرِيضِ (I mean for those who are sick) وَالصَّـحِيحِ (and those who are healthy) عَلَى مَا رَجَّحُهُ‮ ‬ابْنُ‮ ‬يُونُسَ (according to what Ibn Yūnus preferred).

What is Excusable in Regards to Blood and Festering Matter

فصل – Section:

يُـعٌفى عَـنْ‮ ‬يَسِـيرِ‮ ‬الدَّمِ‮ ‬مُطْلَقًا (A little blood is excused entirely) أَعْنِي‮ ‬سَوَاءٌ‮  ‬كَـانَ‮ ‬دَمَ‮ ‬حَـيْضٍ (whether it is the blood of menstruation) أَوْ‮ ‬نِـفَاسٍ (or parturition) أَوْ‮ ‬مَـيْتَةٍ (or a dead thing), رَآهُ‮ ‬فِـي‮ ‬الصَّلاَةِ‮ ‬(even if the one who s praying sees it in salaah), أَو خَـارِجَـهَا مِـنْ‮ ‬جَسَـدِهِ (or it is flowing from his body), أَوْ‮ ‬غَـيْرِهِ (or someone else), وَيَسِـيرِ‮ ‬الْـقَيْحِ (and also a small amount of pus [is excused]) وَالصَّدِيدِ (and festering matter [can be overlooked]). وَالْيَسـِـيرُ‮ ‬ (The small amount is) مَـا دُونَ‮ ‬الدِّرْهَـمِ‮ ‬(less than the size of the dirham). وَالْـمُرَادُ‮ ‬بِـالدِّرْهَـمِ  (and what is meant by the   word ‘dirham’) البَغْلِيُّ (has to do with the mule). أَيِ‮ ‬الدَّائِـرَةُ (That is to say, the circle) التِّى تَـكُونُ‮ ‬بِـبَاطِـنِ‮ ‬الذِّرَاعِ (that is found on the inside of the knee)  مِـنَ البَغْل (of the female mule), وَعَـنْ‮ ‬أَثَـرِ‮ ‬الدُّمَّلِ (and [also a small amount matter] from the trace of a boil [is excused]), إِذَا لَـمْ‮ ‬يُـنْكَ (when it has not been disturbed) أَيْ‮ ‬لَـمْ‮ ‬يُـعْصَرْ (that is to say: it has not been squeezed) دَمُّ‮ ‬البَرَاغِـيث‮ ‬(and [also a small amount] of the blood of the flea) طِـينِ‮ ‬الـمَطَرِ (and the mud from rain [is excused]) وَإِنْ‮ ‬كَـانَـتِ‮ ‬الْـمَذَرَةُ‮ ‬فِـيهِ (even if a foul smell is in it), إِلاَّ‮ ‬أَنْ‮ ‬تَكُونَ‮ ‬النَّجَاسَةُ‮ ‬غَالِبًا‮ ‬(unless it is mostly impure) أَوْ‮ ‬يَكُونَ‮ ‬لَهَا عَيْـنٌ‮ ‬قَائِمَةٌ (or has stagnant water in it).


The Chapter Concerning فَـرَائِـضِ الْـغُسْـلِ (The Obligatory Actions of Ghusl [Major Ablution]), سُـنَـنِهِ (It’s Actions Derived From The Prophet Muhammad) and فَـضَائِـلِهِ (It’s Meritorious Actions) from the Matn al Ashmaawiyyah

The Chapter Concerning فَـرَائِـضِ‮ ‬الْـغُسْـلِ (The Obligatory Actions of Ghusl [Major Ablution]), سُـنَـنِهِ (It’s Actions Derived From The Prophet Muhammad) and فَـضَائِـلِهِ (It’s Meritorious Actions)

فَـأَمَّا فَـرَائِـضُهِ (As for the obligatory actions of major ablution), فَخَـمْسةٌ (they are five) 1) : النِّيَّة (the intention), 2) وَتَـعْـمِِـيم الْـجِسْمِ‮ ‬بِـالْـمَاء  (washing the entire body with water), 3) وَالدَّلْـكُ‮ ‬جَـمِيْعِ‮ ‬الْـجِسْمِ (vigorous rubbing of the entire body), 4) وَالْـفَوْر (washing each limb one immediately after the other), 5) وَتَخْـلِيلُ‮ ‬الشِّعْرِ‮ ‬(combing the fingers through).

وَأَمَّا سُـنَـنُهِ (As for it’s sunnah), فَأَرْبَعَةٌ (they are four): (1) غَـسْـلُ‮ ‬يَـدَيْـنِ‮ ‬أَوْلاً (washing the hands first) إِلَـى الْـكَوْعَـيْن (up to the wrist bone), (2) وَالْـمَضْمَـضَة (rinsing the mouth) with water, (3) وَالإسْـتتِنْـشَاق (Sniffing water into the nostril), 4) وَمَـسْحُ‮ ‬صِـمَاخِ‮ ‬الأُذُنَـيْـن (wiping the meaty part of the inside of the ears).

وَأَمَّا فَـضَائِـلِهِ (As for it’s meritorious actions), فَسِـتَّةٌ (they are six): 1) الْـبَدْء بِـإزَالَـة الأذَى (starting with the removal of what is noxious) عَـنْ‮ ‬جِـسْمِهِ (from his body), 2)  ثُـمَّ إِكْـمَالُ‮ ‬أَعْـضاء وُضُـوئِـهِ (then perform a complete wuḍuu’ over the limbs), 3) وَغَسْـلُ‮ ‬الأَعَـالي (wash the top part) of the body قَـبْلَ‮ ‬الأَسَـافِـلِ (before the bottom part), 4) وَتَـثْلِيثُ‮ ‬الرَّأْسِ‮ ‬بِغَسْـلِ (washing the head three times), 5) وَالْـبَدْءُ‮ ‬بَالْـمَيَامِنِ (starting on the right side [of the body])   قَـبْلَ‮ ‬الْـمَيَاسِـرِ  (before going to the left side),  6)‮ ‬وَقِـلَّةُ‮ ‬الْـمَاء‮ ‬(using a small amount of water) مَـعَ‮ ‬إِحكَامِ‮ ‬الْغَسْـل (washing each limb meticulously). وَاللَّهُ‮ ‬أَعْلَمُ (Allah is the Best Knower).


Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 1 – بَابُ‏ الْكَلاَم (The Chapter About Speech)

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

قال الْـمُصَـنِّف وهو أبو عبد الله محمد بن محمد بن داوود الصنهاجي‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُـلَـقَّب بابن آجُرُّوم الذي‏‮ ‬‬وُلِد في‏‮ ‬‬سنة اثنتين‏‮  ‬‬وسبعين وستمائة والمتوفي‏‮ ‬‬في‏‮ ‬‬سنة ثلاث وعشرين وسبعمائة من الهجرة النبوية رحمه الله قال‏‮ ‬‬‏‭:

The author, and he is Abū ʿAbdullaahi Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Dāwūd aṣ-Ṣanhaajī known as Ibn Aajurruum who was born in the year 672 and who died in the year 723 after the Prophetic hijrah may Allah have mercy on him – said after بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم:

بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬الْكَلاَم‮ ‬

1 – (The Chapter About  Speech)

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬اَلْكَلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّفْظُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُرَكَّبُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُفِيدُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْوَضْعِ‏‮)

English Translation:

الْـكَلاَمُ‮ ‬(Speech) هُـوَ (is) اللَّفْظُ (expression [which is articulated]) الـْـمُرَكَّبُ (composite) الـْـمُفِيدُ (informative) بِـالْـوَضْـعِ (in accordance with customary usage and [regulated] by conventional [Arabic] rules).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

اَلْكَلاَمُ‏  هُوَ‏  اللَّفْظُ‏  الـْمُرَكَّبُ‏  الْـمُفِيدُ‏  بِالْوَضْعِ‏  العربي‏  فلا بدَّ‏  الكلام العربي‏  أن‏  يبنى على أربعة أشياء وهي‏  أن‏  يكون لفظًا وأن‏  يكون مركبًا وأن‏  يكون مفيدًا وأن‏  يكون موضوعًا بالوضع العربيّ‏  فأمّا معنى كونه لفظًا فأن‏ يُلْفَظَ‏  صوتيّــًا مستعملاً‏  بعض الحروف الأبجديّة كقولك مُحَمَّدٌ‏  وعَلِيٌّ‏  وذَهَبَ‏  فكلّ‏  كلمة من هذه الكلمات الثلاثة تكون صوتًا مستعملاً‏  بعض الحروف الهجائيّة العربيّة‏

وأمّا معنى كونه مركّبًا فأن‏  يكون الكلام العربي‏  مؤلّفًا من كلمتين أو أكثرَ‏  نحو عَبْدُاللَّهِ‏  وإِذَا جاَءَ‏  مُحَمَّدٌ‏  وطُلُوعُ‏  الشَّمْسِ‏  وكلّ‏  عبارة من هذه العبارات مركّبةٌ‏  غيرُ‏  مفيدةٍ‏

وأمّا معنى كونه مفيدًا فأن‏  يَكْفي‏  سكوتُ‏  الـمتكلم عليه بحيثُ‏  لا‏  يبقى السّامع منتظرًا لشيء آخر فإذا قلت إِذَا جَاءَ‏  مُحَمَّدٌ‏  هذه العبارة ليست مفيدةً‏  لأنّها لا تفيد الـمخاطب فائدةً‏  تامّةً‏  ولكن إذا قلت إِذَا جَاءَ‏  مُحَمَّدٌ‏  إِلَى بَيْتي‏  فَاَكْرِمْهُ‏  فهذه العبارة أفادت إفَادة  كَافيةً‏  والسامع بها لا‏  ينتنظر أكثر من هذه‏

وأمّا معنى كونه موضوعًا بالوضع العربي‏  هي‏  بثلاث حالات أولها تكون الألفاظ الـمستعملة في‏  الكلام التي‏  وضعها العرب للدلالة على معنى ذات شخص نحو مُحَمَّدٌ‏  أو   للدلالة على معنى ذات مكان نحو مَسْجِدٌ‏  أو للدلالة على معنى ذات شيء نحو كِـتَابٌ‏  فيسمّى كل لفظ من هذه الألفاظ إسمًا

‏  ثانيها تكون الألفاظ الـمستعملة في‏  الكلام التى‏   وضعها العرب للدلالة على معنى حصول الحدث بأحد الأزمنة الثلاثة وهي‏  الفعل الماضي  أي‏  ما دلّ‏  على حدث وقع قبل زمان التَّكلُّم نحو ذَهَبَ‏  والفعل المضارع أي‏  ما دلّ‏  على حدث‏  يقع في‏  زمان التكلُّم أو بعده كقولك‏  يَذْهَبُ‏  وفعل الأمر أي‏  ما دلّ‏  على حدث‏  يُطلَب حصوله بعد زمان التكلُّم نحو إذْهَبْ‏

ثالثها تكون الألفاظ الـمستعملة في‏  الكلام التى وضعها العرب  غير تامّ  الْـمعنى حتّى تُضَمَّ‏  إلى كلمة  غيرها وهي‏  كقولك هَلْ‏  ومِنْ‏  ولَمْ‏   فإذا قلت هَلْ‏  ذَهَبَ‏  ومِنَ‏  الـْمَسْجِدِ‏  ولَمْ‏  يَخْرُجْ‏  فكلّ‏  عبارة من هذه العبارات‏  الثّلاثة لم‏  يُفْهَم معناها تامـّــًا حتّى تضمّ‏  إلى كلمة‏  غيرها وتسمّى كل عبارة من هذه العبارات الثلاثة حرفًا فالإسم والفعل والحرف تكون من حالات الكلام الثلاثة التي‏  وضعها العرب بالوضع العربي


Explanation of Text in English:

الْـكَلاَمُ (Speech) is informative composite expression which is articulated according to conventional ʿArabic rules.  Undoubtedly, ʿArabic speech is constructed on four things.   They are that it (Speech) is لَفْظـًا (expressed),  مُرَكَّبًا (composite  [composed of two or more parts]), مُفِيدًا (informative), and مَوْضُوعًا بِالْوَضْعِ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَرَبِيِّ (regulated by conventional ʿArabic rules).  And so the meaning of its being لَـفْظًا is that ʿArabic speech is expressed vocally by using some of الْـحُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الأَبْجَدِيَّة (the letters of the ʿArabic alphabet) – like when you say: مُحَمَّدٌ (Muhammad) and عَـلِيٌّ (ʿAlī) and ذَهَـبَ (He went).  Each word from these three words is vocalized by using some of الْـحُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الْهَجَائِيَّةُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَرَبِيَّة (the letters of the ʿArabic alphabet).

As for the meaning of its being مَـرَكَّبًا , ʿArabic speech is composed of two or more words – like عَبْدُاللَّهِ‏‮ ‬‬(ʿAbdullah) and إِذَا جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬مُحَمَّدٌ (if Muhammad comes) and طُلُوعُ‏‮ ‬‬الشَّمْسِ (the rising of the sun). Each expression from these expressions is مُرَكَّّبًا (composed of two or more parts) without being مُفِيدًا (informative).

