The Chapter Concerning فَـرَائِضِ الْـوُضُـوءِ (The Obligatory Actions of Wuḍuu’), سُـنَـنِهِ (It’s Actions Derived From Prophet Muhammad]) and فَـضَائِـلِهِ (the Meritorious Acts of Wuḍuu’) from the Matn al Ashmaawiyyah

The Chapter Concerning فَـرَائِضِ‮ ‬الْـوُضُـوءِ (The Obligatory Actions of Wuḍuu’), سُـنَـنِهِ (It’s Actions  Derived  From Prophet Muhammad]) and فَـضَائِـلِهِ (the Meritorious Acts of Wuḍuu’).

فَـأَمَّا فَـرَائِضِ‮ ‬الْـوُضُـوء (As for the obligatory actions  of wuḍuu’), فَسَبْعَةٌ (they are seven): 1) النِّيَّة (the intention)  عِـنْدَ‮ ‬غَسْلِ‮ ‬الْوَجْهِ (which is made in conjunction with the washing of the face), 2) وَغَـسْـلُ‮ ‬الْـوَجْـه (washing of the face), 3) وَغَـسْـلُ‮ ‬يَـدَيْـنِ (washing the hands) إِلَـى مَـرفَـقَيْن (up to the elbows), 4) وَمَـسْحُ‮ ‬جَـمِيع الرَّأْس (wiping over the entire head), 5) وَغَـسْـلُ‮ ‬الرِّجْـلَيْـن (washing the feet) إلَـى الْـكَعْبَيْـنِ (up to the ankles), 6) وَالْـفَوْرُ (washing each limb one immediately after the other), 7) وَالتَّدْلِـيك (and rubbing each limb vigorously).

فَـهَـذِهِ‮ ‬سَـبْعَةٌ (These are the seven obligatory actions), لَـكِنْ‮ ‬يَـجِبُ‮ ‬عَـليْكَ (but you are required) فِي‮ ‬غَسْل وَجْهِ (when washing your face),  أَنْ‮ ‬تُخَـلَّلَ‮ ‬شَـعْرَ‮ ‬لِحْـيَتِكَ (to comb through the hair of your beard with your fingers). إِنْ‮ ‬كَـانَ‮ ‬شَـعْرُ‮ ‬الِـحْـيَةِ‮ ‬خََـفِيفًا‮ ‬(If the hair of the beard is thin)  إِنْ‮ ‬كَـانَ‮ ‬شَـعْرُ‮ ‬اللِّحْيَةِ‮ ‬خَفِيفًا تَظْهَرُ‮ ‬الْبَشَرَةُ (the skin beneath it will show). وَإِنْ‮ ‬كَـانَ‮ ‬كَـثيفًا (If the hair of the beard is thick thin),  ‮ ‬فَـلاَ‮ ‬يَـجِبُ‮ ‬عَـلَيْكَ‮ ‬تَخْـلِيلُهَا (it is not necessary for you to comb through it with the fingers). وَكَـذَالِـكَ (Similarly), يَـجِبُ‮ ‬عَـلَيْكَ (you are required) فِـي‮ ‬غَسْـلِ‮ ‬يَـدَيك (while washing your hands) تُخَـلَّلَ‮ ‬أَصَـا بِـعَكَ (to comb through the fingers of your hand with the fingers of the other). عَـلَى الْـمَشْهُورِ (This is in accord with what is well known in the madh-hab of Imām Mālik).

