Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 9 – (The Chapter About Al-Mubtada’ [The Subject] And Al-Khabr [The Predicate])

بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُبْتَدَإِ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‬الْخَبَرِ

9 – (The Chapter About Al-Mubtada’ [The Subject] And Al-Khabr [The Predicate])

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬الـْمُبْتَدَأُ‏‮ ‬‬هَوَ‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَرْفُوعُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَارِي‏‮ ‬‬عَنِ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَوَامِلِ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّفْظِيَّةِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْخَبَرُ‏‮ ‬‬هُـوَ‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْـمَرْفُوعُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُسْنَدُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلَيْهِ‏‮ ‬‬نَـحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَالزَّيْـدَانِ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمَانِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالزَّيْدُونَ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمُونَ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

الـْمُبْتَدَأُ (the subject) هَوَ (is) الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَرْفُوعُ (the noun in the case of rafʿ) الْعَارِي‏‮ ‬‬عَـنِ (which is void of) الْعَوَامِلُ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّفْطِيَّة (expressed governors)وَالْخَـبَر (while the predicate) هَـوَ (is) الإِسْـمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْـمَرْفُـوعُ (the noun in the case of rafʿ) الـْمُسْنَدُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلَـيْهِ (which  is  traced back to it [الْـمُبْتَدَأ])

–  نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ (as  you would say): زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمٌ (Zayd is standing)  وَالزَّيْدَانِ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمَانِ and (the two Zayds are  standing وَالزَّيْدُونَ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمُونَ and (the Zayds [three or more] are standing).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

الـمبتدأ هو الإسم الـمرفوع العاري‏‮ ‬‬عن العوامل اللفظيّة والخبر هو الإسم الـمرفوع الـمسند إلى الـمبتدإ أي‏‮ ‬‬الـمنسوب إليه كقولك‏‮  ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمٌ‏‮ ‬‬والزَّيْدَانِ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمَانِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالزَّيْدُونَ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمُونَ‏‮ ‬‬وَما أشبه ذلك فَالإسم الـمنسوب إليه هو الـمبتدأ والـمنسوب هو الخبر

Explanation of Text in English:

الـْـمُبْتَدَأ (the subject) is the noun in the case of rafʿ which is ‏  العاري‏  عن الْعَوَامِـلُ‏  اللَّفْطِيَّة void of (expressed governors) and الـْخَبَر (the predicate) is the noun in the case of rafʿ which is traced back to  الْـمُبْتَدَأ (the subject) –  as you would say: زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬قَـائِـمٌ (Zayd is standing) and الزَّيْـدَانِ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِـمَان (The two Zayds are standing) and الزَّيْـدُونَ‏‮ ‬‬قَـائِـمُون (The three or more Zayds are standing) and what is similar to these examples As for الإِسْـمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْـمنْسُوبُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلَـيْهِ (the noun to which something is ascribed), it is الْـمُبْتَدَأ and الـْمَنْسُوبُ (the noun which has been ascribed), it is الْـخَبْر.

Arabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَالــْمُبْتَدَأُ‏‮ ‬‬قِسْمَانِ‏‮ ‬‬ظَاهِرٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَمُضْمَرٌ‏‮ ‬‬فَالظَّاهِرُ‏‮ ‬‬مَا تَقَدَّمَ‏‮ ‬‬ذِكْرُهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْـمُضْمَرُ‏‮ ‬‬إثْنَا عَشَرَ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬أَنَا وَنَحْنُ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَنْتَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَنْتِ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَنْتُمَا وَأَنْتُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَنْتُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَهُوَ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬وَهُمَا‏‮  ‬‬وَهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَهُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬أَنَا قَائِمٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَنَحْنُ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمُونَ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا أَشْبَهَ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِكَ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

وَالــْـمُبْتَدَأُ (And the subject) قِـسْمَانِ (is of two kinds) ظَـاهِرٌ (a clearly distinct noun) مُضْمَرٌ (a pronoun). فـَالظَّاهِرُ (And so the clearly distinct noun) مَا تَقَدَّمَ‏‮ ‬‬ذِكْـرُهُ (is that which has been mentioned previously) وَالْـمُضْمَرُ (and the pronouns) إثْنَا عَشَر (are twelve) – ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬(and they  are):

أَنَا وَنَحْنُ‏‮ ‬‬وَأنْتَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَنْتِ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَنْتُمَا وَأَتنْتُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَنْتُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَهُو وَهِِِيَ‏‮ ‬‬وَهُمَا وَهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَهُنَّ

نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ‏ (like when you say): أَنَا قَائِمٌ (I am standing) وَنَحْنُ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمُونَ (and We are standing) and what is similar to that.

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إن الـمبتدأ قسمان قسم ظاهر كقولك زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَالزَّيدَانِ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمَانِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالزَّيدُونَ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمُونَ‏‮ ‬‬وقسم مضمر وهو أربعة عشرضميرًا كقولك هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬وهُمَا وهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬وهُمَا وهُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وأَنْتَ‏‮  ‬‬وَأَنْتُمَا وأَنْتُم وأَنْتِ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَنْتُمَا وأَنْتُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَنَا وَنَحْنُ‏‮ ‬‬وَمثال وقوعها مبتدأ قولك هَوَ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمٌ‏‮ ‬‬هُمَا قَائِمََانِ‏‮ ‬‬هُمْ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمُونَ‏‮ ‬‬وقِسْ‏‮ ‬‬على هذا مَا بقي‏‮ ‬‬منها مذكَّرًا ومؤنثًا‏‮    ‬‬

الــمُـبْتَدَأُ (The subject) is of two kinds.  ظاهِـرُ (a clearly distinct noun)  – like when you say:  زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمُ and الزَيْدَانِ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمَان and الزَيْدُونَ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمُونَ.  Another kind is a pronoun of which there are fourteen – like when you say:

هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬وهُمَا وهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬وهُمَا وهُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وأَنْتَ‏‮  ‬‬وَأَنْتُمَا وأَنْتُم‏‮ ‬وأَنْتِ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَنْتُمَا وأَنْتُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَنَا وَنَحْنُ‏‮ ‬‬

– like when you say: هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمٌ (He stood), ‏‮ ‬‬هُـمَا قَـائِمَانَ (They [The two of them] stood),  هُـمْ‏‮ ‬‬قَـائِـمُونَ (They stood [three or more males] and it is the same for the rest of the male and female forms of these pronouns .

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَالـْخَبْرُ‏‮ ‬‬قِسْمَانِ‏‮ ‬‬مُفْرَدٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَغَيْرُ‏‮ ‬‬مُفرَدٍ‏‮ ‬‬فَالـْمُفْرَدُ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَغَيْرُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُفْرَدِ‏‮ ‬‬أَرْبَعَةُ‏‮ ‬‬أَشْيَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الْـجَارُّ‏‮ ‬‬وَالـْمَجَرُورُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالظَّرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬مَعَ‏‮ ‬‬فَاعِلِهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالـْمُبْتَدَأُ‏‮ ‬‬مَعَ‏‮ ‬‬خَبَرِهِ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬وَزَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬عِنْدَكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَزَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬أَبُوهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَزَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬جَارِيَتُهُ‏‮ ‬‬ذَاهِبَةٌ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

وَالـْخَبْرُ (The predicate is) قِسْمَانِ‏ (of two kinds): مُفْرَدٌ (singular) ؤَغَـيْرُ‏  مُـفْردِ (and other than singular). ‏  فَالـْـمُـفْرَدُ (As for the singular), it is like when you say: زَيْدٌ‏ قَائِمٌ (Zayd is standing) غَـيْرُ‏  الْـمُفْرَدِ (and other than singular) أَرْبَـعَةُ‏  أَشْـيَاءَ (is four things): الـْـجَّارُ‏ وَ‏الـْمَجْـرُورُ  (the preposition and the object of the preposition), وَالظَّرْفُ (and the adverb),وَالْفِعْلُ‏  مَعَ‏  فَاعلِهِ (and the verb with its doer) and وَالـْـمُبْتَدَأ مَـعَ‏  خَبَرِهِ (and the subject with its predicate) like when you say: زَيْدٌ‏  فِي‏  الدَّارِ (Zayd is in the house) وَزَيْدٌ‏ عِنْدَكَ and (Zayd is with you) وَزَيْـدٌ‏  قَـامَ‏  أَبُوهُ and (Zayd’s [his] father stood) زَيْـدٌ‏ جَـارِيَـتُهُ‏  ذَاهِـبَةٌ and (Zayd [his] servant is going / Zayd’s servant is going).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إن الخبر قسمان أيضًا قسم مفرد كقولك زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬مُقْبِلٌ‏‮ ‬‬والزَيْدَانِ‏‮ ‬‬مُقْبِلاَنِ‏‮ ‬‬والزَيْدُونَ‏‮ ‬‬مُقْبِلُونَ‏‮  ‬‬وقسم‏‮ ‬‬غير مفرد وهو أربعة أشياء أوّلها الجرّ‏‮ ‬‬والـمجرور كقولك زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬ثانيها الظّرف كقولك زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬عِنْدَكَ‏‮ ‬‬ثالثها الفعل مع فاعله كقولك زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬أَبُوه رابعها الـمبتدأ مع خبره كقولك زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬جَارِيَتُهُ‏‮ ‬‬ذَاهِبَة