As for the meaning of its being مُـفِيدًا , it is when the silence of the speaker becomes sufficient, wherein the listener does  not  expect  to  hear  anything  else.  If  you  say: إِذَا جَـاءَ‏‮ ‬‬مُحُـمَّدٌ (If Muhammad comes), this expression is not مُـفِيدًا (informative), because it does not convey complete information to the person being spoken to – [that is to say, the one who heard it].

However, if you say:‏‮ ‬‬إِذَا جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬مُحَمَّدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِلَى بَيْتيِ‏‮ ‬‬فَاَكْرِمْهُ (If Muhammad comes to my house, I will honor him.), This statement is completely informative and enough.  The person who hears it does not expect more than this.

As for the meaning of الْكَلاَم (speech) being مَوْضُوعًا بِالْوَضْعَ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَرَبِيِّ (regulated by conventional ʿArabic rules), it occurs in three cases:

The first case is the expressions that are used in الْـكَلاَم that have been constructed by the ʿArabs to define the essence of a person – like when you say: مُحَـمَّدٌ (Muhammad) and the expressions used in الْـكَلاَم which the ʿArabs have constructed to define the nature of a place – like when you say: مَسْجِـــدٌ (masjid [place of prostration]) and the expression used in الْـكَلاَمُ that the ʿArabs have constructed to define the nature of a thing – like when you say: كِـتاَبٌ  (book).  Each of these expressions is called إِسْمًا (a noun).

The second case is the expressions used in الْـكَلاَمُ which the ʿArabs have constructed to define the occurrence of something in one of three time periods.  They are الْـفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬الـمَاضِـي (the past tense verb) – that is to say, the expression which shows an occurrence that occurred before the time of the conversation – like when you say: ذَهَبَ (he went), and الْفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُضَارِعُ (the present tense verb) – that is to say, the expression which shows the occurrence of a thing during the time of the conversation or soon after it – like when you say: يَذْهَبُ (he is going), and the ‏‮ ‬‬فِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬الأَمْرِ (the command tense verb) that is say, the expression which  shows the occurrence of a thing that is being sought after the time of the conversation – like when you say: إِذْهَبْ (go).

The third case is the expressions used in الْـكَلاَم that have been constructed by the ʿArabs – their purpose is not completely understood until they are placed next to another word.  They are like: هَـلْْ and مِـنْ and لَـمْ and so if you say: هَلْ‏‮ ‬‬ذَهَـبَ (did he go) and مِـنْ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَسْجِـدِ (from the masjid) and لَـمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَخْرُجْ (he did not leave), the purpose of these three expressions (هَـلْ and مِـنْ and لَـمْ) was not completely understood until they were placed next to another word.  Each of these three expressions is called حَرْفًا (a letter [particle]).‏‮ ‬‬ And so, الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْـفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْـحَـرْفُ are the three cases of الْـكَلاَم which the ʿArabs have been regulated with conventional ʿArabic rules.

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وأَقْسَامُهُ‏‮ ‬‬ثَلاَثَةٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِسْمٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَفِعْلٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَحَرْفٌ‏‮ ‬‬جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬لِـمَعْنًى‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

وَأَقْسَامُــــهُ (And its parts) ثَلاَثَةٌ‏‮ ‬‬(are three): إِسْمٌ (a noun) and فِعْلٌ (a verb) and حَرْفٌ‏‮ ‬‬جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬لِـمَعْنَى (a letter [particle] coming with/for a meaning).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

وأقسامه ثلاثة إسم مثل زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬ورَجُلٌ‏‮ ‬‬وفعل مثل ضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬يَضْرِبُ‏‮ ‬‬إِضْرِبْ‏‮ ‬‬وحرف جاء لِـمعنى مثل هَلْ‏‮ ‬‬وفِي‏‮ ‬‬ولَمْ

Explanation of Text in English:

And its parts are three: إِسْمٌ (a noun) – like: زَيْدٌ (Zayd) and رَجُلٌ (man), and; فِعْلٌ (a verb) – like: ضَرَبَ (He beat) in the past tense, يَضْرِبُ (He beats) in the present tense and إِضْـرِبْ (Beat) in the command tense; and حَرْفٌ‏‮ ‬‬جَـاءَ‏‮ ‬‬لِـمَعْنَى (a letter coming with a meaning) – that is to say one letter by itself or two or three letters joined together that have a specific meaning like: هَـلْ (an interrogative particle that introduces a question) and فِـي (A preposition meaning ‘in’ or‘into’ among other things) and لَـمْ (a particle of negation that is used to negate the occurrence of an action in the past).

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬فَالِإسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬يُعْرَفُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْخَفْضِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالتَّنْوِينِ‏‮ ‬‬وَدُخُولِ‏‮ ‬‬الأَلِفِ‏‮ ‬‬وَاللاَّمِ‏‮  ‬‬وَحُرُوفِ‏‮ ‬‬الْخَفْضِ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِلَى وَعَنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَعَلَى وَفِي‏‮ ‬‬وَرُبَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْبَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْكَافُ‏‮ ‬‬وَاللاَّمُ‏‮ ‬‬وَحُرُوفِ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَسَمِ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬الْوَاوُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْبَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالتَّاءُ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

فَالإِسْمُُ (And so the noun) يُعْرَف بِـ (is known by) ‏‮ ‬‬الْـخَفْضِ (the lowering [of the vowel]) وَتَنْوِينِ ‏‮ ‬‬(and tanwiin [adding the nuun sound to the end of the word]); وَدُخُولِ‏  الأَلِفِ‏  اللاَّمِِ‏ (and the prefixing of the alif and the laam اَلْْ [the]);

وَحَرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الْخَفْضِ (and the particles of khaf [letters] of lowering) and they are:

; مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَإلَى وَعَنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَعَلَى وَفِي‏‮ ‬‬وَرُبَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْبَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْكَافُ‏‮ ‬‬وَاللاَّمُ

وَحَرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَسَمِ (and the particles of swearing) and they are:

.الْواوُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْبَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالتَّاءُ.

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

فالإسم‏‮ ‬‬يعرف بالخفض كقولك مررت بالرّجلِ‏‮ ‬‬والغلامِ‏‮ ‬‬ِوبالتّنوين كقولك زيدٌ‏‮ ‬‬ورجلٌ‏‮ ‬‬وبدخول الألف واللاّم كقولك الرّجلُ‏‮ ‬‬والغلامُ‏‮ ‬‬وبحروف الخفض وهي‏‮ ‬‬من وإلى وعن وعلى وفي‏‮ ‬‬وربّ‏‮ ‬‬والباء والكاف واللام وحروف القسم وهي‏‮ ‬‬الواو والباء والتّاء كقولك سرتُ‏‮ ‬‬من البصرةِ‏‮ ‬‬إلى الكوفةِ‏‮ ‬‬ورحلتُ‏‮ ‬‬عن البلدِ‏‮ ‬‬وصعدت على الخيلِ‏‮ ‬‬وجلست في‏‮ ‬‬البيتِ‏‮ ‬‬وربّ‏‮ ‬‬رجلٍ‏‮ ‬‬كريمٍ‏‮ ‬‬لقِيته وكتبت بالقلمِ‏‮ ‬‬وزيدٌ‏‮ ‬‬كالأسدِ‏‮ ‬‬والحمدُ‏‮ ‬‬للّهِ‏‮ ‬‬وواللّهِ‏‮ ‬‬وباللّهِ‏‮ ‬‬وتاللّهِِ

Explanation of Text in English:

الإِسْمُ (The noun) is known by:

الْـخَفْضِ the lowering of the vowel (that is to say placing the vowel  كَسْرَة = ــِـ beneath the noun) as you would say: مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالرَّجُلِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْغُلاَمِ (I passed by the man and the boy);

and by  التَّنْوِينِ (tanwin = ــًـ‏‮ ‬‬،‏‮ ‬‬ــٍـ‏‮ ‬‬،‏‮ ‬‬ــٌـ [the expression of ([the nuun sound bearing sukuun = نْ] at the end of a noun]) as you would say: زَيْدٌ (Zaydun) and رَجُلٌ (rajulun) and مُومِنَاتٌ (muuminaatun);

and by دُخُولِ‏‮ ‬‬الأَلِفِ‏‮ ‬‬وَاللاَّمِ (the prefixing of alif and laam = اَلْ to the front of the word) – as you would say: اَلرَّجُلُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْغُلاَمُ (the man and the servant boy) formed from the words: رَجُـلٌ and غُلاَمٌ;

and by the prefixing of حُرُوفِ‏‮ ‬‬الْـخَفْضِ (the letters [particles] of khaf∂ [lowering]) mainly prepositions – which cause the noun to carry  كَسْرَة = ــِـ / ــٍـ as its final vowel) and they are: مِنْ (from), إلَى (to), عَنْ (about, from), عَلَى (on), فِي (in, into), رُبَّ (how many a…), ِاَلْبَاءُ = بِ (by, in, with), اَلْكَافُ‏‮ ‬‬= كَ (like, as), اللاّمُ =‏‮ ‬‬لِ (to, belonging to, for) as you would say: سِرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬مِنَ‏‮ ‬‬الْبَصْرَةِ‏‮ ‬‬إِلَى الْكُوفَةِ‏‏ (I traveled from Baßrah to Kuufah), رَحَلْتُ‏‮ ‬‬عَنِ‏‮ ‬‬الْبَلَدِ (I departed from the country),  صَعَدتُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَى الـْخَـيْـلِ  (I climbed upon the stallion),  جَلَسْتُ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الْبَـيْتِ (I sat in the house), رُبَّ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلٍ‏‮ ‬‬كَرِيمٍ‏‮ ‬‬لَقِيتُهُ (Many a noble man I have met), كَتَـبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِــالْقَلَمِ  (I wrote with the pen), زَيْدٌ ‏كَـالأَسَدِ (Zayd  is like the lion), اَلْحَمْدُ‏‮ ‬‬لِــلَّهِ (The praise belongs to Allah);

and by حُرُوفِ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَسَمِ (the particles for swearing) and they are   اَلْوَاوُ = و (by) and  اَلْبَاءُ = بِ (by) and  اَلْتَاءُ = تَ (by) like when you say: وَاللَّهِ (I swear by Allah) and بِـاللَّهِ (I swear by Allah) تَـاللَّهِ (I swear by Allah),

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَالْفِِِِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬يُعْرَفُ‏‮ ‬‬بِقَدْ‏‮ ‬‬وَالسِّينِِِِِِِ‏‮ ‬‬وَسَوْفَ‏‮ ‬‬وَتَاءِِِِ‏‮ ‬‬التَّأْنِيثِِِ السَّاكِنَةِ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

وَاَلْفِعْلُ (And the verb) يُعْرَفُ‏‮ ‬‬بِقَدْ (is known by‮ ‬قَدْ)  and وَالسِّينوَسَوْفَ (and the particles سَ and وَسَوْفَ) and وَتَاءُ‏  التَّأْنِيثِ‏  السَّاكِنَةِ (and the taa of femininity bearing sukuun)

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

والفعل‏‮ ‬‬يعرف بـقد كقولك قَدْ‏‮ ‬‬قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬وقَدْ‏‮ ‬‬يَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬وبالـسّين وسَوْفَ‏‮ ‬‬كقولك سَيَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬وسَوْفُ‏‮ ‬‬يَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬وبـتاء التّأنِيثِ‏‮ ‬‬السّاكنة كقولك قَامَتْ‏‮ ‬‬وقَاَلتْ‏‮

Explanation of Text in English:

The verb is known by قَدْ‏‮ ‬‬as you would say: قَدْ‏‮ ‬‬قَامَ (He definitely stood up) and قَدْ‏‮ ‬‬يَقُومُ (He might stand) and by السَّينِ (the particle سَ) and the particle سَوْفَ as you would say: سَيَقُومُ (He will stand) and سَوْفَ‏‮ ‬‬يَقُومُ (He will stand) and by تاَءِ‏‮ ‬‬التَّأنِيثِ‏‮ ‬‬السَّاكِنَةِ (the taa of the feminine doer bearing sukuun = تْ [which occurs at the end of the past tense verb to show that the pronoun [she] or [it – feminine] is the doer of the verb]) – like when you say:  قَـامَـتْ (she stood) and قَالَتْ (she spoke).