وَأَمَّا سُـنَـنُ‮ ‬الْـوُضُـوء (As for the Sunnah actions of wuḍuu’), فَثَمَانِيَةٌ (they are eight): (1) غَـسْـلُ‮ ‬يَـدَيْـنِ‮ ‬أَوْلاً (washing the hands first) إِلَـى الْـكَوْعَـيْن (up to the wrist bone), (2) وَالْـمَضْمَـضَة (rinsing the mouth with water), (3) وَالاِسْـتتِنْـشَاق (inhaling water into the nostril), (4) وَالاِسْـتِنْـثَار ( exhalation); وهُـوَ‮ ‬جَـذْبُ‮ ‬الْـمَاءِ‮ ‬مِـنَ‮ ‬الأَنْـفِ (it is forceful blowing water from the nostril), (5) وَرَدُّ‮ ‬مَـسْحِ‮ ‬الرَّأْس (repeating the wiping of the head), (6) وَمَـسْحُ‮ ‬الأُذُنَـيْـن (wiping the two ears both وَبَـاطِـنِهِـمَا (on the outside of them) and ظَـاهِـرِهِـمَا (the inside of them), (7) وَتَـجْـدِيدُ‮ ‬الْـمَاء (renewing the water) for both ears, (8) وَتَـرْتِـيبُ‮ ‬فَرَائِـدِهِ (maintaining correct order in performing the farḍ actions of wuḍuu’).

وَأَمَّا  فَـضَائِـلِهِ (As for the meritorious actions of wuḍuu’) فَسَـبْعَةٌ (they are seven): 1) التَّسْمِيَّةُ (Basmalah – Bismi-l-laahi-r-Rahmaani-r-Rahiim which said at the beginning of wuḍuu’, 2)   وَالْـمَوْضِـعُ‮ ‬الطَاهِـرُ‮ ‬(a clean area) for performing prayer, 3) وَقِـلَّةُ‮ ‬الْـمَاءِ‮ ‬بِـلاَ‮ ‬حَدٍّ (using a small amount of water without a limit), 4) وَوَضْـعُ‮ ‬الإنَـاءِ‮ ‬عَـلَى الْـيَمِين (placing  the  water  container  on  the  right) إِنْ‮ ‬كَانَ‮ ‬مَفْتُوحًا (if  it  is  open), 5) وَالْغَسْـلَةُ‮ ‬الثَّانِـيَّة والثَّالِـثَة ( the second and third washing of the limbs) إِذَا أَوْعَبَ‮ ‬بِالأُولَ (after having done it once), 6) وَالْـبَدْءُ‮ ‬بِـمُقَدَّمِ‮ ‬الرَّأْسِ (beginning at the front of the head), 7) وَالسِّوَاك (the siwaak). وَاللَّهُ‮ ‬أَعْلَمُ (Allah is the Best Knower).


Chapter 15 Mudawwanah – The Chapter About Wiping Over the Head

فِي‮ ‬مَسْحِ‮ ‬الرَّأْسِ

The Chapter About Wiping Over the Head


قَالَ‮ ‬مَالِكٌ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬الْـمَرْأَةُ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬مَسْحِ‮ ‬الرَّأْسِ‮ ‬بِـمَنْزِلَةِ‮ ‬الرَّجُلِ‮ ‬تَـمْسَحُ‮ ‬عَلَى رَأْسِهَا كُلِّهَا وَإِنْ‮ ‬كَانَ‮ ‬مَعْقُوصًا فَلْتَمْسَحْ‮ ‬عَلَى ضَفْرِهَا وَلاَ‮ ‬تَـمْسَحُ‮ ‬عَلَى خِمَارٍ‮ ‬وَلاَ‮ ‬غَيْرِهِ

Maalik said, “The woman with regards to wiping over the head is in the same situation as the man.  She must wipe over her entire head, and  if it is braided, then she must wipe over the braids, however should not wipe over خِمَارٍ (a head cover) or anything else that is similar. ”

قَالَ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬وَقَالَ‮ ‬مَالِكٌ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬الأُذُنَانِ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬الرَّأْسِ‮ ‬وَيَسْتَأْنِفُ‮ ‬لَهُمَا الْـمَاءَ‮ ‬وَكَذَلِكَ‮ ‬فَعَلَ‮ ‬ابْنُ‮ ‬عُمَرَ

Ibn al-Qaasim said Maalik said, “The ears are part of the head.  (The person who is performing wuduu) should renew the water for them.”