Explanation  in English:

الخبر (the predicate) is of two kinds‏‮ ‬‬also.  One kind consists of one word – like when you say: زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬مُقْبِلٌ (Zayd is coming) and الزَيْدَانِ‏‮ ‬‬مُقْبِلاَنِ (The two Zayds are coming) and الزَيْـدُونَ‏‮ ‬‬مُـقْبِلُونَ  (The Zayds [three or more] are coming) and another kind consists of more than one word and it is of four types.  The first of them is الـْجَـرُّ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَجْـرُورُ (the preposition and the object of the preposition) – as you would say: زَيْـدٌ‏‮ ‬‬فِـي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ (Zayd is in the house).  The second of them is الظَّرْف (the adverb) like when you say: زَيْـدٌ‏‮ ‬‬عِـنْدَكَ (Zayd is with you).  The third of them is الْفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬مَعَ‏‮ ‬‬فَاعِلِهِ (the verb along with its doer) like when you say: زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬أَبُوهُ (Zayd – his father stood, [that is to say: Zayd’s father stood]).   The fourth of them is الـْمُبْتَدَأ مَعَ‏‮ ‬‬خَبَرِه (the subject with its predicate) like when you say:   زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬جَارِيَتُهُ‏‮ ‬‬ذَاهِبَةٌ (Zayd – his servant is going [that is to say: Zayd’s servant is going]).

Published in: on January 29, 2011 at 16:49  Leave a Comment  

تُـفَاصِيلُ شهادة (Shahaadah in Detail): Entails Forty Matters of ʿAqīdah (Belief)

An Explanation of the First Foundational Principle [Pillar] of Islam

تُـفَاصِيلُ شهادة (Shahaadah in Detail): Entails Forty Matters of ʿAqīdah (Belief)

The following things are matters of belief (ʿaqiidah) that have been taken from the book الإعْـلاَمُ‮ ‬بِـحُـدُودِ‮ ‬قَـوَائِدِ‮ ‬الإسْـلاَمِ ([Advice Concerning the Rules of the Foundational Principles of Islam]) by Qaadī ʿIyaad.  These foundational principles which are the basis of faith should be known by anyone who wants to become a Muslim, by the new Muslim and the one who has been a Muslim for a while and by the one who has been a Muslim since birth.

The first and most important foundational principle (قاعِدَة) of Islam is the declaration of الشهادتين (the two shahaadahs [1. There is no god in existence besides Allah 2. Prophet Muhammad is His last Messenger]). There is no doubt that what is linked to these two shahaadahs is belief in them both with ones heart and the expression of them both with ones tongue.

Qaadī ʿIyaad said,

تُـفَاصِيلُهَا أَرْبَعْونَ  عَـقِيدَةً (It [Shahaadah] in detail consists of forty matters of belief):

عَشَرٌ‮ ‬يُعْتَقَدُ‮ ‬وُجُـوبُـهَا (Ten are [matters of belief] which are necessary for the believer to believe), وَعَشَـرَ‮ ‬يُـعْتَقَدُ‮ ‬اسْـتِحَالَتُهَا (ten are [matters of belief] which the believer must believe are impossible),  وَعَشَـرَ‮ ‬يَـتَحَقَّقُ‮ ‬وُجُـودُهَـا (ten are [matters of belief] which have been confirmed), وَعَشَـرَ مُـتَّيَقَنُ وُرُودُهَا (and ten are [matters of belief] which are certain to occur.) ‮.

 

فَالْعَشَرُ  الْوَاجِبَاتُ (The ten things that are necessary to believe [about Allah are]):

أَنْ‮ ‬يُعْتَقَدَ‮ ‬أَنَّ‮ ‬اللّهَ‮ ‬وَاحِدٌ‮ ‬غَـيْرُ‮ ‬مُـنْقَسِمٍ‮ ‬فِـي‮ ‬ذَاتِـهِ‮ ‬-‮ ‬1 (to believe that Allah is One, Undivided in His essence);

2 – وَأَنَّهُ  لَـيْسَ  مَـعَهُ  ثَـانٍ  فِـي  إِلاَهِـيَتِهِ (and that there is no partner [other deity]) with Him in His Divine Existence;

3 –   وَأَنَّهُ  حَيٌّ  قَيُّومٌ (and that He is Ever-living, Self Subsisting);

4 – لاَ‮ ‬تَـأَخُذُهُ‮ ‬سِتَةٌ‮ ‬وَلا نَوْمٌ‮ ‬ (neither slumber nor sleep overcome Him);

5 –  وَأَنَّهُ  إِلَـاـهُ  كُلِّ  شَيْءٍ  وخَالِقُهُ (and that He is the God of everything and its Creator);

6 – وَأَنَّهُ  عَلَى كُلِّ  شَيْءٍ  قَدِيرٌ (and that He has power over everything);

7 – أَنَّهُ  عَالِمٌ  بِـمَا ظَهَرَ  وَمَا بَطَنَ (and that He knows what is seen and what is hidden):

((… لاَ  يَعْزُبُ  عَنْ  مِثْقَالُ  ذَرَّةٍ  فِي  السَّمــاوَاتِ  وَلاَ  فِي  الاَرْضِ )) [“…The weight of an atom is not hidden from Him neither  in the heavens or the Earth” 34:3 / سبإ: ٣])

8 – وَأَنَّهُ  مْدَبِّرٌ  لِكُلِّ  شَيْءٍ  كَائِنٍ  مِنْ  خَيْرٍ  أَوْ  شَرٍّ  مَا شَاءَ  كَانَ  وَمَا لَمْ  يَشَأَ  لَمْ  يَكُنْ (and that He is the Designer of everything in existence whether good or evil; what He wills exist and what He hasn’t willed doesn’t exist);

9 – إِنَّهُ  سَمِيعٌ  بَصِيرٌ  مُتَكّلِّمٌ  بِغَيْرِ  جَارِحَةٍ  وَلاَ  آلَةٍ  بَلْ  سَمْعُهُ  وَبَصْرُهُ  وَكَلاَمُهُ  صِفَاتٍ  لَهُ (and that He hears, sees and speaks without body parts or device. On the contrary,  His hearing, sight, and speech are His attributes);

10 – لاَ تُشُبِهُ صِفَاتُهُ  الصِّفَاتِ  كَمَا لاَ  تُشُبِهُ  ذَاتُهُ  الذَّوَاتِ (His Attributes are not resembled by any other attributes, likewise His Essence is not resembled by any other essence):

((… لَيْسَ  كَمِثْلِهِ  شَيْءٌ  وَهُو السَّمِيعُ  الْبَصِيرُ)) [“…Nothing resembles Him, and He is the Hearer and the Seer” 42:11الشورى: ١١]);


الْعَشَـرُ‮ ‬الْـمُسْـتَحِيلاَتُ (The ten matters of belief which the believer must believe are impossible [in regards to Allah]):

1 – أَنْ  يُـعْتَقَدَ  أَنَّهُ  تَـعَالَـى  يَسْـتَحِيلُ  عَـلَيهِ  الْـحُـدُوثُ (to believe it is impossible that there was a beginning to Allah the Most High’s existence)

2 – وَالْعَدَمُ  بَلْ  هَوَ  تَعَالَى بِصِفَاتِهِ  وَأَسْمَائهِ  قَدِيـمٌ  بَاقٍ  دَائِمُ  الْوُجُودِ (and to believe it is impossible that there is an end to Allah’s existence. On the contrary, He the Most High with His Attributes and His Names is an Everlasting, Eternal Existence:

(( قَائِمٌ  عَلَى كُلِّ  نَفْسٍ  بِـمَا  كَسَبَتْ)) […watching over every soul in what it earns 13:33 / الرعد: ٣٣]);

لَيْسَ  لَهُ  أَوَّلٌ  وَلاَ  آخِرٌ  بَلْ  (He has no beginning nor end). On the contrary:

(( هُوَ  الأَوَّلُ  وَلآخِرُ )) [He is the First and the Last 57:3 / الحديد: ٣]);

3 – وَأَنَّهُ  لاَ  إِلـاـهَ  سِوَاهُ (and that There is no god other than Him:

(( لَوْ  كَانَ  فِهِمَا آلِهَةُ  إِلاَّ  اللهُ  لَقَسَدَتَا )) [If there were gods other than Allah, over them (the heavens and the Earth), there would have been chaos in them 21:22 / الأنبياء: ٢٢ ]);

4 -وَأَنَّهُ  مُسْـتَغْنٍ  عَنْ  جَـمِيعِ  خَـلقِهِ  غَـيْرُ  مُحْتَاجٍ  إلَـى ظَهِـيرٍ  فِي  مُـلْكِهِ (and that He is independent of  His entire creation without need of a Helper in His Rulership);

5 – وَأَنَّهُ  لاَ  يَـشْغَلُهُ  شَـأْنٌ  عَـنْ  شَـأْنٍ  فِـي  قَضَائِـهِ  وَأَمْـرِهِ (and that one affair does not take away His attention from another with regards to His divine decree and His command);

6 -‮ ‬وَأَنَّهُ‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬يَحْوِيهِ‮ ‬مَكَانٌ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬سَمَـاواتِهِ‮ ‬ولاَأَرْضِهِ‮ ‬بَلْ‮ ‬هُوَ‮ ‬كَمَا كَانَ‮ ‬قَبْلَ‮ ‬خَلْقِ‮ ‬الْـمَكَانِ‮ ‬(and that There is no location in His heavens or in His earth that contains Him. On the contrary, He is as He was before the creation of place;

7 – وَأَنَّهُ  لَيْسَ  بِجَوْهَرٍ  وَلاَ  جِسْمٍ  وَلاَ  عَلَى صُورَةٍ  وَلاَ  شَكْلٍ  وَلاَ  لَهُ  شَبِيهٌ  وَلاَ  مَثْيلٌ  بَلْ  هُوَ  الأَحَدُ  الصَّمَدُ  الذِي  لَمْ  يَلِدْ  وَلَمْ  يُولَدْ وَلَمْ  يَكُن لَهُ  كُفُوًا احَدٌ (and that He is neither substance nor body, nor shape, nor form, nor is there a likeness or example for Him. On the contrary, He is the One, the Eternal Who did not originate from any source, and He didn’t father any children, and there is none comparable to Him;

8 – وَأَنَّهُ  لاَ  تَـحُلُّهُ  الْحَوَادثُ  وَلاَ  التُّغْيِيرَاتُ  وَلاَ  تَلْحَقُهُ  النَّقَائِصُ  وَلاَ  الآقاتُ (and that events, nor change do not overcome Him, and defect and damage do not reach Him);

9 – وَأَنَّهُ  لاَ  يَلِيقُ  بِهِ  الظُّلْمُ  بَلْ  قُضَاؤُهُ  كُلُّهُ  حِكْمَةٌ  وَعَدْلٌ (and that injustice would be unbefitting for Him. On the contrary, all of His decree is wisdom and justice);

10 –  ‬وَأَنَّهُ  لَيْسَ  شَيْءٌ  مِنْ  أَفْعَالِ  خَلِيقَتِهِ  بِغَيْرِ  قَضَائِهِ  وَخَلْقِهِ  وَإِزَادَتِهِ بَل (that none of the actions of the creation is outside of His decree, His creation and His will. On the contrary:

((تَـمَّتْ  كَلِمَتُ  رَبِّكَ  صِدْقًا عَدْلًا لاَ  مُبَدِّلَ  لِـكَلِمَاتِهِ )) [“The words of your Lord come to pass with truth and justice. There is no changing of His words” 6:115 /الأنعام: ١١٥ ]);

((يُـضِلُّ مَـن يَـشَاءُ وَيَهْـدِي مَـن يَشَاءُ)) [He leads astray whom He pleases and He guides whom He pleases 35:8 / فاطر: ٨];


‮((‬لَا‮ ‬يُسْأَلُ‮ ‬عَمَّا‮ ‬يَفْعَلُ‮ ‬وَهُمْ‮ ‬يُسْأَلُونَا‮))‬ [“He is not questioned about what He does while they will be questioned” 21:23 / الأنبياء: ٢٣].


الْعَشَـرُ  الْـمُتَحَقٍّقُ  وُجُودُهَا (Ten things which the occurrence of them  has been confirmed )

1 – أَنْ  يُـعْتَقَدَ  أَنَّ  اللهََ  تَعَالَى أَرْسَلَ  لِعِبَادِهِ  أَنْـمــبِيَاءَهُ  وَرُسُلَهُ (to believe that Allah the Most High sent His prophets and messengers to His slaves);

2 – وَأَنَّهُ  أَنْرَلَ  عَلَيْهِمْ  آيَاتِهِ  كُتُبَهُ (and that He revealed to them His signs and His Books);

3 – وَأَنَّهُ  خَـتَمَ  الرِّسَـالَـةَ  بِـمُحَـمَّدٍ  نَبِيِّنَا صلَّى اللهُ  عَلَيْهِ  وَسَـلَّمَ (and that He ended the sending of messengers with Muhammad our Prophet, May Allah send prayers and peace upon him);

4 – وَأَنَّهُ  أَنْزَلَ  عَلَيْهِ  القُرْءانَ  هُدًى لِلنَّاسِ  وَبَيِّنَاتٍ  مِّنَ  الْهُدَىٰ  وَالْفُرْقَانِ (and that He revealed the Qur’an to them as guidance to the human being and that which clarifies and distinguishes between truth and falsehood);

5 – وَأَنَّهُ  كَلاَمُ  رَبِّنَا لَيْسَ  بِـمَخْلوقٍ (and that the speech of our Lord is not created;

6 – وَأَنَّهُ  عَلَيْهِ  الصَّلاَةُ   وَالسَّلاَمُ  فِيمَا أَخْبَرَ  بِهِ  صَادِِقٌ (and that the Prophet prayer and peace be upon him was truthful about everything he said);

7 – وَأَنَّ  شَرِيعَتَهُ  نَاسِخَةٌ  لِـجَمِيعِ  الشَّرَائِعِ (and that His [Allah’s] Sharīʿah [Divine Law] abrogates all other laws);

8 -وَأَنَّ  الْـجِنّةَ  حَقٌّ  وَالنَّارَ  حَقٌّ (and that Paradise is real and the Fire is real);

9 – وَأَنَّهُمَّا مَوْجُودَتَانِ  لِأَهْلِ  الشَّقَاءِ  وَالسَّعَادَتِ  مُعَدَّتَانِ (and that the two of them [the Garden and the Fire] have been created for the people of misery and the people of happiness);

10 – وَأَنَّ  الْـمَلاَئِكَةَ  حَقٌّ  مِنّهُمْ  حَفَظَةٌ  يَكْتُبُونَ  أَعْمَالَ  الْعِبَادِ  وَمِنْهُمْ  رُسُلُ  اللهِ  إِلَى الأَنـمـبِيَاءِ  وَ (( مَلَائِكَةٌ  غِلَاظٌ  شِدَادٌ  لاَّ  يَعْصُونَ الله مَا أَمَرَهُمْ  وَيَفْعَلُونَ  مَا  يُؤْمَرُونَ )) (and that the angels are real, from among them are those record the actions of the slaves of Allah, while others from among them are messengers to the prophets of Allah and:

(( مَلَائِكَةٌ  غِلَاظٌ  شِدَادٌ  لَّا  يَعْصُونَ  الله مَا أَمَرَهُمْ  وَيَفْعَلُونَ  مَا  يُؤْمَرُونَ )) [angels stern and strong, they do not disobey Allah in what He commands them, and do as they are commanded. 66:6 / التحريم: ٦]).