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَالـْحَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬مَا لاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَصْلُحُ‏‮ ‬‬مَعَهُ‏‮ ‬‬دَليِلُ‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمِ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬دَلِيلُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفِعْلِ‏‮)

English Translation:

وَالْـحَرْفُ (And the particle is) مَا (the [(part of speech) for which]), دَلِيلُ‏‮ ‬‬الاِسْمِ (the distinguishing signs of the noun)‏‮ ‬‬وَدَلِيـلُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفِعْــلِ (and the distinguishing signs of the verb)‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَصْلُحُ‏‮ ‬‬مَعَهُ (are not permissible with it).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

والحرف ما لا‏‮ ‬‬يصلح معه دليل الإسم ولا دليل الفعل لأنه لا‏‮ ‬‬يقبل علامات نحو ال ولا تنوين ولا‏‮ ‬‬يدخل حرف الخفـض عليه‏‮  ‬‬ولا قد أو السين أو سوف فلا تقول الـْمِِِنْ‏‮ ‬‬أو مِنًا أو إِلَي‏‮ ‬‬هَلْ‏‮ ‬‬لا تقول قََدْ‏‮ ‬‬فِِِِي‏‮ ‬‬أو سَعَلَى أو سََوْفَ‏‮ ‬‬عَنْ‏‮ ‬‬ ولو أنّ‏‮ ‬‬الحرف خالٍ‏‮ ‬‬من العلامات فإنه علامة لغيره‏‮ ‬‬

Explanation of Text in English:

الْـحَرْفُ (the particle) is the (part of speech) for which none of the  distinguishing signs of the noun and the distinguishing signs of the verb are permitted, because it is void of signs.  For  instance,  it  does  not  receive ال nor tanwiin (ــً‏‮ ‬‬,‏‮ ‬‬ــٍـ‏‮ ‬‬, ــٌـ‏‮ ‬‬) nor do the prepositions ( عَنْ‏‮ ‬‬،‏‮ ‬‬إِلَى‏‮ ‬‬،‏‮ ‬‬مِنْ etc.) come in front of it nor  do قد or سـَ or سوف come in front of it.  You can not say الـْمِِِنْ or مِنًا or إِلَي‏‮ ‬‬هَلْ nor do you say قَدْ‏‮ ‬‬فِي or سَعَلَى or سَوْفَ‏‮ ‬‬عَنْ.  Although الْحَرْف (the particle) is void of distinguishing signs, it is a distinguishing sign for other words.

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 2 – (The Chapter About الاِعْرَاب [Inflection])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 3 – (The Chapter Concerning The Knowledge of ʿAlaamaatu-l-Iʿraab [The Signs Of Iʿraab])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 4 – A Section Elaborating About What Has Been Previously Mentioned)

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 5 – The Chapter about Al-Afʿaal [the Verbs]

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 6 – The Chapter About Marfuʿaatu – l – Asmaa’[The Nouns that are Caused to be in the Case of Rafʿ]

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 7 – The Chapter About Al-Faaʿil [the Doer])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 8 – (The Chapter About al-Mafʿuul [The Receiver Of The Action Whose Doer Was Not Mentioned])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 9 – (The Chapter About Al-Mubtada’ [The Subject] And Al-Khabr [The Predicate])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 10 – (The Chapter About Al – ʿAwaamil [The Governors] That Enter Upon The Subject And The Predicate

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 11 – (The Chapter About An-Naʿt [The Adjective])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 12 – (The Chapter About Al-ʿAṭf [The Conjoining Of Words])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 13 – (The Chapter About At-Tawkiid [The Emphasizing of the Noun])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 14 – (The Chapter About Al-Badal [The Substitute])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 15 – (The Chapter About Al-Manṣuubaatu-l-Asmaa’i [The Nouns In The Case Of Naṣb])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 16 – (The Chapter About Al – Mafʿuul Bihi [The Object of the Verb])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 17 – (The Chapter About Al-Maṣdar [The Verbal Noun])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 18 – (The Chapter About Ḍharfu-z-Zamaan [The Adverb Of Time] and Ḍharful-Makaan [The Adverb Of Place])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 19 – (The Chapter About Al-Haal [The Circumstantial Noun])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 20 – (The Chapter About At-Tamyiiz [The Noun Of Specification])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 21 – (The Chapter About (Al-Istath-naa’ [The Exclusion of Nouns])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 22 – (The Chapter About Laa)

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 23 – (The Chapter About Al-Munaadaa [The Noun in Direct Address])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 24 – (The Chapter About Al-Mafʿuul Min-Ajlih [Causative Object])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 25 – The Chapter About Al-Mafʿuul Maʿahu [The Object Which Accompanies The Subject In The Execution Of An Action])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 26 – (The Chapter About Al-Makhfuuḍaat [The Nouns Caused to be in The Case of Khafḍ)

 

Published in: on August 28, 2010 at 18:45  Leave a Comment  

The Chapter Concerning فَـرَائِضِ الْـوُضُـوءِ (The Obligatory Actions of Wuḍuu’), سُـنَـنِهِ (It’s Actions Derived From Prophet Muhammad]) and فَـضَائِـلِهِ (the Meritorious Acts of Wuḍuu’) from the Matn al Ashmaawiyyah

The Chapter Concerning فَـرَائِضِ‮ ‬الْـوُضُـوءِ (The Obligatory Actions of Wuḍuu’), سُـنَـنِهِ (It’s Actions  Derived  From Prophet Muhammad]) and فَـضَائِـلِهِ (the Meritorious Acts of Wuḍuu’).

فَـأَمَّا فَـرَائِضِ‮ ‬الْـوُضُـوء (As for the obligatory actions  of wuḍuu’), فَسَبْعَةٌ (they are seven): 1) النِّيَّة (the intention)  عِـنْدَ‮ ‬غَسْلِ‮ ‬الْوَجْهِ (which is made in conjunction with the washing of the face), 2) وَغَـسْـلُ‮ ‬الْـوَجْـه (washing of the face), 3) وَغَـسْـلُ‮ ‬يَـدَيْـنِ (washing the hands) إِلَـى مَـرفَـقَيْن (up to the elbows), 4) وَمَـسْحُ‮ ‬جَـمِيع الرَّأْس (wiping over the entire head), 5) وَغَـسْـلُ‮ ‬الرِّجْـلَيْـن (washing the feet) إلَـى الْـكَعْبَيْـنِ (up to the ankles), 6) وَالْـفَوْرُ (washing each limb one immediately after the other), 7) وَالتَّدْلِـيك (and rubbing each limb vigorously).

فَـهَـذِهِ‮ ‬سَـبْعَةٌ (These are the seven obligatory actions), لَـكِنْ‮ ‬يَـجِبُ‮ ‬عَـليْكَ (but you are required) فِي‮ ‬غَسْل وَجْهِ (when washing your face),  أَنْ‮ ‬تُخَـلَّلَ‮ ‬شَـعْرَ‮ ‬لِحْـيَتِكَ (to comb through the hair of your beard with your fingers). إِنْ‮ ‬كَـانَ‮ ‬شَـعْرُ‮ ‬الِـحْـيَةِ‮ ‬خََـفِيفًا‮ ‬(If the hair of the beard is thin)  إِنْ‮ ‬كَـانَ‮ ‬شَـعْرُ‮ ‬اللِّحْيَةِ‮ ‬خَفِيفًا تَظْهَرُ‮ ‬الْبَشَرَةُ (the skin beneath it will show). وَإِنْ‮ ‬كَـانَ‮ ‬كَـثيفًا (If the hair of the beard is thick thin),  ‮ ‬فَـلاَ‮ ‬يَـجِبُ‮ ‬عَـلَيْكَ‮ ‬تَخْـلِيلُهَا (it is not necessary for you to comb through it with the fingers). وَكَـذَالِـكَ (Similarly), يَـجِبُ‮ ‬عَـلَيْكَ (you are required) فِـي‮ ‬غَسْـلِ‮ ‬يَـدَيك (while washing your hands) تُخَـلَّلَ‮ ‬أَصَـا بِـعَكَ (to comb through the fingers of your hand with the fingers of the other). عَـلَى الْـمَشْهُورِ (This is in accord with what is well known in the madh-hab of Imām Mālik).

وَأَمَّا سُـنَـنُ‮ ‬الْـوُضُـوء (As for the Sunnah actions of wuḍuu’), فَثَمَانِيَةٌ (they are eight): (1) غَـسْـلُ‮ ‬يَـدَيْـنِ‮ ‬أَوْلاً (washing the hands first) إِلَـى الْـكَوْعَـيْن (up to the wrist bone), (2) وَالْـمَضْمَـضَة (rinsing the mouth with water), (3) وَالاِسْـتتِنْـشَاق (inhaling water into the nostril), (4) وَالاِسْـتِنْـثَار ( exhalation); وهُـوَ‮ ‬جَـذْبُ‮ ‬الْـمَاءِ‮ ‬مِـنَ‮ ‬الأَنْـفِ (it is forceful blowing water from the nostril), (5) وَرَدُّ‮ ‬مَـسْحِ‮ ‬الرَّأْس (repeating the wiping of the head), (6) وَمَـسْحُ‮ ‬الأُذُنَـيْـن (wiping the two ears both وَبَـاطِـنِهِـمَا (on the outside of them) and ظَـاهِـرِهِـمَا (the inside of them), (7) وَتَـجْـدِيدُ‮ ‬الْـمَاء (renewing the water) for both ears, (8) وَتَـرْتِـيبُ‮ ‬فَرَائِـدِهِ (maintaining correct order in performing the farḍ actions of wuḍuu’).

وَأَمَّا  فَـضَائِـلِهِ (As for the meritorious actions of wuḍuu’) فَسَـبْعَةٌ (they are seven): 1) التَّسْمِيَّةُ (Basmalah – Bismi-l-laahi-r-Rahmaani-r-Rahiim which said at the beginning of wuḍuu’, 2)   وَالْـمَوْضِـعُ‮ ‬الطَاهِـرُ‮ ‬(a clean area) for performing prayer, 3) وَقِـلَّةُ‮ ‬الْـمَاءِ‮ ‬بِـلاَ‮ ‬حَدٍّ (using a small amount of water without a limit), 4) وَوَضْـعُ‮ ‬الإنَـاءِ‮ ‬عَـلَى الْـيَمِين (placing  the  water  container  on  the  right) إِنْ‮ ‬كَانَ‮ ‬مَفْتُوحًا (if  it  is  open), 5) وَالْغَسْـلَةُ‮ ‬الثَّانِـيَّة والثَّالِـثَة ( the second and third washing of the limbs) إِذَا أَوْعَبَ‮ ‬بِالأُولَ (after having done it once), 6) وَالْـبَدْءُ‮ ‬بِـمُقَدَّمِ‮ ‬الرَّأْسِ (beginning at the front of the head), 7) وَالسِّوَاك (the siwaak). وَاللَّهُ‮ ‬أَعْلَمُ (Allah is the Best Knower).


Chapter 15 Mudawwanah – The Chapter About Wiping Over the Head

فِي‮ ‬مَسْحِ‮ ‬الرَّأْسِ

The Chapter About Wiping Over the Head


قَالَ‮ ‬مَالِكٌ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬الْـمَرْأَةُ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬مَسْحِ‮ ‬الرَّأْسِ‮ ‬بِـمَنْزِلَةِ‮ ‬الرَّجُلِ‮ ‬تَـمْسَحُ‮ ‬عَلَى رَأْسِهَا كُلِّهَا وَإِنْ‮ ‬كَانَ‮ ‬مَعْقُوصًا فَلْتَمْسَحْ‮ ‬عَلَى ضَفْرِهَا وَلاَ‮ ‬تَـمْسَحُ‮ ‬عَلَى خِمَارٍ‮ ‬وَلاَ‮ ‬غَيْرِهِ

Maalik said, “The woman with regards to wiping over the head is in the same situation as the man.  She must wipe over her entire head, and  if it is braided, then she must wipe over the braids, however should not wipe over خِمَارٍ (a head cover) or anything else that is similar. ”

قَالَ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬وَقَالَ‮ ‬مَالِكٌ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬الأُذُنَانِ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬الرَّأْسِ‮ ‬وَيَسْتَأْنِفُ‮ ‬لَهُمَا الْـمَاءَ‮ ‬وَكَذَلِكَ‮ ‬فَعَلَ‮ ‬ابْنُ‮ ‬عُمَرَ

Ibn al-Qaasim said Maalik said, “The ears are part of the head.  (The person who is performing wuduu) should renew the water for them.”

قَالَ‮ ‬وَقَدْ‮ ‬قَالَ‮ ‬لِي‮ ‬مَالِكٌ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬الْـحِنَّاءِ‮ ‬تَكُونُ‮ ‬عَلَى الرَّأْسِ‮ ‬فَأَرَادَ‮ ‬صَاحِبُهُ‮ ‬أَنْ‮ ‬يَـمْسَحَ‮ ‬عَلَى رَأْسِهِ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬الْوُضُوءِ‮ ‬قَالَ‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬يُجْزِئُهُ‮ ‬أَنْ‮ ‬يَـمْسَحَ‮ ‬عَلَى‮ ‬الْـحِنَّاءِ‮ ‬حَتَّى‮ ‬يَنْزِعَهُ‮ ‬فَيَمْسَحَ‮ ‬عَلَى شَعْرِهِ

Ibn al-Qaasim said, “Maalik said to me concerning the head cover when it is on the head and the person wearing it desires to wipe over his head, he said, ‘it is not permissible for him to wipe over the head cover, unless he removes it and wipe over his hair.’”

قَالَ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬وَقَالَ‮ ‬مَالِكٌ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬الْـمَرْأَةِ‮ ‬يَكُونُ‮ ‬لَهَا الشَّعْرُ‮ ‬الْـمُرْخَى عَلَى خَدَّيْهَا من نحنون الدلالين‮ ‬أَنَّهَا تَـمْسَحُ‮ ‬عَلَيْهِمَا بِالْـمَاءِ‮ ‬وَرَأْسَهَا كُلَّهُ‮ ‬مُقَدَّمَهُ‮ ‬وَمُؤَخَّرَهُ‮ ‬وَرَوَاهُ‮ ‬ابْنُ‮ ‬وَهْبٍ‮ ‬أَيْضًا وَكَذَلِكَ‮ ‬الَّذِي‮ ‬لَهُ‮ ‬شَعْرٌ‮ ‬طَوِيلٌ‮ ‬مَنْ‮ ‬الرِّجَالِ

Ibn al-Qaasim said that Maalik said, In regards to the woman who has hair hanging along the sides of her cheeks, from all indication, “She must wipe over both cheeks and her head front to back with water.”  Ibn Wahb also transmitted something for men who have long hair.