قَالَ‮ ‬وَقَدْ‮ ‬قَالَ‮ ‬لِي‮ ‬مَالِكٌ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬الْـحِنَّاءِ‮ ‬تَكُونُ‮ ‬عَلَى الرَّأْسِ‮ ‬فَأَرَادَ‮ ‬صَاحِبُهُ‮ ‬أَنْ‮ ‬يَـمْسَحَ‮ ‬عَلَى رَأْسِهِ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬الْوُضُوءِ‮ ‬قَالَ‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬يُجْزِئُهُ‮ ‬أَنْ‮ ‬يَـمْسَحَ‮ ‬عَلَى‮ ‬الْـحِنَّاءِ‮ ‬حَتَّى‮ ‬يَنْزِعَهُ‮ ‬فَيَمْسَحَ‮ ‬عَلَى شَعْرِهِ

Ibn al-Qaasim said, “Maalik said to me concerning the head cover when it is on the head and the person wearing it desires to wipe over his head, he said, ‘it is not permissible for him to wipe over the head cover, unless he removes it and wipe over his hair.’”

قَالَ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬وَقَالَ‮ ‬مَالِكٌ‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬الْـمَرْأَةِ‮ ‬يَكُونُ‮ ‬لَهَا الشَّعْرُ‮ ‬الْـمُرْخَى عَلَى خَدَّيْهَا من نحنون الدلالين‮ ‬أَنَّهَا تَـمْسَحُ‮ ‬عَلَيْهِمَا بِالْـمَاءِ‮ ‬وَرَأْسَهَا كُلَّهُ‮ ‬مُقَدَّمَهُ‮ ‬وَمُؤَخَّرَهُ‮ ‬وَرَوَاهُ‮ ‬ابْنُ‮ ‬وَهْبٍ‮ ‬أَيْضًا وَكَذَلِكَ‮ ‬الَّذِي‮ ‬لَهُ‮ ‬شَعْرٌ‮ ‬طَوِيلٌ‮ ‬مَنْ‮ ‬الرِّجَالِ

Ibn al-Qaasim said that Maalik said, In regards to the woman who has hair hanging along the sides of her cheeks, from all indication, “She must wipe over both cheeks and her head front to back with water.”  Ibn Wahb also transmitted something for men who have long hair.

قَالَ‮ ‬ابْنُ‮ ‬وَهْبٍ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬عَمْرِو بْنِ‮ ‬الْـحَارِثِ‮ ‬وَابْنِ‮ ‬لَهِيعَةَ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬بُكَيْرِ‮ ‬بْنِ‮ ‬عَبْدِ‮ ‬اللَّهِ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬أُمِّ‮ ‬عَلْقَمَةَ‮ ‬مَوْلاَةِ‮ ‬عَائِشَةَ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬عَائِشَةَ‮ ‬أَنَّهَا كَانَتْ‮ ‬إذَا تَوَضَّأَتْ‮ ‬تُدْخِلُ‮ ‬يَدَهَا تَـحْتَ‮ ‬الْوِقَايَةِ‮ ‬وَتَـمْسَحُ‮ ‬بِرَأْسِهَا كُلِّهِ‮ ‬قَالَ‮ ‬ابْنُ‮ ‬وَهْبٍ‮ ‬وَبَلَغَنِي‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬جُوَيْرِيَةَ‮ ‬زَوْجِ‮ ‬النَّبِيِّ‮ ‬صَلَّى اللَّهُ‮ ‬عَلَيْهِ‮ ‬وَسَلَّمَ‮ ‬وَصَفِيَّةَ‮ ‬امْرَأَةِ‮ ‬ابْنِ‮ ‬عُمَرَ‮ ‬وَسَعِيدِ‮ ‬بْنِ‮ ‬الْـمُسَيِّبِ‮ ‬وَابْنِ‮ ‬شِهَابٍ‮ ‬وَيَحْيَى بْنِ‮ ‬سَعِيدٍ‮ ‬وَنَافِعٍ‮ ‬مِثْلُ‮ ‬ذَلِكَ‮