الْعَشَـرُُالْـمُـتَّيَقَنُ وُرُودُهَا (The ten are [matters of belief] which are certain to occur)

1 – أَنْ  تَعْتَقَدَ  أَنَّ  الدُّنْيَا فَانِيَةٌ  وَ (that you believe that the world will come to an end) and:

(( كُلُّ  مَنْ  عَلَيْهَا فَانٍ)) [“Everything in it will perish” 55: 26 / الرحمن: ٢٦];

2 – وَأَنَّ  الْـخَلْقَ  يَفْتَتُونَ  فِي  قُبُورِهِمْ  وَيُتَعَّمُنَ  وَيُعَذَّبُونَ (and that the people will be questioned in their graves, and they will be given ease and they will be punished [therein]);

3 – وَأَنَّ  الله تَعَالَى  يَحْشُرُهُمْ  يَوْمَ  الْقِيَامَةِ  كَامَا بَدَأَهُمْ  يَعُودُونَ (and that Allah the Most High will gather them on the Day of Rising. As He created them they will return);

4 – وَأَنَّ  الْـحِسَابَ  حَقٌّ  وَالْـمِزَانَ حَقٌّ (and that al-Hisaab [the Final Accounting] is real and al-Mizaan [the Scale] is real);

5 – وَأَنَّ  الصِّرَاطَ  حَقٌّ (and aṣ-Ṣiraaṭ [the Bridge over the Hell-fire] is real);

6 – وَأَنَّ  الْـحَوضَ  حَقٌّ (and that the Ḥawḍ [the Prophet’s drinking pond] is real);

7 – وَأَنَّ  الأَبْرَارَ  فِي  الْـجِنَّةِ  فِي  نَعِيمٍ (and the people who guarded their duty to Allah will be in the Garden of happiness);

8 – وَأَنَّ  الْكُفَّارِ  فِي النَّارِ جَحِِيمٍ (and the disbeliever will be in the fire of Hell);

9 – وَأَنَّ الْـمُومِنِينَ  يَرَوْنَ  اللهَ  عَزَّ  وَجَلَّ  بِأبْصَارِهِمْ  فِي الآخِرَةِ (and that the believers will see Allah – High and Mighty is He – in the Hereafter);

10 – ‬وَأَنَّ  اللهَ  تَعَالىَ  يُعَذِّبُ  بِالنَّارِ  مَنْ  يَشَاءُ  مِنْ  أَهَلِ  الْكَبَائِرِ  مِنَ  الْـُمُومِنِىنَ  وَيَغْفِرُ  لِـمَنْ  يَشَاءُ  وَيْخرِجُهُمْ  مِنَ  النَّارِ  إِلَى الْـجِنَّةِ بِفَضلِ  رَحْمَتِهِ  وَشَفَاعَةِ  الأَنــمـبِيَاءِ  وَالصَّالِـحِينَ  مِنْ  عِبَادِهِ  حَتَّى لاَ  يَبْقَى فِي  جَهَنَّمَ  إِلاَّ  الْكَافِرُونَ (and that Allah the Most High will punish with fire those whom He please. He will remove them from the Fire to the Garden, through the favor of His mercy and the intercessions of his prophets and the righteous people from among his slaves, until no one remains in Jahannam (Hell) except the disbelievers:

(( إنَّ  اللهَ  لاَ  يَغْفِرُأَنْ  يُّشْرَكَ  بِهِ  وَيَغْفِرُمَا دُونَ  ذَلِكَ  لِـمَنْ  يَشَاءُ )) [“Surely Allah does not forgive the association of partners with Him while He forgives what is below that, whomever He pleases” 4:48 / النساء:  ٤٨].


.


Fiqh of Minorities (Part 1)

From Mahdi Lock’s Blog

Fiqh of Minorities (Part 1)

By Sheikh Muhammad Saʿīd Ramaḍān Al-Būti

It is not a coincidence that the call to ‘Fiqh of Minorities’ has come together with the plan aimed a dividing Islam.” [1]

In an age in which the leaders of the ideological attack are planning, throughout the world, to divide the single global Islam into various local “Islams”, that differ and are in conflict with one another, [this ideological attack] follows in succession the voices calling to “Fiqh of Minorities” and these [two ideas] grant legitimacy to one another. In clarification of the matter, [Fiqh of Minorities] is nothing other than an Islamic garb that is appropriate for the Islam that is thriving today in the west, in Europe and America, not the other Islam that is prevalent in the traditional Muslim lands.

I have inquired before: ‘What are the reasons or foundations that make it necessary to give rise to this “Fiqh of Minorities”?’

The reply was: ‘There are many: the principle of benefits…necessities permit that which is forbidden…difficulty brings about ease…nothing has been made difficult for you in this religion. [See Al-Ḥājj 22:78]

I said: ‘But these reasons are not specific to Muslims living in Europe or America, rather they are reasons for a global Islamic fiqh that does not have a particular land. There has not been a day when there have not been reasons for what is called “Fiqh of Minorities” or anything else. Wherever you find a necessity, in its known legal meaning, the causative prohibition for it is lifted. And wherever you find a difficulty that goes beyond the usual limit, a legal dispensation is undertaken to lift it. And whenever the two benefits [the lifting of the causative prohibition and the legal dispensation] are opposed in the hierarchy of the objectives of Sacred Law, the first of them takes precedence. We have not found in the Qur’an or the Sunnah, and not in the speech of any of the imams of Sacred Law, that these reasons are particular to the circumstances of minorities that are living in Dar al-Kufr[2] , and that it is not permissible for other Muslims, living in the Islamic world, to take them or use them as a basis.

I was told: ‘Indeed the necessities that create the urgent need for a special fiqh for these minorities are a result of their presence in societies that are not Islamic, and have particularities that are distinct from Islamic societies.’

I said: ‘What Islam is this that decrees that the mere presence of a Muslim in Dar al-Kufr is considered a necessity justifying the legislation of a special Islamic fiqh for him, in harmony with what surrounds him from the tendencies of kufr, iniquity, and disobedience? So why did Allah legislate emigration (hijra) and command it, from Dar al-Kufr (if it is not possible for a Muslim to apply the rulings of Islam in it) to Dar al-Islam? Why didn’t the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, and his Companions, when they were in the midst of the polytheists in Mecca, depend on that which he did not know, called “Fiqh of Minorities”?

If the mere presence of Muslims in Dar al-Kufr brings about the necessity, justifying the creation of a new fiqh that is appropriate to those lands and those in them, then who are those whom Allah, Exalted is He, said regarding them:

“When the angels seized the souls of those who were doing wrong to their own souls, they asked them: “What was the matter with you?” They answered: “We were oppressed in the land.” The angels replied: “Was not Allah’s earth spacious for you to emigrate in it?” Hell is the abode of such people and it is a very evil abode indeed.” [An-Nisāʾ 4:97]?

And we were rejoicing because of the gradual increase of Muslims in the west, with their adherence to Islam and upholding of its rulings, causing the dissolution of the deviating Western civilization, dissolving in the stream of the Islamic civilization.

But we today, in the shadow of this beautiful call to what is known as “Fiqh of Minorities”, know that we are threatened with the opposite of what we were rejoicing about. We are threatened with the dissolution of the Islamic presence in the stream of the deviating Western civilization, and this fiqh is responsible.

[1] This was Sheikh Al-Būti’s Word for the Month for June, 2001.

[2] According to Imām ibn Mufliḥ al-Ḥanbalī in Al-Adāb ash-Sharʿiyyah [v.1 pp.191-92], Dār al-Kufr are the lands in which the laws of kufr are predominant, while Dār al-Islām are the lands in which the laws of Islam are predominant.

[This article is more or less the same as the one on marifah.net. However, the second article, with all the original footnotes, will insha’Allah be re-published next month on this blog as well as the Madani Timbukti blog.]

Translated by Mahdi Lock. Click here for: Original Arabic Version

 

Posted by Mahdi Lock at 21:25
Labels: 

Published in: on January 12, 2011 at 01:14  Leave a Comment  

الأَدْعِيَةُ مِنَ الْـقُرْءَانِ (Supplications [Duʿah] from the Qur’an)

الأَدْعِيَةُ‮ ‬مِنَ‮ ‬الْـقُرْءَانِ‮ ‬

أَدْعِيَةُ‮ ‬الْـمُومِنِينَ

1‮ ‬رَبَّنَا‮ ‬تَقَبَّلْ‮ ‬مِنَّا إِنَّكَ‮ ‬أَنتَ‮ ‬السَّمِيعُ‮ ‬الْعَلِيمُ‮ ‬

2‮ ‬رَبَّنَا‮ ‬وَاجْعَلْنَا مُسْلِمَيْنِ‮ ‬لَكَ‮ ‬وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِنَا أُمَّةً‮ ‬مُّسْلِمَةً‮ ‬لَّكَ‮ ‬وَأَرِنَا مَنَاسِكَنَا وَتُبْ‮ ‬عَلَيْنَا إِنَّكَ‮ ‬أَنتَ‮ ‬التَّوَّابُ‮ ‬الرَّحِيمُ

3‮ ‬رَبَّنَا‮ ‬وَابْعَثْ‮ ‬فِيهِمْ‮ ‬رَسُولاً‮ ‬مِّنْهُمْ‮ ‬يَتْلُو عَلَيْهِمْ‮ ‬آيَاتِكَ‮ ‬وَيُعَلِّمُهُمُ‮ ‬الْكِتَابَ‮ ‬وَالْحِكْمَةَ‮ ‬وَيُزَكِّيهِمْ‮ ‬إِنَّكَ‮ ‬أَنتَ‮ ‬العَزِيزُ‮ ‬الحَكِيمُ