قَالَ‮ ‬ابْنُ‮ ‬وَهْبٍ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬عَمْرِو بْنِ‮ ‬الْـحَارِثِ‮ ‬وَابْنِ‮ ‬لَهِيعَةَ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬بُكَيْرِ‮ ‬بْنِ‮ ‬عَبْدِ‮ ‬اللَّهِ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬أُمِّ‮ ‬عَلْقَمَةَ‮ ‬مَوْلاَةِ‮ ‬عَائِشَةَ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬عَائِشَةَ‮ ‬أَنَّهَا كَانَتْ‮ ‬إذَا تَوَضَّأَتْ‮ ‬تُدْخِلُ‮ ‬يَدَهَا تَـحْتَ‮ ‬الْوِقَايَةِ‮ ‬وَتَـمْسَحُ‮ ‬بِرَأْسِهَا كُلِّهِ‮ ‬قَالَ‮ ‬ابْنُ‮ ‬وَهْبٍ‮ ‬وَبَلَغَنِي‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬جُوَيْرِيَةَ‮ ‬زَوْجِ‮ ‬النَّبِيِّ‮ ‬صَلَّى اللَّهُ‮ ‬عَلَيْهِ‮ ‬وَسَلَّمَ‮ ‬وَصَفِيَّةَ‮ ‬امْرَأَةِ‮ ‬ابْنِ‮ ‬عُمَرَ‮ ‬وَسَعِيدِ‮ ‬بْنِ‮ ‬الْـمُسَيِّبِ‮ ‬وَابْنِ‮ ‬شِهَابٍ‮ ‬وَيَحْيَى بْنِ‮ ‬سَعِيدٍ‮ ‬وَنَافِعٍ‮ ‬مِثْلُ‮ ‬ذَلِكَ‮

Ibn Wahb transmitted from ʿAmr bin al-Haarith and Ibn Lahibʿah who transmitted from Bukayr bin ʿAbdullah who transmitted from Umm ʿAlqmah the servant of ʿAa’ishah who transmitted from ʿAa’ishah that when she performed wuduu’, she used to put her hand under her head covering and wipe her entire head.  Ibn Wahb said “What is similar to that reached me from Jawayriyah the wife of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلّم and Ṣafiyyah wife of Ibn ʿUmar and Saʿiid bin Musayyib and Ibn Shihaab and Yahyaa bin Saʿiid and Naafiʿ.

وَقَالَ‮ ‬مَالِكٌ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬الْـمَرْأَةِ‮ ‬تَـمْسَحُ‮ ‬عَلَى خِمَارِهَا أَنَّهَا تُعِيدُ‮ ‬الصَّلاَةَ‮ ‬وَالْوُضُوءَ

Maalik said concerning the woman wiping over her khimaar (head covering), “She must repeat both wuḍuu’ and ṣalaah.”


Published in: on August 25, 2010 at 20:16  Leave a Comment  

Zuhd (Abstention From the World) and Ṣabr (Putting Up With Hardships and Overlooking the Ill-Treatment, Harm and Wrongs Which Come From Others)

A Discussion About Zuhd and Sabr from the book ‘The African Caliphate’

Author: Ibrahim Sulaiman

Zuhd

… Zuhd, as explained by the Prophet صلّى اللّه عليه وسلّم, has two elements: abstention from the world and keeping away from the possessions of other people. To abstain from the world means, among other things, that a person should live in it on the understanding that it is only a temporary abode, indeed, that it is in fact a place of trial and a place of preparation for the realm of reward and permanence which is the Next World.

Whatever one takes from the world, whether it be in the form of sustenance, power, knowledge or skill, and whatever other pursuits one undertakes in it, should all be seen as a means by which one is being tested by Allah, who will take the final account on the Day of Judgment. Nothing in this world, therefore, is an end in itself. Everything is given or taken by way of trial. The world itself will at some point cease to exist and give way ultimately to the everlasting life of the Hereafter.

Zuhd also involves, however, exerting the effort necessary to secure your own livelihood so as to be self-reliant and free from having to look towards what belongs to other people. Bello stressed in Jalā’ the need for people to preserve their integrity through self- reliance, saying: “The Prophet  صلّى اللّه عليه وسلّم said, ‘Take to trading, for it secures nine-tenths of wealth’… It is related that [Prophet] Isa عليه السلام met a certain person and asked him, ‘What do you do for a living’? He replied, ‘I engage in worship’. Isa عليه السلام then asked him, ‘In that case, who takes care of your needs?‘My brother,’ he answered. ‘Then,’ said Isa, ‘your brother is more of a worshipper than you are.’

In essence, zuhd means that one should ardently seek the realm of the Hereafter by mobilizing and channeling the materials of this world towards the accomplishment of the higher purposes of life and by living one’s life, as far as possible, in accordance with the injunctions of Allah. Equally, it means exerting the efforts necessary to make one self-reliant and self-sufficient, to obviate any need to sell one’s honor, or even as a last resort one’s religion, in order to live.

In its ideological context, zuhd means the mobilization of a movement’s moral and material resources with the purpose of delivering the people from the grip of this world. Moral resources provide the strength to strive against a degenerate social order, while material resources, secured through the members’ extensive and serious engagement in various professions and trades, are advantageous in the struggle for economic and technical supremacy.

Ṣabr

To achieve that moral and economic supremacy another quality is, however, essential: ṣabr. In a narrow sense, ṣabr just means patience, but in a wider sense, it embraces a number of attitudes, including endeavoring to live honestly and honorably in a situation where those qualities are not tolerated by the prevailing system and putting up with the hardships and disadvantages suffered as a result. The purpose of embodying this attitude is that it serves as a shining light in the midst of pervasive darkness. Ṣabr also means overlooking much of the ill-treatment, harm and wrongs which come from others and which are an integral part of human life. Allah has said in this regard that He has made some people a means to test others, in order to see which of them will exercise patience.

The most important form of ṣabr is the endurance of hardships suffered while striving on behalf of one’s religion. In their struggle against a decadent system, some people might lose social or economic privileges, some might lose their freedom, some their means of subsistence and some their very lives. In all these trials the most valuable weapon is ṣabr, because the path of religion is long, the steps hard and the efforts exhausting. Ṣabr means not personalizing any harm or injury suffered in the cause of Allah and not holding personal enmity towards those who inflict such harm, so that hostility will cease as soon as such an adversary opens his heart to the faith. It also entails overlooking temporary inconveniences and viewing such trials as moral training, not as a punishment from Allah.

The fruits of ṣabr are ready forgiveness, the lack of any other than ideological adversaries, the ability to overlook and overcome any obstacles placed in your path, and ultimately the attainment of your goal. Apart from knowledge and piety, there is no greater weapon for an individual striving in the cause of Allah than ṣabr.

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Shaykh Uthmaan Dan Fodio’s Position on Tasawwuf – From the book ‘ The African Caliphate’ by Ibrahim Sulaiman

Shaykh Uthmaan Dan Fodio’s Position on Tasawwuf

From the book ‘ The African Caliphate’ by Ibrahim Sulaiman

In addition to the general education that the Shehu imparted to his students and companions, there was also a more intensive and systematized spiritual training in taṣawwuf. The Shehu had a group of people – men and women – whom he brought up in the ways of sufism. His main aim, no doubt, was to create a core of saints whose inward temperament was harmonized with their outward disposition in such a way that their utterances, behavior and characteristics mirrored their inner beings. This nucleus of people eventually formed the inner core of the Jama‘a. It was to them that mightier affairs were entrusted.

If the Shehu were asked if taṣawwuf was necessary, he would reply in the affirmative. In his Uṣūl al-Wilāyah he said that in the early days of Islam there was no need for taṣawwuf as such, because the Companions of the Prophet had among them those from whom the rest could draw inspiration and who could serve as models for them. The proper Islamic attitudes to life were preserved and transferred from one generation to another until the time came when the moral tone of society changed and people sank into moral decadence. Then a systematized form of spiritual training (tarbiyah) was needed, to give individuals guidance toward intellectual and moral elevation in order to overcome the diseases of the soul that prevented spiritual development.

This kind of concentrated spiritual cultivation of individuals, the Shehu maintained, is traceable to the Prophet himself صلّى اللّه عَلَيْهِ وسلّم, who trained his Companions  in accordance with the disposition of each. He would say to one, “Avoid anger,” and to another, “Let not your tongue ever rest from mentioning Allah’s names.”

The Shehu elaborated that taṣawwuf entails securing from people a pledge, which has to be continually reaffirmed, that they devote themselves to moral rectitude and the search for knowledge following the example of the Prophet صلّى اللّه عَلَيْهِ وسلّم. In this desire to inculcate in people knowledge (‘ilm) and spiritual experience (ḥaqīqah), the ṣufis have added nothing to the general practice of Islam. They simply reinforce its demand for the performance of obligatory duties and avoidance of prohibited things.

The essence of taṣawwuf, as expounded in Uṣūl al-Wilāyah, is five-fold. It is to seek to attain that superior moral consciousness (taqwā) as a result of which a person behaves as if he is in the presence of Allah, so that, whether alone or with others, obligatory duties are always upheld and forbidden things avoided. The Sunnah should be followed in all its ramifications, manifested by good character and being a source of happiness and comfort to others.

You should not harm people or cause them unnecessary discomfort, while at the same time exercising patience and trust in Allah if they cause you harm. You should cheerfully accept Allah’s overriding will in all matters concerning your life, whether that entails prosperity or poverty. You should perfect the attitude of submission whereby, even in the most trying circumstances, you offer thanks to Allah, appreciate the perfect nature of His will and, in the hope of His mercy and succor, flee from the imperfect state of this world to seek refuge in Him.

Those goals are to be reached by taking the following steps: exercising zeal in seeking the highest of aims of worship; revering the sanctity of Allah by following His injunctions and avoiding His prohibitions; striving to perform your professional work correctly and skillfully in accordance with the Sunnah; carrying out your resolution about religion regardless of opposition; and finally acknowledging Allah’s favors by being thankful to Him so as to be graced with an increase in such favors.

Shehu listed, in this order, number of ultimate qualities that should be inculcated: basic knowledge in the fundamentals of religion, jurisprudence and taṣawwuf; repentance (tawbah) from all sins, both spiritual and social; keeping aloof from people except for spiritual, educational or other positive purposes; waging war against Shaytān; striving against lower desires and restraining the self through taqwā; reliance on Allah in matters of provision and livelihood, that is, self-reliance; committing affairs in their entirety to Allah; cheerful acceptance of Allah’s judgment; patience (ṣabr), especially in times of trial; fear of Allah’s retribution at all times; love of Allah in all conditions and at all times; avoidance of eye contact at work; avoidance of conceit by calling to mind Allah’s unbounded favors; and constant praise and thanks to Allah.

Shehu described the nature of the training as the gradual cultivation of a person’s character through a systematic process supervised by a Shaykh until the whole being is positively changed by the good qualities being totally inculcated into the personality. This process is called riyāḍah. Shehu offered an insight into this method by saying, for instance, that if the student (murīd) were ignorant of the Sharī‘ah, the starting point in his training would in that case be his instruction in law and jurisprudence; if he were preoccupied with unlawful enrichment or was in a sinful political or social position,

he should first be made to rectify that situation; even if he were sound in outward appearance, the diseases of the inward would have to be cured; if he were obsessed with personal appearance, he should be assigned such lowly chores as cooking until that obsession had been removed; if he were obsessed with food, he should be introduced to constant fasting until that obsession had been overcome; if he were in a hurry for marriage, in spite of being unable to  shoulder its responsibilities, that desire should be curbed with fasting and other exercises. Thus, the training would be in accordance with the intellectual and moral level of the individual concerned.

What differentiates this system of training from informal, personal education is that it is under the guidance of a realised shaykh. This raises the fundamental question of how one can distinguish a true shaykh from a false one. The Shehu offered the following guidelines in identifying a fraud: if he engages under any pretext in disobedience to Allah; if he is hypocritical and pretentious in exhibiting obedience to Allah; if he is greedy for wealth and worldly status and cultivates rich people; if he sows discord among Muslims and is disrespectful to Muslims in general. All these are signs that he is not genuine. A true shaykh is known by the soundness of his knowledge derived fundamentally from the Qur’an and Sunnah, by the nobility of his character, by his spiritual soundness, by a pleasing and easy disposition, and finally by his display of pure insight through interpreting the issues confronting him clearly.

Finally, there is the question of whether a shaykh is essential for the attainment of spiritual wellbeing. Not necessarily, the Shehu stated in Uṣūl al-Wilāyah. The collective spirit of an Islamic group – Ikhwān, as he called them – could take the place of a shaykh and, in any case, the ultimate purpose of taṣawwuf is that an individual should reach a stage in his “direct experience” of Allah in which he dispenses with the guidance of anyone else. Taṣawwuf is the process of training by which an individual is brought to spiritual maturity and then freed to seek his way to his Lord.