Ibn Wahb transmitted from ʿAmr bin al-Haarith and Ibn Lahibʿah who transmitted from Bukayr bin ʿAbdullah who transmitted from Umm ʿAlqmah the servant of ʿAa’ishah who transmitted from ʿAa’ishah that when she performed wuduu’, she used to put her hand under her head covering and wipe her entire head.  Ibn Wahb said “What is similar to that reached me from Jawayriyah the wife of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلّم and Ṣafiyyah wife of Ibn ʿUmar and Saʿiid bin Musayyib and Ibn Shihaab and Yahyaa bin Saʿiid and Naafiʿ.

وَقَالَ‮ ‬مَالِكٌ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬الْـمَرْأَةِ‮ ‬تَـمْسَحُ‮ ‬عَلَى خِمَارِهَا أَنَّهَا تُعِيدُ‮ ‬الصَّلاَةَ‮ ‬وَالْوُضُوءَ

Maalik said concerning the woman wiping over her khimaar (head covering), “She must repeat both wuḍuu’ and ṣalaah.”


Published in: on August 25, 2010 at 20:16  Leave a Comment  

Zuhd (Abstention From the World) and Ṣabr (Putting Up With Hardships and Overlooking the Ill-Treatment, Harm and Wrongs Which Come From Others)

A Discussion About Zuhd and Sabr from the book ‘The African Caliphate’

Author: Ibrahim Sulaiman

Zuhd

… Zuhd, as explained by the Prophet صلّى اللّه عليه وسلّم, has two elements: abstention from the world and keeping away from the possessions of other people. To abstain from the world means, among other things, that a person should live in it on the understanding that it is only a temporary abode, indeed, that it is in fact a place of trial and a place of preparation for the realm of reward and permanence which is the Next World.

Whatever one takes from the world, whether it be in the form of sustenance, power, knowledge or skill, and whatever other pursuits one undertakes in it, should all be seen as a means by which one is being tested by Allah, who will take the final account on the Day of Judgment. Nothing in this world, therefore, is an end in itself. Everything is given or taken by way of trial. The world itself will at some point cease to exist and give way ultimately to the everlasting life of the Hereafter.

Zuhd also involves, however, exerting the effort necessary to secure your own livelihood so as to be self-reliant and free from having to look towards what belongs to other people. Bello stressed in Jalā’ the need for people to preserve their integrity through self- reliance, saying: “The Prophet  صلّى اللّه عليه وسلّم said, ‘Take to trading, for it secures nine-tenths of wealth’… It is related that [Prophet] Isa عليه السلام met a certain person and asked him, ‘What do you do for a living’? He replied, ‘I engage in worship’. Isa عليه السلام then asked him, ‘In that case, who takes care of your needs?‘My brother,’ he answered. ‘Then,’ said Isa, ‘your brother is more of a worshipper than you are.’

In essence, zuhd means that one should ardently seek the realm of the Hereafter by mobilizing and channeling the materials of this world towards the accomplishment of the higher purposes of life and by living one’s life, as far as possible, in accordance with the injunctions of Allah. Equally, it means exerting the efforts necessary to make one self-reliant and self-sufficient, to obviate any need to sell one’s honor, or even as a last resort one’s religion, in order to live.

In its ideological context, zuhd means the mobilization of a movement’s moral and material resources with the purpose of delivering the people from the grip of this world. Moral resources provide the strength to strive against a degenerate social order, while material resources, secured through the members’ extensive and serious engagement in various professions and trades, are advantageous in the struggle for economic and technical supremacy.