(‬رَبَّنَا لاَ‮ ‬تجْعَلْنَا مَعَ‮ ‬الْقَوْمِ‮ ‬الظَّالمِينَ‮ ‬الَّذِينَ‮ ‬قَالُواْ‮ …‬‮) 4 ‬رَبَّنَا‮ ‬آتِنَا فِي‮ ‬الدُّنْيَا وَمَا لَهُ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬الآخِرَةِ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬خَلاَقٍ

(‬رَبَّنَا‮ ‬تجْعَلْنَا مَعَ‮ ‬الْقَوْمِ‮ ‬الصَّلِـحِينَ‮ ‬الَّذِينَ‮ ‬قَالُواْ‮ …‬‮) 5 رَبَّنَا‮ ‬آتِنَا فِي‮ ‬الدُّنْيَا حَسَنَةً‮ ‬وَفِي‮ ‬الآخِرَةِ‮ ‬حَسَنَةً‮ ‬وَقِنَا عَذَابَ‮ ‬النَّارِ‮ ‬

6‮ ‬رَبَّنَا‮ ‬أَفْرِغْ‮ ‬عَلَيْنَا صَبْراً‮ ‬وَثَبِّتْ‮ ‬أَقْدَامَنَا وَانصُرْنَا عَلَى الْقَوْمِ‮ ‬الْكَافِرِينَ

7‮ ‬رَبَّنَا‮ ‬وَإِلَيْكَ‮ ‬الْمَصِيرُ‮ ‬

8‮ ‬رَبَّنَا‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬تُؤَاخِذْنَا إِن نَّسِينَا أَوْ‮ ‬أَخْطَأْنَا

9‮ ‬رَبَّنَا‮ ‬وَلاَ‮ ‬تَـحْمِلْ‮ ‬عَلَيْنَا إِصْراً‮ ‬كَمَا حَمَلْتَهُ‮ ‬عَلَى الَّذِينَ‮ ‬مِن قَبْلِنَا

10‮ ‬رَبَّنَا‮ ‬وَلاَ‮ ‬تُـحَمِّـلْنَا مَا لاَ‮ ‬طَاقَةَ‮ ‬لَنَا بِهِ‮ ‬وَاعْفُ‮ ‬عَنَّا وَاغْفِرْ‮ ‬لَنَا وَارْحَمْنَا أَنتَ‮ ‬مَوْلاَنَا فَانصُرْنَا عَلَى‮ ‬الْقَوْمِ‮ ‬الْكَافِرِينَ‮ ‬

11‮ ‬رَبَّنَا‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬تُزِغْ‮ ‬قُلُوبَنَا بَعْدَ‮ ‬إِذْ‮ ‬هَدَيْتَنَا وَهَبْ‮ ‬لَنَا مِن لَّدُنكَ‮ ‬رَحْمَةً‮ ‬إِنَّكَ‮ ‬أَنتَ‮ ‬الْوَهَّابُ‮ ‬

12‮ ‬رَبَّنَا‮ ‬إِنَّكَ‮ ‬جَامِعُ‮ ‬النَّاسِ‮ ‬لِيَوْمٍ‮ ‬لاَّ‮ ‬رَيْبَ‮ ‬فِيهِ‮ ‬إِنَّ‮ ‬اللَّهَ‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬يُخْلِفُ‮ ‬الْمِيعَادَ

13‮ ‬رَبَّنَا‮ ‬إِنَّنَا آمَنَّا فَاغْفِرْ‮ ‬لَنَا ذُنُوبَنَا وَقِنَا عَذَابَ‮ ‬النَّارِ

14‮ ‬رَبَّنَا‮ ‬آمَنَّا بِمَا أَنزَلَتْ‮ ‬وَاتَّبَعْنَا الرَّسُولَ‮ ‬فَاكْتُبْنَا مَعَ‮ ‬الشَّاهِدِينَ

15‮ ‬رَبَّنَا‮ ‬مَا خَلَقْتَ‮ ‬هَذا بَاطِلاً‮ ‬سُبْحَانَكَ‮ ‬فَقِنَا عَذَابَ‮ ‬النَّارِ‮ ‬

16‮ ‬رَبَّنَا‮ ‬إِنَّكَ‮ ‬مَن تُدْخِلِ‮ ‬النَّارَ‮ ‬فَقَدْ‮ ‬أَخْزَيْتَهُ‮ ‬وَمَا لِلظَّالِمِينَ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬أَنصَارٍ

17‮ ‬رَبَّنَا‮ ‬فَاغْفِرْ‮ ‬لَنَا ذُنُوبَنَا وَكَفِّرْ‮ ‬عَنَّا سَيِّئَاتِنَا وَتَوَفَّنَا مَعَ‮ ‬الأبْرَارِ

18‮ ‬رَبَّنَا‮ ‬وَآتِنَا مَا وَعَدتَّنَا عَلَى رُسُلِكَ‮ ‬وَلاَ‮ ‬تُخْزِنَا‮ ‬يَوْمَ‮ ‬الْقِيَامَةِ‮ ‬إِنَّكَ‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬تُخْلِفُ‮ ‬الْمِيعَادَ

19‮ ‬رَبَّنَا‮ ‬أَخْرِجْنَا مِنْ‮ ‬هَـذِهِ‮ ‬الْقَرْيَةِ‮ ‬الظَّالِمِ‮ ‬أَهْلُهَا وَاجْعَل لَّنَا مِن لَّدُنكَ‮ ‬وَلِيّاً‮ ‬وَاجْعَل لَّنَا مِن لَّدُنكَ‮ ‬نَصِيراً‮ ‬

20‮ ‬رَبَّنَا‮ ‬لِمَ‮ ‬كَتَبْتَ‮ ‬عَلَيْنَا الْقِتَالَ‮ ‬لَوْلا أَخَّرْتَنَا إِلَى أَجَلٍ‮ ‬قَرِيبٍ‮ ‬قُلْ‮ ‬مَتَاعُ‮ ‬الدَّنْيَا قَلِيلٌ‮ ‬وَالآخِرَةُ‮ ‬خَيْرٌ‮ ‬لِّمَنِ‮ ‬اتَّقَى وَلاَ‮ ‬تُظْلَمُونَ‮ ‬فَتِيلاً‮ ‬

21‮ ‬رَبَّنَا‮ ‬آمَنَّا فَاكْتُبْنَا مَعَ‮ ‬الشَّاهِدِينَ

22‮ ‬وَنَطْمَعُ‮ ‬أَن‮ ‬يُدْخِلَنَا‮ ‬رَبَّنَا‮ ‬مَعَ‮ ‬الْقَوْمِ‮ ‬الصَّالِـحِنَے

23‮ ‬رَبَّنَا‮ ‬أَنزِلْ‮ ‬عَلَيْنَا مَآئِدَةً‮ ‬مِّنَ‮ ‬السَّمَاءِ‮ ‬تَكُونُ‮ ‬لَنَا عِيداً‮ ‬لِّأَوَّلِنَا وَآخِرِنَا وَآيَةً‮ ‬مِّنكَ‮ ‬وَارْزُقْنَا وَأَنتَ‮ ‬خَيْرُ‮ ‬الرَّازِقِينَ‮ ‬

24‮ ‬رَبَّنَا‮ ‬اسْتَمْتَعَ‮ ‬بَعْضُنَا بِبَعْضٍ‮ ‬وَبَلَغْنَا أَجَلَنَا الَّذِيَ‮ ‬أَجَّلْتَ‮ ‬لَنَا

25‮ ‬رَبَّنَا‮ ‬ظَلَمْنَا أَنفُسَنَا وَإِن لَّمْ‮ ‬تَغْفِرْ‮ ‬لَنَا وَتَرْحَمْنَا لَنَكُونَنَّ‮ ‬مِنَ‮ ‬الْخَاسِرِينَ

26‮ ‬رَبَّنَا‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬تَجْعَلْنَا مَعَ‮ ‬الْقَوْمِ‮ ‬الظَّالِمِينَ

27‮ ‬رَبَّنَا‮ ‬افْتَحْ‮ ‬بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَ‮ ‬قَوْمِنَا بِالْحَقِّ‮ ‬وَأَنتَ‮ ‬خَيْرُ‮ ‬الْفَاتِحِينَ