For Shehu Usman, taṣawwuf, as an integral part of Islam, is derived from two verses of the Qur’an: “But as for him who feared the Station of his Lord and forbade the lower self its appetites, the Garden will be his refuge.” (79:39-40)

Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 4 – الُْـمُرَكَّب (The Composite Structure) and The Meaning of الْـكَلاَمُ (Speech) in the Arabic Language

Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 4 –  الْـمُرَكَّبَات (The Composite Structures),‮ ‬وَأًَنْوَاعُهَا (The Various Kinds) and إِعَرَابُهَا (The Ways They Are Inflected)

The composite structure consist of two or more words for the purpose of conveying information whether that information is complete or not1.

There are six kinds of composite structures in Arabic:

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الإسْنَادِي‮ ‬أَوِ‮ ‬الْـجُمْلَة‮ ‬،‮ ‬الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الإضَافِي‮ ‬،‮ ‬الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْبَيَانِي‮ ‬،‮ ‬الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْعَطْفِي‮ ‬،‮ ‬الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْـمَزْجِيُّ‮ ‬،‮ ‬الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْعََددَدِي

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الإسْنَادِي‮ ‬(The Supportive Composite Structure)2 ‮ ‬أَوْ‮ ‬الْـجُمْلَة‮ ‬(or the Sentence)

الإسْـنَادِي is the composite construct in which one phrase is supported by another.

الإسْـنَاد is the composite construct in which one phrase is used to make a judgement observation or statement about another, like حكم علي‮ ‬زهير بالإجْـتِهَاد the observation or statement that Zuhayr has the skill of independent judgement].، when you say: زُهَـيْرٌ‮ ‬مُجْتَهِـدٌ‮ ‬ (Zuhayr is a mujtahid [has the skill of independent judgement]).

The judgement or observation that is made about a person, place, thing or idea being judged is called الْـمُسْـد‮ ‬ (The predicate).

The person, place, thing or idea being judged, or observed is called الْـمَسْـدُ‮ ‬إِلَـيْهِ‮ ‬ (The subject).

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الإسْـنَادِي is also called الْـجُـمْلَة ‘the sentence’, and it consists of مُـسنَدٌ (a predicate) and مُسنَدٌ‮ ‬إِلَىْهِ (subject), like when you say: الْـحُلْمُ‮ ‬زيْنٌ‮ ‬ (The dream is beautiful) and يُـفْلِحُ‮ ‬الْـمُجْتَهِـدُ‮ ‬(The mujtahid is successful).  الْـحُـلْمُ (The dream) is مُـسنَدٌ‮ ‬إِلَىْهِ and زيْـنٌ (beautiful) has been ascribed to it.  ‬الْـحُـلْمُ has been judged to be beautiful. and therefore زيْـنٌ is مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬ (a predicate) for الْـحُـلْمُ.

Likewise, فلاح‮ ‬ (success) has been ascribed to الْـمُجْتَهِـدُ‮ ‬ (The mujtahid. Therefore, يُـفْلِحُ isمَسْـدٌ‮ ‬ (a predicate) and الْـمُجْتَهِـدُ is مُسْـدٌ‮ ‬إِلَـيْهِ‮ ‬ ( a subject).

الْـمَسْـدُ‮ ‬إِلَـيْهِ‮ ‬ (The subject) can be الْفَاعِلُ (the doer noun), نَـائِـبُهُ (the noun standing in the place of the doer), الْـمُبْتَدَأُ (the subject noun), اسْمُ‮ ‬الْفِعْلِ‮ ‬النَّاقِص (the noun of the defective verb), اسْمُ‮ ‬الاحْرُفِ‮ ‬الَّتِي‮ ‬تَـعْمَلُ‮ ‬عَمَلَ‮ ‬لَيْسَ‮ ‬ (the noun of the particles that functions like the verb laysa), اسْـمُ‮ ‬إِنَّ‮ ‬وأَخْوَاتِهَا (the noun of the particle إِنَّ and its sisters), اسْم لاَ‮ ‬النَّافِيَة لِلْـجِنْس (the noun of the particle لاَ which negates the exist of any kind or species of a thing).

The example of الْفَاعِلُ (the doer noun) is like when you say: جَاءَ‮ ‬الْـحَقُّ‮ ‬وَزَهَقَ‮ ‬البَاطِلُ‮ ‬ (The truth came and falsehood died). الْـحَقُّ and البَاطِلُ are  الْفَاعِلان (the doer nouns).

The example of  نَـائِـبُ‮ ‬الْـفَاعِـلِ (the noun standing in the place of the doer) is like when you say: يُعَاقِـبُ‮ ‬الْـعَاصُـون وَيُـثَابُ‮ ‬الطَّائِـعونَ‮ ‬ (Those who are sinful are punished, and those who are obedient are rewarded). الطَّائِـعونَ and الْـعَاصُـون are نَـائِـبُ‮ ‬الْفَاعِـلِ (the noun standing in the place of the doer).

The example of  الْـمُبْتَدَأُ (the subject noun) is like when you say: الصَّبْرُ‮ ‬مِـفْتَاحُ‮ ‬الْفَرَحِِ‮ ‬(Patience is the key to happiness).

The example of  اسْمُ‮ ‬الْفِعْلِ‮ ‬النَّاقِص (the noun of the defective verb) is like when you say:  كَانَ‮ ‬الله عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا‮ ‬ (Allah is All Knowing and Wise).

The example of اسْمُ‮ ‬الاحْرُفِ‮ ‬الَّتِي‮ ‬تَـعْمَلُ‮ ‬عَمَلَ‮ ‬لَـيْسَ‮ ‬ (the noun of the particles that functions like the verb laysa) is like when you say: مَـا زُبَـيرٌ‮ ‬كَسُولاً‮ ‬ (Zubayr is not lazy) and تَعِزُّ‮ ‬فَلاَ‮ ‬شَيْءٌ‮ ‬عَلَى الأَرْضِ‮ ‬بَاقِيًا‮ ‬ and‮ ‬لاَتَ‮ ‬سَاعَةَ‮ ‬مَنْدَمِ‮ ‬and‮ ‬إِنْ‮ ‬أَحَدٌ‮ ‬خَيْرًا مِنْ‮ ‬أَحَدٍ‮  ‬إِلاَّ‮ ‬بِالْعِلمِ‮ ‬وَالْعِلْمِ‮ ‬الصَّالِحِ

The example of ‮ ‬ اسْـمُ‮ ‬إِنَّ‮ ‬وأَخْوَاتِهَا(the noun of the particle إِنَّ and its sisters)‮‬ is like when you say:‮ ‬إِنَّ‮ ‬اللهَ‮ ‬عَـلِيمٌ‮ ‬بِـدَاتِ‮ ‬الصُّدُورِ‮ ‬ (Surely Allah knows what is inside of  the hearts).

The example of  اسْـم لاَ‮ ‬النَّافِيَة لِلْـجِنْس (the noun of the particle لاَ which negates the exist of any kind or species of a thing) is like when you say: لاَ‮ ‬إِلــاـهَ‮ ‬إِلاَّ‮ ‬اللُهَ.

الْـمُسْـد‮ ‬ (The predicate) can be الْفِعْلِ (the verb) and اسْمُ‮ ‬الْفِعْلِ (the noun of the verb) andخُبْرُ‮ ‬الْـمُبْتَدَأِ‮ ‬ (the predicate of the subject)‮ ‬and‮ ‬خَبْرُ‮ ‬الْفِعْلِ‮ ‬النَّاقِصِ‮ ‬(the predicate of the defective verb)‮ ‬and خَـبْرُ‮ ‬الاحْـرُفِ‮ ‬الَّتِي‮ ‬تَـعْمَلُ‮ ‬عَـمَلَ‮ ‬لَـيْسَ‮ ‬ (the predicate of the particles that functions like the verb laysa)‮ ‬and خَـبْرُ‮ ‬إِنَّ‮ ‬وأَخْـوَاتِـهَا‮ ‬ (the predicate of the particle إِنَّ and its sisters).

الْـمُسْـد‮ ‬ (The predicate) is الْفِعْلِ (the verb) like when you say: قَدْ‮ ‬أَفْـلَحَ‮ ‬الْـمُؤْمِنِينَ, (The believers are successful), and the predicate is characteristics which are derived from the verb like when you say: الْـحَقُّ‮ ‬أأَبْـلَجُ‮ ‬(the truth clear/apparent), and الْـمُسْـد‮ ‬(The predicate) is  also a defective noun which has the meaning of derived characteristics  like when you say: الْـحَقُّ‮ ‬نُـورٌ‮ ‬(The truth is light) and الْقَائِمُ‮ ‬بِهِ‮ ‬أَسَدٌ‮ ‬(The one who stands with it/him is a lion). The meaning of the first example is that الْـحَقُّ‮ ‬مُـضِيءٌ‮ ‬(The truth is bright/luminous), while the  meaning of the second example is that الْقَائِمُ‮ ‬بِهِ‮ ‬شُجَاعٌ‮ ‬أَسَدٌ‮ ‬(The one who stands with it/him is like a lion).

الْكَلاَمُ (Arabic Speech)3

Arabic speech is an informative sentence that gives the listener complete information by itself.  like when you say: رَأْسُ الْحِكْمَةِ مَخَافَةُ اللهِ‮ ‬ (The highest wisdom is fear of Allah), and فَازَ الْـمُتَّقُونَ ‬(The believers were victorious), and   مَنْ صَدَقَ نَجَا‮ ‬ (He who is truthful is will be saved)

If the sentence structure does not convey complete meaning or information to the listener by itself, then it can’t be called الْكَلاَمُ (Arabic speech), for example: إِنْ‮ ‬تَجْتَحِـدْ‮ ‬فِـي‮ ‬عِلْمِكَ (If you apply yourself to your knowledge). This is a sentence structure that doesn’t convey completely informative, because the result of this conditional clause has not been expressed nor is it known. Therefore as previously mentioned, it cannot be called Arabic speech. However, if the result of the conditional statement is expressed, like when you say: إِنْ‮ ‬تَجْتَحِـدْ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬عِلْمِكَ‮ ‬تَنْجـَحْ‮ ‬ (If you apply yourself to your knowledge, you will succeed), then it becomes كَلاَم (Arabic speech).

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الإضَافِي‮ ‬ (The Construction Which Consist of the Iḍaafah[the Adjoin/Prefixed Nouns])

‮  ‬الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الإضَافِـي‮ ‬( The Iḍaafah  Construction Composite) is the structure which consist of الـْـمُضَاف‮ ‬(The Adjoined/Prefixed Noun) and الـْـمُضَاف إِلَـيْهِ‮ ‬(The Noun Adjoined/Prefixed to It), like when you say: كِتَابُ‮ ‬التِّلْمِيذُ‮ ‬خَاتِـمُ‮ ‬فِصَّةٍ‮ ‬صَوْمُ‮ ‬النِّهَارِ. The for the second member of the iḍaafah construction is that it is always in the case of jarr.

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْبَيَانِي‮ ‬ ( The Composite Structure Which Clarifies the Characteristics of the Noun)

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْـبَيَانِـي‮ ‬(The composite structure which clarifies the characteristics of the noun consist every of two words; the first one is characterized by the second. This construction is of three kinds:

1. مُـرَكَّبٌ‮ ‬وَصْـفِيٌّ (an adjectival composite structure) – It consists of السِّفةُ (the adjective) and الْـمَوْصُـوف (the noun it describes/modifies), like when you say: فَـازَ‮ ‬التِّلْمِيذُ‮ ‬الْـمُجْتَهِـدُ‮ . ‬أَكْرَمْـتُ‮ ‬التِّلْمِيذَ‮ ‬الْـمُجْتَهِدَ‮ . ‬طَلَبْتُ‮ ‬أَخْلاَقِ‮ ‬التِّلْمِيذِ‮ ‬الْـمُجْتَهِدِ

2. مُـرَكَّبٌ‮ ‬تَـوْكِـيدِيٌّ (a composite structure used to emphasize the noun) – It consist of الْـمُؤَكَّدُ (the emphasized noun) and الْـمُؤَكِّدُ (the noun that is used to emphasize) it, like when you say: جَاءَ‮ ‬الْقَومُ‮ ‬كُلُّهُمْ‮ . ‬أَكْرَمْـتُ‮ ‬الْقَومَ‮ ‬كُلَّهُمْ‮ . ‬أَحْسَنْتُ‮ ‬إِلَى الْقَومِ‮ ‬كُلِّهُمْ

3. مُـرَكَّبٌ‮ ‬بَلَدِيٌّ (a substitutive composite structure) – It is a structure that consist of‮ ‬الْـبَدَلُ (the substitute noun) and الْـمُبْدَلُ‮ ‬مِـنْهُ‮ ‬(the noun that has been replaced by it [the substitute noun]), like when you say:  جَاءَ‮ ‬خَلِيلٌ‮ ‬أَخُوكَ‮ . ‬رَأَيْت خَلِيلاً‮ ‬أَخَاكَ‮ ‬‮.‬‮ ‬مَرَرْتُ‮ ‬بِخَلِيلٍ‮ ‬أَخِيكَ‮.‬

The rule for the second noun of مُـرَكَّبٌ‮ ‬بَلَدِيٌّ (a substitutive composite structure) is that it follows the noun that precedes in its case of inflection.