Ṣabr

To achieve that moral and economic supremacy another quality is, however, essential: ṣabr. In a narrow sense, ṣabr just means patience, but in a wider sense, it embraces a number of attitudes, including endeavoring to live honestly and honorably in a situation where those qualities are not tolerated by the prevailing system and putting up with the hardships and disadvantages suffered as a result. The purpose of embodying this attitude is that it serves as a shining light in the midst of pervasive darkness. Ṣabr also means overlooking much of the ill-treatment, harm and wrongs which come from others and which are an integral part of human life. Allah has said in this regard that He has made some people a means to test others, in order to see which of them will exercise patience.

The most important form of ṣabr is the endurance of hardships suffered while striving on behalf of one’s religion. In their struggle against a decadent system, some people might lose social or economic privileges, some might lose their freedom, some their means of subsistence and some their very lives. In all these trials the most valuable weapon is ṣabr, because the path of religion is long, the steps hard and the efforts exhausting. Ṣabr means not personalizing any harm or injury suffered in the cause of Allah and not holding personal enmity towards those who inflict such harm, so that hostility will cease as soon as such an adversary opens his heart to the faith. It also entails overlooking temporary inconveniences and viewing such trials as moral training, not as a punishment from Allah.

The fruits of ṣabr are ready forgiveness, the lack of any other than ideological adversaries, the ability to overlook and overcome any obstacles placed in your path, and ultimately the attainment of your goal. Apart from knowledge and piety, there is no greater weapon for an individual striving in the cause of Allah than ṣabr.

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Shaykh Uthmaan Dan Fodio’s Position on Tasawwuf – From the book ‘ The African Caliphate’ by Ibrahim Sulaiman

Shaykh Uthmaan Dan Fodio’s Position on Tasawwuf

From the book ‘ The African Caliphate’ by Ibrahim Sulaiman

In addition to the general education that the Shehu imparted to his students and companions, there was also a more intensive and systematized spiritual training in taṣawwuf. The Shehu had a group of people – men and women – whom he brought up in the ways of sufism. His main aim, no doubt, was to create a core of saints whose inward temperament was harmonized with their outward disposition in such a way that their utterances, behavior and characteristics mirrored their inner beings. This nucleus of people eventually formed the inner core of the Jama‘a. It was to them that mightier affairs were entrusted.

If the Shehu were asked if taṣawwuf was necessary, he would reply in the affirmative. In his Uṣūl al-Wilāyah he said that in the early days of Islam there was no need for taṣawwuf as such, because the Companions of the Prophet had among them those from whom the rest could draw inspiration and who could serve as models for them. The proper Islamic attitudes to life were preserved and transferred from one generation to another until the time came when the moral tone of society changed and people sank into moral decadence. Then a systematized form of spiritual training (tarbiyah) was needed, to give individuals guidance toward intellectual and moral elevation in order to overcome the diseases of the soul that prevented spiritual development.

This kind of concentrated spiritual cultivation of individuals, the Shehu maintained, is traceable to the Prophet himself صلّى اللّه عَلَيْهِ وسلّم, who trained his Companions  in accordance with the disposition of each. He would say to one, “Avoid anger,” and to another, “Let not your tongue ever rest from mentioning Allah’s names.”

The Shehu elaborated that taṣawwuf entails securing from people a pledge, which has to be continually reaffirmed, that they devote themselves to moral rectitude and the search for knowledge following the example of the Prophet صلّى اللّه عَلَيْهِ وسلّم. In this desire to inculcate in people knowledge (‘ilm) and spiritual experience (ḥaqīqah), the ṣufis have added nothing to the general practice of Islam. They simply reinforce its demand for the performance of obligatory duties and avoidance of prohibited things.

The essence of taṣawwuf, as expounded in Uṣūl al-Wilāyah, is five-fold. It is to seek to attain that superior moral consciousness (taqwā) as a result of which a person behaves as if he is in the presence of Allah, so that, whether alone or with others, obligatory duties are always upheld and forbidden things avoided. The Sunnah should be followed in all its ramifications, manifested by good character and being a source of happiness and comfort to others.