28‮  ‬رَبَّنَا‮ ‬أَفْرِغْ‮ ‬عَلَيْنَا صَبْراً‮ ‬وَتَوَفَّنَا مُسْلِمِينَ‮ ‬

29‮ ‬رَبَّنَا‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬تجْعَلْنَا فِتْنَةً‮ ‬لِّلْقَوْمِ‮ ‬الظَّالِمِينَ‮ ‬

30‮ ‬رَبَّنَا‮ ‬إِنَّكَ‮ ‬آتَيْتَ‮ ‬فِرْعَوْنَ‮ ‬وَمَلأهُ‮ ‬زِينَةً‮ ‬وَأَمْوَالاً‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬الْحَيَاةِ‮ ‬الدُّنْيَا‮ ‬رَبَّنَا‮ ‬لِيُضِلُّواْ‮ ‬عَن سَبِيلِكَ‮ ‬رَبَّنَا‮ ‬اطْمِسْ‮ ‬عَلَى أَمْوَالِهِمْ‮ ‬وَاشْدُدْ‮ ‬عَلَى قُلُوبِهِمْ‮ ‬فَلاَ‮ ‬يُؤْمِنُواْ‮ ‬حَتَّى‮ ‬يَرَوُاْ‮ ‬الْعَذَابَ‮ ‬الأَلِيمَ

31‮ ‬‮ ‬رَّبَّنَا‮ ‬إِنِّي‮ ‬أَسْكَنتُ‮ ‬مِن ذُرِّيَّتِي‮ ‬بِوَادٍ‮ ‬غَيْرِ‮ ‬ذِي‮ ‬زَرْعٍ‮ ‬عِندَ‮ ‬بَيْتِكَ‮ ‬الْمُحَرَّمِ‮  ‬رَبَّنَا‮ ‬لِيُقِيمُواْ‮ ‬الصَّلاَةَ‮ ‬فَاجْعَلْ‮ ‬أَفْئِدَةً‮ ‬مِّنَ‮ ‬النَّاسِ‮ ‬تَهْوِي‮ ‬إِلَيْهِمْ‮ ‬وَارْزُقْهُم مِّنَ‮ ‬الثَّمَرَاتِ‮ ‬لَعَلَّهُمْ‮ ‬يَشْكُرُونَ‮ ‬

32‮  ‬رَبَّنَا‮ ‬إِنَّكَ‮ ‬تَعْلَمُ‮ ‬مَا نُخْفِي‮ ‬وَمَا نُعْلِنُ‮ ‬وَمَا‮ ‬يَخْفَى عَلَى اللَّهِ‮ ‬مِن شَيْءٍ‮ ‬فَي‮ ‬الأَرْضِ‮ ‬وَلاَ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬السَّمَاء

33‮ ‬رَبِّ‮ ‬اجْعَلْنِي‮ ‬مُقِيمَ‮ ‬الصَّلاَةِ‮ ‬وَمِن ذُرِّيَّتِي‮ ‬رَبَّنَا‮ ‬وَتَقَبَّلْ‮ ‬دُعَاء

34‮ ‬رَبَّنَا‮ ‬اغْفِرْ‮ ‬لِي‮ ‬وَلِوَالِدَيَّ‮ ‬وَلِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ‮ ‬يَوْمَ‮ ‬يَقُومُ‮ ‬الْحِسَابُ‮ ‬

35‮ ‬رَبَّنَا‮ ‬أَخِّرْنَا إِلَى أَجَلٍ‮ ‬قَرِيبٍ‮ ‬نُّجِبْ‮ ‬دَعْوَتَكَ‮ ‬وَنَتَّبِعِ‮ ‬الرُّسُلَ‮ ‬

36‮ ‬رَبَّنَا‮ ‬هَـؤُلاء شُرَكَآؤُنَا الَّذِينَ‮ ‬كُنَّا نَدْعُوْ‮ ‬مِن دُونِكَ‮ ‬فَألْقَوْا إِلَيْهِمُ‮ ‬الْقَوْلَ‮ ‬إِنَّكُمْ‮ ‬لَكَاذِبُونَ

37‮ ‬رَبَّنَا‮ ‬آتِنَا مِن لَّدُنكَ‮ ‬رَحْمَةً‮ ‬وَهَيِّئْ‮ ‬لَنَا مِنْ‮ ‬أَمْرِنَا رَشَداً‮ ‬

38‮ ‬رَبَّنَا‮ ‬إِنَّنَا نَخَافُ‮ ‬أَن‮ ‬يَفْرُطَ‮ ‬عَلَيْنَا أَوْ‮ ‬أَن‮ ‬يَطْغَى‮ ‬

39‮ ‬رَبَّنَا‮ ‬لَوْلاَ‮ ‬أَرْسَلْتَ‮ ‬إِلَيْنَا رَسُولاً‮ ‬فَنَتَّبِعَ‮ ‬آيَاتِكَ‮ ‬مِن قَبْلِ‮ ‬أَن نَّذِلَّ‮ ‬وَنَخْزَى

40‮ ‬رَبَّنَا‮ ‬غَلَبَتْ‮ ‬عَلَيْنَا شِقْوَتُنَا وَكُنَّا قَوْماً‮ ‬ضَالِّينَ

41‮ ‬رَبَّنَا‮ ‬أَخْرِجْنَا مِنْهَا فَإِنْ‮ ‬عُدْنَا فَإِنَّا ظَالِمُونَ‮ ‬

42‮ ‬رَبَّنَا‮ ‬آمَنَّا فَاغْفِرْ‮ ‬لَنَا وَارْحَمْنَا وَأَنتَ‮ ‬خَيْرُ‮ ‬الرَّاحِمِينَ

43‮ ‬رَبَّنَا‮ ‬اصْرِفْ‮ ‬عَنَّا عَذَابَ‮ ‬جَهَنَّمَ‮ ‬إِنَّ‮ ‬عَذَابَهَا كَانَ‮ ‬غَرَاماً‮ ‬

44‮ ‬رَبَّنَا‮ ‬هَبْ‮ ‬لَنَا مِنْ‮ ‬أَزْوَاجِنَا وَذُرِّيَّاتِنَا قُرَّةَ‮ ‬أَعْيُنٍ‮ ‬وَاجْعَلْنَا لِلْمُتَّقِينَ‮ ‬إِمَاماً‮ ‬

45 الْحَمْدُ‮ ‬لِلَّهِ‮ ‬الَّذِي‮ ‬أَذْهَبَ‮ ‬عَنَّا الْحَزَنَ‮ ‬إِنَّ‮ ‬رَبَّنَا‮ ‬لَغَفُورٌ‮ ‬شَكُورٌ

46‮  ‬رَبَّنَا‮ ‬وَسِعْتَ‮ ‬كُلَّ‮ ‬شَيْءٍ‮ ‬رَّحْمَةً‮ ‬وَعِلْماً‮ ‬فَاغْفِرْ‮ ‬لِلَّذِينَ‮ ‬تَابُوا وَاتَّبَعُوا سَبِيلَكَ‮ ‬وَقِهِمْ‮ ‬عَذَابَ‮ ‬الْجَحِيمِ

47‮  ‬رَبَّنَا‮ ‬وَأَدْخِلْهُمْ‮ ‬جَنَّاتِ‮ ‬عَدْنٍ‮ ‬الَّتِي‮ ‬وَعَدتَّهُم وَمَن صَلَحَ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬آبَائِهِمْ‮ ‬وَأَزْوَاجِهِمْ‮ ‬وَذُرِّيَّاتِهِمْ‮ ‬إِنَّكَ‮ ‬أَنتَ‮ ‬الْعَزِيزُ‮ ‬الْحَكِيمُ

48‮  ‬رَبَّنَا‮ ‬اغْفِرْ‮ ‬لَنَا وَلِإِخْوَانِنَا الَّذِينَ‮ ‬سَبَقُونَا بِالْإِيمَانِ‮ ‬وَلَا تَجْعَلْ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬قُلُوبِنَا‮ ‬غِلّاً‮ ‬لِّلَّذِينَ‮ ‬آمَنُوا رَبَّنَا إِنَّكَ‮ ‬رَؤُوفٌ‮ ‬رَّحِيمٌ

49‮ ‬رَّبَّنَا‮ ‬عَلَيْكَ‮ ‬تَوَكَّلْنَا وَإِلَيْكَ‮ ‬أَنَبْنَا وَإِلَيْكَ‮ ‬الْمَصِيرُ

50‮ ‬رَبَّنَا‮ ‬لَا تَجْعَلْنَا فِتْنَةً‮ ‬لِّلَّذِينَ‮ ‬كَفَرُوا وَاغْفِرْ‮ ‬لَنَا‮ ‬