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْعَطْفِي‮ ‬ (The Conjunctive Composite Structure)

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْعَطْفِي‮ ‬(The conjunctive composite structure) consists of الـْـمَعْطُوفِ (the noun that has been joined) and الـْمَعْطُوفِ‮ ‬عَلَيْهِ (the noun that has been joined to it) by placing عَـطْفٌ (a conjunction) between them, like when you say:  يَنَالُ‮ ‬التِلْمِيذُ‮ ‬والتِّلمِيذَةِ‮ ‬الْـحَمْدَ‮ ‬وَالثَّنَاءَ‮ ‬إِذَا ثَابِرًا عَـلَى الدَّرْسِ‮ ‬وَالإِجْـتِهَادِ.‮ ‬The rule for الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْـعَطْفِي‮ ‬(The conjunctive composite structure)  is that the now that comes after عَـطْفٌ (a conjunction) follows  the noun that precedes in its case of inflection.

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْـمَزْجِيُّ‮ ‬ (The Composite Compound Structure)

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْـمَزْجِـيُّ‮ ‬(The composite compound structure) is two words that are constructed as one, like: بَـعْلَبَكَّ (Baalbek), ‮ ‬بَـيْتَ‮ ‬لَـحْـم (Bethlehem),  حَـضْرَمَـوْت‮ ‬(Haḍramut), سِـبَوَيْـهِ‮ ‬(Sibawayhi), صًـبَاحَ‮ ‬مَـسَاءَ‮ ‬(morning and evening), شَـدَرَ‮ ‬مَـدَرَ (dispersed/went in every direction).

If الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْـمَزْجِـيُّ‮ ‬(The composite compound structure)ˇ is a definite noun, then  it is pronounced without vowel ending, like when you say: بَـعْلَبَكّ‮ ‬بُـلْدَةٌ‮ ‬طَـيِّبَة الْـهَوَاءَ‮ ‬.‮ ‬سكَنْتُ‮  ‬بَـيْتَ‮ ‬لَـحْـم‮ ‬.‮ ‬سَـافَرْتُ‮ ‬إِلَى حَـضْرَمَـوْت, unless the second part of the compound word is the word وَيْـهِ, in which case, it is always fixed in its construction at the end on kasrah, like when you say: سِـبَوَيْـهِ‮ ‬عَالِمٌ‮ ‬كَبِيرٌ‮ .‬ رَأَيْتُ سِـبَوَيْـهِ‮ ‬عَالِـمًا كَبِيرًا‮ ‬.‮ ‬قَرأْتُ‮ ‬كِتَابَ‮ ‬سِـبَوَيْـهِ.

If الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْـمَزْجِـيُّ‮ ‬(The composite compound structure)ˇ is a indefinite noun, then both words are fixed in their construction at the end on fatḥah, like when you say: زُرْنِي‮ ‬صًـبَاحَ‮ ‬مَـسَاءَ‮ ‬‮.‬‮ ‬أَنْتَ‮ ‬جَاررِي‮ ‬بَيْتَ‮ ‬بَيْتَ‮.‬‮ ‬

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْعََددَدِي‮ ‬ (The Numerical Composite)

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْـعََددَيُّ‮ ‬(The numerical composite) are compound structured compound structured composites. They are every two numbers which has an implied conjunction between them, and they are the cardinal numbers: 11-19, and the ordinal numbers: 11th (eleventh) -19th (nineteenth).

As for 21-99, they are not among الْـمُرَكَّباتُ‮ ‬الْـعََددَيَّةُ‮ ‬(the numerical composites), because the conjunction is expressed, rather they are الْـمُرَكَّباتُ‮ ‬الْـعَطْفِيَّة‮ ‬(conjunctive composite structures).

It is necessary that both parts of الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْـعََددَيُّ‮ ‬(The numerical composite) be affixed with fatḥah at the end, even if it is in the case of raf, like when you say: جَـاءَ‮ ‬أَحَـدَ‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬رَجُلاً, ‮ ‬or in the case of naṣb, like when you say:  رَأَيْـتُ‮ ‬أَحَـدَ‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬كَـوْكَـبًا, ‮ ‬or in the case of jarr ‮ ‬like when you say:‮ ‬أَحْـسَنْتُ‮ ‬إِلى أَحَـدَ‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬فَـقِيرًا, or sometime both of  its parts are fixed in their construction on fatḥah and standing in the place of a noun in the case of rafʿ, naṣb of jarr, except إثْـنَيْ‮ ‬عَشَـرَ. In this case, the first part is inflected with alif of the dual form like when you say:  جَـاءَ‮ ‬إثْـنَا عَشَـرَ‮ ‬رَجُلاً, and it is the cases of  naṣb and jarr with yaa of the dual form like when you say:  أَكْـرَمْـتُ‮ ‬إثْـنَيْ‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬فَـقِيرَةً‮ ‬بِإثْـنَيْ‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬دِرْهَـمًا. The second part of this numerical construct is fixed in its construction with fatḥah at the end. There is no situation in which it is inflected, and of course the nuun has been dropped from the dual form of the first part.

There is no number in which number العشَـرَة (ten) is formed from the noun pattern (فاعل). This noun pattern is used to form first part of the ordinal numbers الْـحَادِي‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬(eleventh) to الْـحَادِي‮ ‬عَشَـرَ (nineteenth). Both parts of these number are fixed in their construction on fatḥah at the end, like when you say: جَـاءَ‮ ‬الرَّابِعَ‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬and رَأَيْتُ‮ ‬الرَّابِعَةَ‮ ‬عَشَـرَةَ‮ ‬and مَرَرْتُ‮  ‬بِالْـخَامِسَ‮ ‬عَشَـرَةَ. This is the rule, unless the first part of the ordinal number composite ends with yaa. In that case, the first part of the numerical composite should be fixed in its construction on sukuun, like when you say: جَـاءَ‮ ‬الْـحَادِي‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬والْثَانِي‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬ and رَأَيْتُ‮ ‬الْـحَادِي‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬والْثَانِي‮ ‬عَشَـرَ and مَرَرْتُ‮  ‬بِالْـحَادِي‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬والْثَانِي‮ ‬عَشَـرَ.

حُكْمُ‮ ‬الْعَدَدُ‮ ‬مَعَ‮ ‬الْـمَعْدود‮ ‬ (The Rules for the Number  and the Enumerated Noun)

If the number is وَاحد (one)  or  إثْـنَيْـن (two), then the rule is that the masculine noun is enumerated with  the masculine number, and the feminine noun is enumerated  with the feminine number, like when you say: رَجُـلٌ‮ ‬وَاحِـدٌ‮ ‬and‮ ‬اِمْـرَأَةٌ‮ ‬وَاحِدَةُ‮ ‬and‮ ‬رَجُـلَانِ‮ ‬اثْنَانِ‮ ‬and‮ ‬اِمْـرَأَتَانِ‮ ‬اثْنَتَانِ.

If the numbers are from الثلاثة (three) to العشَـرَة (ten), then the masculine noun is enumerated with the feminine number, and the feminine is enumerated with the masculine number, like when you say: ثَلاَثَةُ‮ ‬رِجَالٍ‮ ‬and‮ ‬ثَلاَثَةُ‮ ‬أَقْلاَمٍ‮ ‬for the masculine and وَثَلاَثُ‮ ‬نِسَاءٍ‮ ‬and ثَلاَثُ‮ ‬أَيَدٍ‮ ‬for the feminine.

This is unless the number ten is part of a numerical composite. In that case, the number ten should be in the same gender as the noun being enumerated, then you say: ثَلاَثَةَ‮ ‬عَشَرَ رَجُـلاً‮ ‬for the masculine and‮ ‬ثَلاَثَةَ‮ ‬عشرَةَ‮ ‬اِمْـرَأَةًfor the feminine.

If a number is formed on the noun pattern (فاعل), then it should be in the same gender as the noun being enumerated, whether or not the number is alone or part of a numerical composite, like when you say: : الْبَابُ‮ ‬الرَّابِعُ‮ ‬for the masculine‮ ‬and‮ ‬الْبَابُ‮ ‬الرَّابِعَ‮ ‬عَشَرَ‮ ‬and‮ ‬الصُّفْحَتُ‮ ‬الْعَاشِرَةُ‮ ‬and‮ ‬الصُّفْحَتُ‮ ‬التَّاسِعةَ‮ ‬عَشْرَةَ‮ ‬for the feminine.

The sheen in the words عشرة and عشر carry fatḥah when it enumerates a masculine noun and sukuun when it enumerates a feminine noun, and so you should say: عَشَرَةُ‮ ‬رِجَالٍ‮ ‬and‮ ‬وَأَحَدَ‮ ‬عَشَرَ رَجُـلاً‮ ‬for the masculine and وَ‮ ‬عَشْرَ‮ ‬نِسَاءٍ‮ ‬and ثَلاَثُ‮ ‬إِحْدَى عَشْرَ‮ ‬اِمْـرَأَةً‮ ‬for the feminine.

Footnotes:

1 The composite structure which doesn’t convey complete information can be الْـجُمْلَةُ نَاقِصة الإِفَادَةِ (the sentence structure/clause which doesn’t convey complete information), can consist of any kind of subordinate clause / dependent clause which does not express a complete thought or idea, and therefore can’t stand alone), The example of this is when you express الشَّرْط‮ ‬ (the conditional statement) without completing your speech with جَوَابُ‮ ‬الشَّرْط‮ ‬ (the result of the conditional statement), like when you say: إِذَا جَاءَ‮ ‬إِلَى بَيْتِي‮ ‬ (If he comes to my house …).

 The composite structure which doesn’t convey complete information can also be a phrase, like: جَـرٌّ‮ ‬وَمَجْـرُرٌ (a prepositional phrase), عِبَارة ظَرفِيَّة (adverbial phrase), عِـبَارة فِعلِيَّة (verbal phrase),  فِـعْل مرَكّـب (phrasal verb),   بَدَلٌ ومُبْدَل (appositive phrase), عَـطْف وَمَـطْعُوف (conjunctive phrase), صِـفّة وَمَـوصُـوف (adjectival phrase) or‮ ‬وَمُـصَاف إِلَـيْه (iḍafah construction)  مُؤَكِّدٌ ومُؤَكَّدٌ the emphasizing word and the emphasized word), مَرْكَّب مُزْجي (compound word),مَرْكَّب عَدَدي (the numerical structure),عَدَد ومَعْدُود (a number and what is enumerated).

جَـرٌّ‮ ‬وَمَجْـرُرٌ (a prepositional phrase) is like when you say: فِي‮ ‬الْبَيْت (in the house)

عِبَارة ظَرفِيَّة  (adverbial phrase) is like when you say:  وَرَاءُ‮ ‬الْـمَسْجِد (behind the masjid)

عِـبَارة فِعلِيَّة (verbal phrase) is like when you say:أَخَذَ‮ ‬يَضْرِبُ (He began to beat)

فِـعْل مرَكّـب (phrasal verb) is like when you say: جَاء بِـ (He brought)

عِبَارة مِن الْبدَل (appositive phrase) is like when you say: الأُسْتَاذُ‮ ‬خَالِدٌ (professor Khālid) or خَالِدٌ‮ ‬،‮ ‬أُسْتَاذُنَا‮ ‬ (Khālid, our professor)

عَـطْف وَمَـطْعُوف (conjunctive phrase)‮ ‬is like when you say:  وَالرَّجُلُ (and the man)

صِـفّة وَمَـوصُـوف (adjectival phrase)‮ ‬is like when you say:  الدَّارُ‮ ‬الْبَيْدضَاءُ (the white house)

‮ ‬مُـصَاف وَمُـصَاف إِلَـيْه (iḍafah construction) is like when you say: وَلِيُّ‮ ‬اللَّه (the friend of Allah)

مُؤَكِّدٌ ومُؤَكَّدٌ (emphasizing word and an emphasized word) is like when you say:  القَومُ ، كُلُّهُم

مَرْكَّب مُزْجي (compound word)  is like when you say: بَعْلَبَكّ (Baalbek),  بَيْتَ لَحْم (Bethlehem)

,مَرْكَّب عَدَدي (numerical structure) is any number from أحَدَ عَشَرَ to  تِِِسْعَةَ عَشَرَ

عَدَد ومَعْدُود (a number and what is enumerated) is like when you say: رَجُلٌ وَاحِدٌ

2 The composite structure which conveys complete information is called الْـمُوَكَّب الإِسْنَادِي (the composite structure which consist of a person or thing that is the subject of discussion and things that are said about him or it.).  This composite structure is also called الْـجُـمْلَة‮ ‬(the sentence [a group of words joined together to express a complete thought]).  It is for this reason the grammarian Ibn Ājurruum, the author of ‘al Ajurruumiyyah’ has said:

3اَلْكَلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّفْظُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُرَكَّبُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُفِيدُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْوَضْعِ‏‮ ‬ (Speech is informative composite expression which is articulated according to conventional Arabic rules).