You should not harm people or cause them unnecessary discomfort, while at the same time exercising patience and trust in Allah if they cause you harm. You should cheerfully accept Allah’s overriding will in all matters concerning your life, whether that entails prosperity or poverty. You should perfect the attitude of submission whereby, even in the most trying circumstances, you offer thanks to Allah, appreciate the perfect nature of His will and, in the hope of His mercy and succor, flee from the imperfect state of this world to seek refuge in Him.

Those goals are to be reached by taking the following steps: exercising zeal in seeking the highest of aims of worship; revering the sanctity of Allah by following His injunctions and avoiding His prohibitions; striving to perform your professional work correctly and skillfully in accordance with the Sunnah; carrying out your resolution about religion regardless of opposition; and finally acknowledging Allah’s favors by being thankful to Him so as to be graced with an increase in such favors.

Shehu listed, in this order, number of ultimate qualities that should be inculcated: basic knowledge in the fundamentals of religion, jurisprudence and taṣawwuf; repentance (tawbah) from all sins, both spiritual and social; keeping aloof from people except for spiritual, educational or other positive purposes; waging war against Shaytān; striving against lower desires and restraining the self through taqwā; reliance on Allah in matters of provision and livelihood, that is, self-reliance; committing affairs in their entirety to Allah; cheerful acceptance of Allah’s judgment; patience (ṣabr), especially in times of trial; fear of Allah’s retribution at all times; love of Allah in all conditions and at all times; avoidance of eye contact at work; avoidance of conceit by calling to mind Allah’s unbounded favors; and constant praise and thanks to Allah.

Shehu described the nature of the training as the gradual cultivation of a person’s character through a systematic process supervised by a Shaykh until the whole being is positively changed by the good qualities being totally inculcated into the personality. This process is called riyāḍah. Shehu offered an insight into this method by saying, for instance, that if the student (murīd) were ignorant of the Sharī‘ah, the starting point in his training would in that case be his instruction in law and jurisprudence; if he were preoccupied with unlawful enrichment or was in a sinful political or social position,

he should first be made to rectify that situation; even if he were sound in outward appearance, the diseases of the inward would have to be cured; if he were obsessed with personal appearance, he should be assigned such lowly chores as cooking until that obsession had been removed; if he were obsessed with food, he should be introduced to constant fasting until that obsession had been overcome; if he were in a hurry for marriage, in spite of being unable to  shoulder its responsibilities, that desire should be curbed with fasting and other exercises. Thus, the training would be in accordance with the intellectual and moral level of the individual concerned.

What differentiates this system of training from informal, personal education is that it is under the guidance of a realised shaykh. This raises the fundamental question of how one can distinguish a true shaykh from a false one. The Shehu offered the following guidelines in identifying a fraud: if he engages under any pretext in disobedience to Allah; if he is hypocritical and pretentious in exhibiting obedience to Allah; if he is greedy for wealth and worldly status and cultivates rich people; if he sows discord among Muslims and is disrespectful to Muslims in general. All these are signs that he is not genuine. A true shaykh is known by the soundness of his knowledge derived fundamentally from the Qur’an and Sunnah, by the nobility of his character, by his spiritual soundness, by a pleasing and easy disposition, and finally by his display of pure insight through interpreting the issues confronting him clearly.

Finally, there is the question of whether a shaykh is essential for the attainment of spiritual wellbeing. Not necessarily, the Shehu stated in Uṣūl al-Wilāyah. The collective spirit of an Islamic group – Ikhwān, as he called them – could take the place of a shaykh and, in any case, the ultimate purpose of taṣawwuf is that an individual should reach a stage in his “direct experience” of Allah in which he dispenses with the guidance of anyone else. Taṣawwuf is the process of training by which an individual is brought to spiritual maturity and then freed to seek his way to his Lord.

For Shehu Usman, taṣawwuf, as an integral part of Islam, is derived from two verses of the Qur’an: “But as for him who feared the Station of his Lord and forbade the lower self its appetites, the Garden will be his refuge.” (79:39-40)

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