The Meaning of الْـكَلاَمُ (Speech) in the Arabic Language

الْـكَلاَمُ (Speech) is informative composite expression which is articulated according to conventional Arabic rules.  Undoubtedly, Arabic speech is constructed on four things.   They are that it (Speech) is لَـفْظـًا (expressed), مُرَكَّبًا (composite  [composed of two or more parts]), مُفِيدًا (informative), and مَوْضُوعًا بِالْوَضْعِ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَرَبِيِّ (regulated by conventional Arabic rules).  And so the meaning of its being لَـفْظًا is that Arabic speech is expressed vocally by using some of الْـحُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الأَبْجَدِيَّة (the letters of the Arabic alphabet) – like when you say: مُحَمَّدٌ (Muhammad) and عَـلِيٌّ (Alī) and ذَهَـبَ (He went).  Each word from these three words is vocalized by using some of‮ ‬الْـحُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الْهَجَائِيَّةُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَرَبِيَّة (the letters of the Arabic alphabet).

As for the meaning of its being مُـرَكَّبًا , Arabic speech is composed of two or more words – like عَبْدُاللَّهِ‏ ‬(Abdullah) and إِذَا جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬مُحَمَّدٌ (if Muhammad comes) and طُلُوعُ‏‮ ‬‬الشَّمْسِ (the rising of the sun). Each expression from these expressions is مُرَكَّّبًا (composed of two or more parts) without being مُفِيدًا (informative).

As for the meaning of its being مُـفِيدًا , it is when the silence of the speaker becomes sufficient, wherein the listener does  not  expect  to  hear  anything  else.  If  you  say: إِذَا جَـاءَ‏‮ ‬‬مُحَـمَّدٌ (If Muhammad comes), this expression is not مُـفِيدًا (informative), because it does not convey complete information to the person being spoken to – [that is to say, the one who heard it].

However, if you say: ‏‮ ‬‬إِذَا جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬مُحَمَّدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِلَى بَيْتيِ‏‮ ‬‬فَاَكْرِمْهُ (If Muhammad comes to my house, I will honor him.), This statement is completely informative and enough.  The person who hears it does not expect more than this.

As for the meaning of الْكَلاَم (speech) being مَوْضُوعًا بِالْوَضْعَ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَرَبِيِّ (regulated by conventional Arabic rules), it occurs in three cases:

The first case is the expressions that are used in الْـكَلاَم that have been constructed by the Arabs to define the essence of a person – like when you say: مُحَـمَّدٌ   (Muhammad) and the expressions used in الْـكَلاَم which the Arabs have constructed to define the nature of a place – like when you say: مَسْجِـــدٌ (masjid [place of prostration]) and the expression used in الْـكَلاَمُ that the Arabs have constructed to define the nature of a thing – like when you say: كِـتاَبٌ  (book).  Each of these expressions is called إِسْمًا (a noun).

The second case is the expressions used in الْـكَلاَمُ which the Arabs have constructed to define the occurrence of something in one of three time periods.  They are الْـفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬الـمَاضِـي (the past tense verb) – that is to say, the expression which shows an occurrence that occurred before the time of the conversation – like when you say: ذَهَـبَ (he went), and الْفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُضَارِعُ (the present tense verb) – that is to say, the expression which shows the occurrence of a thing during the time of the conversation or soon after it – like when you say: يَـذْهَـبُ (he is going), and the ‏ ‬فِعْلُ‏ ‬الأَمْرِ (the command tense verb) that is say, the expression which  shows the occurrence of a thing that is being sought after the time of the conversation – like when you say: إِذْهَبْ (go).

The third case is the expressions used in الْـكَلاَم that have been constructed by the Arabs – wherein the purpose of a word is not completely understood until one of these expressions is  placed next to the word.  They are like when you say: هَـلْْ and مِـنْ and لَـمْ. So when you say: هَـلْ‏‮ ‬‬ذَهَـبَ‮ ‬(did he go) and مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَسْجِـدِ‮ ‬(from the masjid) and لَـمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَخْرُجْ (he did not leave), the purpose of these three expressions (هَـلْ and مِـنْ and لَـمْ) was not completely understood until they were placed next to another word.  Each of these three expressions is called حَرْفًا (a letter [particle]).‏ ‬

And so, الإِسْـمُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْـفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْـحَـرْفُ are the three cases of الْـكَلاَم which the Arabs have regulated with conventional Arabic rules.

تَنْبِيهA Further Note:

We have said that الكلام (speech) according to the Arabic grammarians is  constructed on four things.   They are that it is لفظًا (expressed), مركّـبًا (composite [composed of two or more parts]), مفيدًا ( informative), and موضوعًـا بالوضع العربي (regulated by conventional Arabic rules).

The view which is held by the linguist concerning الكلام (speech) departs from the view which we have said is held by the grammarians about it.  In the view of the linguist, الكلام (speech) can be one word by itself – like: زَيْـدٌ or more than one word like: قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدٌ; or whatever causes understanding whether it expressed or not – like what is written; or الكلام (speech) can be what is indicated by way of motion or gesture.  Something indicated by way of motion or gesture is like when I say to you: أَوَصَـلْتَ‏‮ ‬‬أَمْـسًًا (Did you arrive yesterday?) and you nod your head up and down to me and so, it is understood by me that you are saying نَعَمْ (Yes).

The view of the the fuquhaa’ concerning الكلام (speech) also departs from the view of the grammarian.  In the view of the fuquhaa’, الكلام (speech) is what nullifies the salaat [because of the utterance of]  a letter that is understood  [which does not belong in the salaat] – like (the letter qaaf – ق) or (ayn – ع) or two letters like: من and عن even if they are not understood, [the salaat is still nullified].

The view of the mutakallimuun, that is to say the scholars of tawhiid also depart from that of the grammarians concerning الكلام (speech).  In the view of the mutakallimuun, الكلام (speech) is an expression about the meaning established by Allah which is voided of any letter or sound. .Allah has said in His Noble Book:

“It is He Who has sent down the Book to you from Himself with verses (ayāts) that are clear and these are the foundation of the Book while others are not so clear.” 3:6

Allah then says in the same (chapter and verse) concerning these ayāts:

”And  no ones knows their explanation except Allah.” 3:6

Therefore, in the view of the mutakallimun, their explanation exist with Allah as الكلام (speech), even though He سبحان و تعالى has chosen not to reveal to us a  verse, a single letter or a single sound concerning it.

 
 

Section 2 – الْـمْتَعَدِّي‮ ‬ (The Transitive Verb) ‮ ‬واللاَّزِم(and Intransitive Verb)


Published in: on August 22, 2010 at 19:00  Leave a Comment  

The Status of Substances That Come in Contact with Body or Come from the Body both Externally and Internally from Matn al ʿIzziyah

The Status of Substances That Come in Contact with Body or Come from the Body both Externally and Internally

فصل – Section:

مَـيْتَةُ‮ ‬الآدَمِِـيِّ (The human corpse ), غَـيْرَ‮ ‬الأَمْـبِيَاءِ (all except the prophets) نَـجِسَةٌ (are impure),  وَمَيْتَةَ‮ ‬مَالاَ‮ ‬نَفْسَ‮ ‬لَهُ‮ ‬سَائِلَةٌ (the dead thing, that unquestionably has no breath) كَالقَسَلَةِ (like the louse) عَـلَى الْـمَشْهُورِ (as is well known), وَالْـبَرْغُوثِ (as well as the flea) عِنْدَ‮ ‬ابْنِ‮ ‬الْقَصَّارِ (according to Ibn Qassār), وَمَا أُبِـينَ‮ ‬مِـنَ‮ ‬الْـحَيِّ (and what has become physically detached from the living) أَوِ‮ ‬الْـمَيِّتِ (or the dead), مِـمَّا تَـحُـلّهُ‮ ‬الْـحَاةُ (from what is lawful while alive) كَـالقَرْنِ (like the horn),  وَالعَظَمِ (the bone),‮ ‬وَالظُّفْرِ ((the fingernail), وَالـجِـلْدِ (the hide or the skin) نَـجِسَةٌ (are impure), وَلَـبَـنُ‮ ‬الْـمَـيْتَةِ (as is the milk of the corpse) وَمُحَـرِّمِ‮ ‬الأَكْـلِ‮ ‬كَالْكِرْزِيرِ (and that which is is unlawful to eat), كَـالْـكِرْزِيرِ (like the pig), وَالأَتَـان (the female donkey), وَبَولُ‮ ‬الْـجَلاَّلَـةِ (the urine of most animals) ورَجِـيعُهُ (and their faeces), وَهِـيَ‮ ‬كُـلُّ‮  ‬حَـيَوَان (and they are every animal) يَسْـتَعْمِِلُ‮ ‬النَّجَاسَةَ (that eats impure things), وَالْـبَوْلُ‮ ‬وَالْعَذِرَةُ‮ ‬مِـنَ‮ ‬الآدَمِىِّ (and the urine and the faeces of the human being), غَـيْرَ‮ ‬فَـضَلَاتِ‮ ‬الأَنْـبِيَاءِ (except the faeces of the prophets) وَمِـنْ‮ ‬مُحَـرِّمِ‮ ‬الأَكْـلِ (and that which is unlawful to eat)  وَمَـكْرُوهِـهِ (or is disliked [for consumption]) كَـالسَّبُعِ (like the lion), وَالذِّئْـبِ (and (the wolf), القَيْحُ (and pus), الصَّدِيدُ (festering matter),  الدَّمُّ‮ ‬الـمَسْفُوحُ (blood pouring out),  مِـنَ‮ ‬الآدَمِـيِّ (from the human being) أًوْ‮ ‬غَـيرِهِ (or non-human), الْـقَيْءُ (vomit) الْـمُتَغَيِّرُ (which has changed) عَـنْ‮ ‬حَـالَـةِ‮ ‬الطَّعَامِ (from the condition of being food), وَالـمُسْكِرُ (and the intoxicant) كَـالـخَـمَرِ (such as wine), وَالـمَنِيُّ (and sperm)  وَهُـوَ‮ ‬مِـنَ‮ ‬الرَّجُـلِ‮ ‬(which is the from the man);‮ ‬مَـاءٌ‮ ‬أَبْـيَضُ‮ ‬ثَّخِينٌ‮ ‬(it is thick white water) بِـمُثَلَّثَةِ (in appearance);  أَيْ‮ ‬غَـليظٌ‮ ‬يَـتَذَفَّقُ (that is to say, it is thick when it gushes out) فِـي‮ ‬خُـروجِـهِ (of the opening of the penis). رَائِـحَتُهُ‮ ‬كَـرَائِـحَة الطَّلْعِ (Its smell is like the smell of pollen); وَقَـرِيبٌ‮ ‬مِـنْ‮ ‬رَائِـحَةِ‮ ‬الْـعَجِينِ (while it is closer in smell to dough). وَإِذَا‮ ‬يَـبِسَ‮ ‬ (when it has dried),  كَـانَ‮ ‬كَـرَائِـحَةِ‮ ‬الْبَيْضِ (it smells like the egg).

وَمِـنَ‮ ‬الْـمَرْأَةِ (From the woman) مَـاءٌ‮ ‬أَصْـفَرُ‮ ‬رَقِـيقٌ (is a thin yellow water) وَ‮ ‬الوَدْيُ‮ ‬وَجْـهَانِ (and is of two kinds): التَّشْـدِيدُ‮ ‬وَالْـخَفِيفُ (intense and light). وَهُـوَ‮ ‬مَاءٌ‮ ‬أَبْيَضُ‮ ‬ثَخِينٌ (It is a white thick liquid) يَخْـرُجُ‮ ‬غَالِـبًا (that discharges in most cases) عَقِبَ‮ ‬الْـبَولِ (immediately after urine).

وَالـمَذْيُّ (prostatic fluid) مَـاءٌ أَبْـيَضُ رَقِـيقٌ‮ ‬(is a white thin liquid) يَخْـرُجُ‮ ‬عِـنْدَ‮ ‬اللَّذَّةِ (which is discharged as a result of pleasure) بِالإنْعَاظِ‮ ‬ (from sexual excitement) أَيْ‮ ‬قِيَامِ‮ ‬الذَّكَرِ (that is to say, when the penis is erect),  عِـنَدَ الـمُلَاعَـبَة (either during romance) أَوْ‮ ‬التَّذْكَـار (or the recollection of it): أَيِ‮ ‬التَّفَكُّر (that is to say thinking about it).

رَمَـاد النِّـجِسِ (The ashes of what is impure) وَالدُّخَـانُهُ (and the smoke from it) نَـجِسٌ (are impure).

Published in: on August 21, 2010 at 20:25  Leave a Comment  

Shaykh ʿUthmaan Dan Fodio’s Views on Educating Women from ‘The African Caliphate’ by Ibrahim Sulaiman

 

Shaykh ʿUthmaan Dan Fodio’s Views on Women’s Education from ‘The African Caliphate’ by Ibrahim Sulaiman

The Shehu had to reply several times to the objections and legal issues raised by his contemporaries among the ʿulamaa’. The debate moved from the narrow confines of women’s attendance of lectures to the wider issues of their education in general, their involvement in trade and professions and their going out of the house for their needs.

In taking a closer look at the Shehu’s replies and examining his views, we shall use three of his works: Nuur al-Albaab and Tanbiih al-Ikhwaan and Irshaad al-Ikhwaan ilaa Ahkaam Khuruuj an-Niswaan.

In Tanbiih the Shehu defended his allowing women to attend his lectures, saying it was justifiable and, indeed, sanctioned by law:

“I used to teach the men their individual obligations, and the women used to attend, staying behind the ḥijaab, and I used to prevent them from mixing (indiscriminately) with men. I kept on emphasizing in the assemblies my statement that such mixing of male and female is unlawful, so much that it necessarily became a matter of common knowledge. Then later, I assigned a specific day for the men, and a specific day for the women since this is better and safer. It is related in Ṣaḥiiḥ al-Bukhaari… that the women said to the Prophet,, “Men have gained an advantage over us in respect to access to you, therefore fix for us a day.” So he fixed a day for them in which they used to meet him, and he would exhort and instruct them.”

Women’s attendance of open-air lectures, he seemed to say in the Tanbiih, was not his own innovation. Other great scholars, who faced similar circumstances of prevailing ignorance, had either allowed it or expressly recommended it. Among them, he said, were the shaykh, the Imam, the learned Sidi Aḥmad ibn Sulaiman who was ‘a great saint’ and regarded as a Junayd of his generation. And no less an authority than al-Ghazali recommended the same. Even those – like Ibn Arafa – who were of the opinion that women should not go to lectures if it involved mixing with men, were referring to lectures dealing with knowledge that is not obligatory. In any case, by ‘mixing’ they meant actual bodily contact between men and women, and not occasions when they sit separately or when women sit in a separate apartment.

It is obligatory on a woman, he said in Tanbiih and Irshaad, to acquire a full knowledge of her religious obligations such as prayer, fasting, zakaat, ḥajj, as well as the more mundane matters such as trade and transactions. If the husband is not able to supply this knowledge, she is under an Islamic obligation to go out in search of it. “If he refuses her the permission,” the Shehu stated categorically in Irshaad, “she should go out without his permission, and no blame is attached to her nor does she incur any sin thereby.”

The ruler should compel the husband to get his wife educated as he should compel him to give her adequate maintenance; nay, knowledge is superior (to maintenance).”

But in spite of this sound Islamic position, ‘the devils among men’ still believed that women should remain at home in ignorance, knowing very well that ignorance could lead women to hell. In addition, such devilish scholars had remained silent in situations of moral and social decadence in which women freely engaged with men in drumming and dancing, and in which they displayed their beauty on festive days. If a woman could go as far as to ḥajj, why should she not go out to learn about her faith, which indeed, is a greater obligation than ḥajj, the Shehu asked.

The scholars who opposed women’s education, the Shehu postulated in Nuur al-Albaab, were merely hypocrites. They abandoned their wives, daughters and servants to ignorance, while they gave knowledge to other people. “How they could leave their wives, daughters and servants in the darkness of ignorance and error while they teach their students day and night! This is nothing but the pursuit of their selfish ends, because they teach their students only for show and out of pride. This is a great error.” The education of wives, children and dependents, he said, is an obligation while the teaching of students is voluntary. It becomes an obligation only when there is no one else to do it, and even then it is an obligation that is preceded by the obligation to educate one’s family and dependents.

Then the Shehu carried his argument straight to the women themselves. “Oh! Muslim women!” he exclaimed in Nuur al-Albaab:

“Do not listen to those who are themselves misguided and who misguide others, those who seek to deceive you by asking you to obey your husbands without asking you (first) to obey Allah and His Messenger. They say that a woman’s felicity lies in her obedience to her husband. They say so only to fulfill their selfish ends and fulfill their wishes through you. They compel you to do things which neither Allah nor His Messenger has originally imposed on you, like cooking, washing of clothes and similar things, which are among their numerous wishes, while they do not in the least demand of you to perform the real duties imposed on you by Allah and His Messenger. Yea! A woman is obliged by the consensus of the jurists, to heed her husband, in open and in secret, even if he is of very low social status, or even a slave, and she is prohibited by consensus to disobey him outrightly, except if he orders her to do an act which amounts to disobedience of Allah, in which case she must refrain from obeying him, as of necessity, because there should be no obedience to a creature in disobedience to the Creator. In addition, a woman is rewarded twofold for heeding her husband, yet, that is conditional upon her obedience to Allah and His Messenger.”

He lamented in Irshaad the failure of women to demand their rights to education in the same way that they would demand their right to maintenance and other basic needs. Women, like men, have been created for the sole purpose of serving Allah, which is not properly attainable without true education. The right to education, he seemed to be saying, has absolute preference over other rights. ‘Had the woman demanded her right from her husband in the affairs of her religion and taken her case to the ruler, and demanded that either he educates her in the affairs of her religion or extends his permission to her to go out to learn, it would have been obligatory (by law) on the ruler to compel the husband to do so as he would compel him to give his wife her worldly rights, since religious rights are superior and preferred.’

The Shehu’s uncompromising stand on women’s education, as opposed to the stand of some of his contemporaries whom he criticized in Irshaad for their lack of foresight (baṣiirah), stemmed from his role as a mujaddid. The Shehu’s moral and social transformation of society relied heavily on education. To neglect the education of women would have defeated the cause in two ways. Women formed not only an integral part of society, but also constituted its larger, more basic and more solid part. As the custodians of the home, which is the foundation of society, they are the most important factors in the stabilization of society. Secondly, women’s role in bringing up children imbued with the spirit and orientation of the emerging order, which would need at least one generation to take root, could not be over-emphasized.

The youth are the pillar of any process of Islamic revival, in so far as it is their energy and zeal that give it the requisite strength and vitality to challenge the prevailing order to the end. And the youth are principally formed by women.

We may also view the Shehu’s insistence on women’s education from another angle: as a restatement of the principle that education in Islam is not only a right, but also a duty. Every human being has been commanded by Allah to get education. Knowledge is the key to the understanding of Allah and the forging of the proper relationship with Him. It is the key to the understanding of Islam in its true perspective and in the understanding of the nature of life, of human relations and of existence as a whole. It is the key to the development of an individual as a complete personality. In this regard, there is no difference between man and woman. If a woman’s spiritual and moral development is in danger of being frustrated by her husband’s unjustifiable demands – which obviously stem from selfishness and high-handedness – Islam requires that she assert her rights and take whatever steps she deems necessary to safeguard her moral and spiritual well-being. If that puts her marriage at risk, so be it. For her success in the hereafter, which is greater and more enduring than the material things she could ever get from the world, should at all times be her priority.

There is yet another way of looking at this matter. The Shehu was aware that the cause he was advocating could well lead to future hardships for both men and women. Indeed, the hardships could lead to exile and loss of life for those who accepted his leadership. Yet, it was a cause that rested squarely on conviction, since nobody is deemed to have suffered or died in the cause of Allah who has no absolute faith in Allah and in the hereafter. It is only fair then that all those who would have to suffer in the cause of Allah should first be inculcated with the right faith and convictions and with the proper Islamic attitudes in order to enable them to have full benefit of their sufferings and hardships. This was perhaps one reason why the Shehu was absolutely insistent in his demand that both men and women should be properly educated about their beliefs and obligations.

He posed a question in Irshaad which runs thus: according to the law, women have to go out in search of knowledge which husbands cannot provide, should the scholar who cannot secure separate seating arrangements go into public to teach Islam, knowing very well that those women are bound to attend his lectures?; or should he do so, if he is well aware of the possibility of objectionable things being perpetrated as a result of women’s attendance? The Shehu answered in the affirmative, because those issues do not constitute a valid excuse to leave people in ignorance:

“Nay, he should go out, but he should prevent intermixing of the men and women, if such happens in his presence, and he should put men on one side and women on another side, and he should let them all know that inter-mixing of men and women is prohibited according to consensus… Indeed, the majority of the people are ignorant of the law, and if he goes out in order to change what he can of the social evils, his witnessing of other evils which he cannot change would not harm him.”

The logic seems to be that if people are not made conscious of the social evils which they are required to abandon, by not being given the opportunity to commit some of them in the presence of the teacher, how can they ever learn to abandon them? They need education precisely, because they do not know that such things are evil, or if they know, they lack the necessary moral and social consciousness to appreciate the magnitude of the danger such evils pose to the fabric of society.

Though education was the main theme of Shehu’s writings on women, he dealt with other matters too in his prolonged debate. For instance, should women engage in trade and the like? Ideally, he said, a woman’s needs should be provided for either by her husband or by other relations, so there would be no need to go out to the markets or sit in shops or similar places, but if there was no one to undertake ‘buying and selling’ on her behalf, she would be permitted by law to undertake it herself, but ‘she should do so without ornamentation (that is, she should observe moral and social restraint when she deals with men), for that is better for her in the eyes of her Lord and is more rewarding.’

We can look at this rule from two angles. First, women, like men, are entitled to a decent and dignified life, free from the humiliation of begging and dependence. Indeed, a woman is in greater need of economic protection since economic insecurity could lead her to the kind of life which undermines not only her own integrity but the very foundations of society. If such a possibility exists, then it becomes obligatory on her to seek the economic means she needs to preserve her integrity. Indeed, the insistence of Islam that women should have knowledge of some trade is meant to prepare them against such an eventuality.

Secondly, the Prophet stated that Allah permits women to go out for their needs. What constitutes these needs are not, however, specified, so it is left to those who represent the conscience of society to determine them, from time to time, as occasion demands, but of course, some needs, such as education, health and honorable livelihood, are basic and cannot be nullified by anyone.

Another important matter addressed by the Shehu was that of women going out in general. In fact, the Shehu stated in his introduction in Irshaad that he wrote the book in order to bring the two extreme groups – those who say that women are free to go out at all times like men, and those who say they should not go out at all – to the correct and middle course, and acquaint them with the rules formulated by upright scholars. This middle course, he said, implies that it is lawful for women to go out for their needs when it is legally necessary. At times this necessity will be of a worldly nature such as seeking a livelihood; and at other times the necessity will be of a religious nature such as going out in search of knowledge of their fundamental duties.

There are a host of issues dealt with in the Irshaad, such as women going out to attend the daily prayers, the Friday prayer and for ḥajj, funerals, visits and so on; and to each of these the Shehu gave a qualified approval in line with his balanced view. We would like to concentrate on his debate about women’s attendance at the mosque for daily prayers, for it demonstrates the way he handled the conflicting opinions of Muslim jurists.

Al-Ghazali says in al-Iḥyaa’: ‘It is necessary to prevent women from attending the mosques for the prayer if it is feared that men would be tempted by them. In fact ʿAishah, may Allah be pleased with her, did prevent them, and it was said to her that (her husband) the Messenger of Allah had not prevented them from attending the congregation. She said, ‘Had the Messenger of Allah known what the women would do after him he would have prevented them’.”

Some (jurists) conclude from this statement, as al-Qastalaani has said in al-Irshaad, that women should be prevented outrightly, but (others) have replied that ʿAishah, may Allah be pleased with her, was not in fact explicitly categorical on their being prevented, even if her statement indicates her preference for prevention. (It is argued) also that Allah knows absolutely well what women would do, yet He did not send any revelation to His Prophet to prevent them (from going to the mosque). If their behavior necessitated their being prevented from the mosques, it would also have necessitated their being prevented from going to other places, such as the markets as well. In addition, the offending behavior is found among some of them only, not in all of them. If prevention is necessary it should be confined to those who perpetrate offensive actions. Nonetheless, a woman’s prayer at home carries greater merit than her prayer in the mosque.

The Shehu scarcely came to a conclusion. he left his readers to make up their own minds. We should however remember his opinion that whenever jurists have made divergent rulings on an issue, then a person is free to take which ever of the rulings is agreeable to him, since religion should be easy.

We may at this stage consider some of the issues raised in this debate on women. The question of education raised by the Shehu relates mainly to women who did not receive education in their childhood. It is they who are asked to demand their rights, to education and to gain it by all possible means. The debate is applicable to young girls, for in a proper Islamic order, their education, like that of boys, is absolutely obligatory. Indeed, it is unthinkable that a Muslim society should allow a girl to grow to maturity without having been educated. Universal education for girls, as well as for boys, is the clear rule of Islam, and should be known to those with even the most elementary acquaintance with Islam.

The qualified permission for a woman to go out is based on three considerations. In the first place, she is basically responsible for the home and the upbringing of children. Whatever else she does outside is subordinate to this fundamental role. Indeed, she herself derives greater happiness and fulfillment from a stable and successful home than from anything else. Therefore, anything that might distract her from giving her full attention to the family is discouraged, except where it becomes absolutely necessary. In the second place, her own safety has been considered by Islam, since Islam regards the physical, moral and psychological security of women as the responsibility of society as a whole, of which her husband and her immediate relations take a significant share. In the third place, the qualified permission is made with due considerations to public morality. Since women evoke strong emotions in men, the interaction between the two must always be regulated. For example, the intimacy that exists between a husband and a wife necessitates a considerable display of social, moral and emotional restraint when they deal with other people. If they did not show restraint, discord and malice would result in society; and to the extent that man is almost always the aggressor, the woman carries a responsibility to minimize the possibility of that aggression. Yet, the same public morality which necessitates greater restraint from a woman may also require her to go out to assist in society. Who is better than a woman in teaching another woman, or in treating her ailment, or in solving her emotional and psychological problems?

Book Review of  ‘The African Caliphate

 
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