51‮ ‬رَبَّنَا‮ ‬إِنَّكَ‮ ‬أَنتَ‮ ‬الْعَزِيزُ‮ ‬الْحَكِيمُ‮ ‬

52‮ ‬رَبَّنَا‮ ‬أَتْمِمْ‮ ‬لَنَا نُورَنَا وَاغْفِرْ‮ ‬لَنَا إِنَّكَ‮ ‬عَلَى كُلِّ‮ ‬شَيْءٍ‮ ‬قَدِيرٌ‮  ‬


 

Published in: on January 9, 2011 at 23:49  Leave a Comment  

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 8 – (The Chapter About al-Mafʿuul [The Receiver Of The Action Whose Doer Was Not Mentioned])

بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَفْعُولِ‏‮ ‬‬الَّذِي‏‮ ‬‬لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يُسَمَّ‏‮ ‬‬فَاعِلُهُ

The Chapter About al-Mafʿuul [The Receiver Of The Action Whose Doer Was Not Mentioned])

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَهُوَ‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَرْفُوعُ‏‮ ‬‬الذِي‏‮ ‬‬لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يُذْكَرْ‏‮ ‬‬مَـعَهُ‏‮ ‬‬فَاعِلُهُ‏‮ ‬‬فَـإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬كَـانَ‏‮ ‬‬الْـفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬مَاضِيًا ضُمَّ‏‮ ‬‬أَوَّلُهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَكُسِرَ‏‮ ‬‬مَا قَبْلَ‏‮ ‬‬آخِرِهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬مُضَارِعًا ضُمَّ‏‮ ‬‬أَوَّلُهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَفُتِحَ‏‮ ‬‬مَا قَبْلَ‏‮ ‬‬آخِرِهِ‏‮  ‬‬وَهُوَ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَى قِسْمَيْنِ‏‮ ‬‬ظَاهِرٍ‏‮ ‬‬وَمُضْمَرٍ‏‮ ‬‬فَالظَّاهِرُ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬ضُرِبَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَيُضْرَبُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَأُكْرِمَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٌو وَيُكْرَمُ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٌو وَالـْمُضْمَرُ‏‮ ‬‬إِثْنَا عَشَرَ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬ضُرِبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَضُرِبْنَا وَضُرِبْتَ‏‮ ‬‬وَضُرِبْتِ‏‮ ‬‬وَضُرِبْتُمَا وَضُرِبْتُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَضُرِبْتُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَضُرِبَ‏‮ ‬‬وَضُرِبَتْ‏‮ ‬‬وَضُرِبَا وَضُرِبُواْ‏‮ ‬‬وَضُرِبْنَ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

وَهُوَ ‏‮ ‬‬(And it [الـْمَفْعُولِ‏‮ ‬‬الِذِي‏‮ ‬‬لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يُسَمَّ‏‮ ‬‬فَاعِلُه – (the receiver of the action whose doer is not mentioned] is) الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَرْفُوعُ (the noun in the case of rafʿ) الذِي‏‮ ‬‬لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يُذْكَرْ‏‮ ‬‬مَعَهُ (which does not have mentioned with it) ‏‮ ‬‬فَـاعِـلُه(its doer). فَـإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬كَـانَ‏‮ ‬‬الْـفِعْلُ (And therefore,‏‮ ‬‬if the verb is) مَـاضِـيًا (in the past), ضُـمَّ‏‮ ‬‬أَوَّلُـهُ (ḍammah is placed on its first (letter) وَكُسِرَ‏‮ ‬‬مَا قَبْلَ‏‮ ‬‬آخِرِهِ (and kasrah is placed on its next to last letter). وَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬كَـانَ (and if it is) مُـضَارِعًـا (a present tense verb), ضُـمَّ‏‮ ‬‬أَوَّلُـهُ (ammah is placed on its first letter) وَفُـتِحَ‏‮ ‬‬مَا قَـبْلَ‏‮ ‬‬آخِـرِهِ (and fat-ḥah is placed on its next to last letter). ‏‮ ‬‬وَهُـوَ‏‮ ‬‬(And it [الـْمَفْعُولِ‏‮ ‬‬الِذِي‏‮ ‬‬لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يُـسَمَّ‏‮ ‬‬فَاعِلُه (the receiver of the action whose doer is not mentioned)] is) عَـلَى قِـسْمَيْنِ (of two kinds): ظَـاهِـر (a clearly distinct noun) and مُـضْمَر (an object pronoun). فَالظَّاهِرُ (And so the clearly distinct noun) نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ (is like when you say): ضُـرِبَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدٌ (Zayd was beaten…) وَيُضْرَبُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ and (Zayd is beaten…) وَأُكْـرِمُ‏ عَـمْرٌو and (ʿAmr was treated kindly) and وَيُـكْرَمُ‏‮ ‬‬ عَمْرٌو and (ʿAmr is treated kindly). الْـمُضْمَرُ (the object pronouns are) إِثْـنَا عَشَـرَ (twelve [in number]).

They are:

ضُرِبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَضُرِبْنَا وَضُرِبْتَ‏‮ ‬‬وَضُرِبْتِ‏‮ ‬‬وَضُرِبْتُمَا وَضُرِبْتُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَضُرِبْتُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَضُرِبَ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏ضُرِبَتْ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬ضُرِبَا وَ‏ضُرِبُواْ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏ضُرِبْنَّ

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إن الـمفعول الذي‏‮ ‬‬لم‏‮ ‬‬يُسمّ‏‮ ‬‬فاعله هو الإسم الـمرفوع الذي‏‮ ‬‬لم‏‮ ‬‬يذكر معه فاعله إمّا للجهل به وإمّا لغرَضٍ‏‮ ‬‬من الأغراض مثاله ضُرِبَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٌو إمّا أن كنت جاهلاً‏‮ ‬‬بمن ضربه أو لم ترد أن تذكره وأمّا إذا حُذِفَ‏‮ ‬‬الفاعل وأقيم الـمفعول مقامَه وكان الفعل ماضيًا ضُمَّ‏‮ ‬‬أوّلُه وكُسر ما قبل آخره فقلنا في‏‮ ‬‬َضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬زيدٌ‏‮ ‬‬عمرًو ضُرِبَ‏‮ ‬‬عمرٌو وإن كان مضارعًا ضُمَّ‏‮ ‬‬أوّله وفُتح ما قبل آخره فقلنا في‏‮ ‬‬يَضْرِبُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيدٌ‏‮ ‬‬عمرًو‏‮ ‬‬يُضْرَبُ‏‮ ‬‬عمرٌو ونائب الفاعل كالفاعل وهو على قسمين قسمٍ‏‮ ‬‬ظاهر كقولك ضُرِبَ‏‮ ‬‬عمرًو‏‮ ‬‬يَضْرَبُ‏‮ ‬‬عمرًا وقسمٍ‏‮ ‬‬مضمر متصل كقولك ضُرِبَ‏‮ ‬‬ضُرِبَا ضُرِبُوا ضُرِبَتْ‏‮ ‬‬ضُرِبَتَا ضُرِبْنَ‏‮ ‬‬ضُرِبْتَ‏‮ ‬‬ضُرِبْتُمَا ضُرِبْتُمْ‏‮ ‬‬ضُرِبْتِ‏‮ ‬‬ضُرِبْتُمَا ضُرِبْتُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬ضُرِبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬ضُرِبْنَا ومنفصل كقولك مَا ضُرِبَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا ضُرِبَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬هِيَ‏‮ ‬‬و مَا ضُرِبَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬أَنْتَ‏‮     ‬‬

Explanation of Text in English:

الـْـمَفْعُولِ‏‮ ‬‬الِـذِي‏‮ ‬‬لَـمْ‏‮ ‬‬يُـسَمَّ‏‮ ‬‬فَـاعِـلُه (The receiver of the action whose doer is not mentioned) is the noun in the case of rafʿ which does not have its doer mentioned with it, either because the doer is unknown or the doer is not mentioned intentionally. An example of this is when you say  ضُرِبَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٌو (ʿAmr was beaten) if you do not know who beat him or you do not wish to mention him (the doer of the beating).  When the doer is left unmentioned and the receiver of the action is mentioned in its place and the verb is‏‮ ‬‬مَـاضِـيًا (a past tense verb), ḍammah ــُـ is placed above its first letter and kasrah‮ ‬‬ــِـ is placed below whatever letter precedes the final letter.  And so we say in the place of ضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرًو (Zayd beat ʿAmr) ضُرِبَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٌو (ʿAmr was beaten)  and if the verb  is مُـضَارعًـا  (a present tense verb), we place ḍammah ــُـ above its first letter and we place fat-ḥah  ــَـ above the letter which precedes the final letter.   We say in the place of يَـضْرِبُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدٌ‏‮ ‬‬عَـمْرًو (Zayd is beating ʿAmr) يُـضْرَبُ‏‮ ‬‬عمْرٌو (ʿAmr is beaten).

نَائِبُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَاعِل (the substitute for the doer)  like الْفَاعِل (the doer)  is  of  two  kinds.  One  kind  is  إِسْـمٌ‏‮ ‬‬ظَـاهِرٌ (a clearly distinct noun) like when you say: ضُرِبَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدٌ (Zayd was beaten) and another kind is‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُضْمَرٌ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُتَّصِل(the attached  pronoun) – like when you say: ضُـرِبَ (He was beaten), ضُـرِبَـا‏ (The two of them were beaten), ضُـرِبُـوا (They were beaten [three or more males]), ضُـرِبَـتْ‏ (She was beaten), ضُـرِبَـتَا (They were beaten [two females]), ضُـرِبْـنَ (They were beaten [three or more females]), ضُرِبْـتَ‏‮ ‬‬ (You were beaten [masc. sing.]), ضُرِبْتُمَا (You two were beaten [masc. dual]), ضُـرِبْـتُم (You were beaten [three or more males]) ,ضُرِبْـتِ (You were beaten [fem. sing.]), ضُـرِبْـتُمَا (You two were beaten [fem. dual]), ضُـرِبْـتُنَّ (You were beaten [three or more females]),‏‮ ‬‬ضُرِبْـتُ (I was beaten), ضُرِبْنَا (We were beaten).

الْـُمضْمَرُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُنْفَصِــلُ (The detached pronoun) `is like when you say:` مَـــــا ضُــــرِبَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬هُـــوَ (Non was beaten except him) and مَــــا‏‮ ‬‬ضُـرِبَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬هِـي (Non was beaten except for her) and مَــا ضُرِبَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬أَنْت (Non was beaten except for you).‏‮ ‬‬


Published in: on January 8, 2011 at 23:23  Leave a Comment  

Book Review of ‘The African Caliphate’ – Author: Ibrahim Sulaiman

‘The African Caliphate’ by Ibrahim Sulaiman

86380970_2838024832922760_1563807900395110400_n

A Book Review 

This is a book about tajdiid and jihād that follows the example set by the Prophet Muhammad صلّى اللّه عليه وسلّم and those who patterned themselves after him, up until the time the Muslims became overwhelmed by the arrival of non-Muslim Europeans  and their eventual occupation of the Muslim lands in the 19th and 20th Century.  The author has chosen to write about ʿUthmaan dan Fodio, a pure scholar who through the method of tajdiid revived the knowledge of the Sunnah, fought a lawful jihād, established dar al-Islam and instituted proper Islamic governance in Hausaland ( present day northern Nigeria) during his time.

Tajdiid can be translated from Arabic to mean: ‘revival, restoration, resuscitation, regeneration, while jihād can be translated from the Arabic to mean: exertion, striving, going through pain for the sake of something. It can also be a struggle or battle to defend dar al-Islam against its enemy and unbelief or against un-Islamic innovation or rebellion against Allah; it’s a battle to defeat kufr (disbelief / un-Islamic practices) and to establish Islam in its place.

Islam, which is Sunnatu-l-laah (Allah’s perfect command) and Sunnah Muhammad (Prophets perfect behavior) was sent down by Allah and was established by His Messenge rصلّى اللّه عليه وسلّم, as the perfect balance of social transaction and governance.

Islam is established and revived by a classical pattern of action or behavior which began in the time of the Prophet Muhammad صلّى اللّه عليه وسلّم and the first three generations of Muslims. That pattern is daʿwah for non-Muslims, tajdiid for the Muslims, hijrah, and jihād followed by the establishment of governance over dar al-Islam.

Thus, this is the pattern, the model of Islam established by the Messenger of Allah صلّى اللّه عليه وسلّم and re-enacted through out the history of Islam by those genuine and upright scholars who came after him. Shaykh ʿUthmaan ibn Fūdī known as dan Fodio or simply Shehu Usman was one of those scholars who chose to meticulously followed this pattern and model.

Islam had been in Hausaland which included Kano, Katsina, Zaria and Gobir among other states, since its arrival there around 15th century C.E. During his reign, Muhammad Rumfa the Sultan of Kano (d. 1499) under the guidance of Muhammad bin Abdul Karīm al-Maghīlī, strove to see that the pure practice of Islam and true Islamic governance were well established there. However, by the 18 century during the era of Shaykh ʿUthmaan dan Fodio, the practice of Islam had greatly degenerated in Hausaland.

The Islamic practice of the rulers of Hausaland had become corrupt. As a result, these rulers failed to save their nations from moral and social decay and used every means to ruin all constructive efforts to revive and regenerate Islam as a pure practice for the worship of Allah. All aspects of the practice of Islam in Hausaland had become corrupted and Hausa society was continuously sinking into decline and turmoil.

Yet, by the very fact that the practice of Islam had already been established in Hausaland, and then fell into corruption and degeneration, and its rulers were judged by Shehu ʿUthmaan and the fuquhaa’ (Muslim legal scholars) that were with him to be mukhalliṭuun (those who mix the practice of Islam and un-Islamic practices together), and the fact that in Hausaland, there were people who denied the the resurrection, ridiculed Islam, worshipped idols, disrespected Allah and denied the Prophethood of Muhammad – this behavior coming from both those who professed Islam and those who rejected it – Shehu ʿUthmaan did not start out by calling for the forcible overthrow of the government or social order’ in favor of a ‘new system, but rather, he realized what was needed everywhere in Hausaland was the work of tajdiid (the restoration) of Islam and the Sunnah. His first objective therefore, was the education of the masses and to stop the innovation and un-Islamic practices among them, then at a much later stage he decide to go the rulers of Hausaland and explain true Islam to them and encourage them to follow it.

In this book, the author demonstrates that through out his mission, Shaykh ʿUthmaan used the blueprint left behind by the Prophet and the first three generations of Muslims, which showed him the correct approach to opposing the decadent and crumbling old order which supported and upheld corrupt customs and the abominable mukhalliṭ (syncretic) behavior in Hausaland. Shaykh ʿUthmaan aided by the members of his Jamaaʿah (collective followers), eventually cleansed Islam in Hausaland of the corrupt practices and innovation that had crept into it over a long period of time, and they restored Islam to its place of honor and brought back the practice of Islam in Hausaland to its pristine purity.

Society, the Shehu said, should return to the Sunnah, which is the fitrah (natural disposition) of the human being. Thus, he started his mission with the process of tajdiid, commanding the good and prohibiting evil, a process which was aimed at educating the people, changing their view of the world, transforming their character, social behavior and political allegiance.

This was the most crucial phase in the entire tajdiid process. The Shehu also saw tajdiid as a process of moral refreshment and intellectual rejuvenation and the resuscitation of the knowledge of the Qur’an and the Sunnah and their practice. As long as the ummah would sink from time to time into degenerative and weak state, the need for tajdiid would remain. As a scholar who undertook the task of social change, Shehu Uthmaan believed that the salvation of the ummah in general and Hausaland in particular rest solely in the revival of a social pattern based on the Qur’an and the Sunnah.

The Shehu strove to reestablish the supremacy of the Sunnah by calling the people back to Islam, commanding the good and prohibiting evil. His goal was to bring about a  social transformation by working to destroy the negative affects of the innovation (bidʿah) that had crept into the social fabric of Hausaland.

If after a number of generations there is a decline in the practice of Islam, the Prophet is reported to have said in a sound hadiith, At the beginning of every century, Allah will send a mujaddid (a reviver, regenerator, resuscitator, one who does tajdiid) to regenerate their religion for them.”

As a true mujaddid (reviver of correct Islamic practice), Shehu ʿUthmaan had as his ultimate ambition, the establishment of a society that followed as closely as possible the Madinan society during the time of the Prophet and the first three generations.

The hijrah (emigration from the place where it is unsafe and impossible to practice  Islam to a place where the practice of Islam is possible and safe) which followed the Shehu’s work of tajdiid, and then subsequent jihād was not a hasty recourse to arm confrontation. Recourse to armed confrontation is allowed only when all the possibilities for a peaceful education of the people have been exhausted. The Shehu knew all to well, that it was necessary for a mujaddid and anyone who who undertook the work of tajdiid to first establish roots in the hearts of the people and in the social fabric of society before it ventures into a confrontation.

The Shehu attributed hasty recourse to armed confrontation, to delusional worldly intrigues that were satanically inspired and connected to ambition and love of power. True, authentic and correct jihād is born out of restraint, because rushing to achieve success through armed confrontation when one is in a position of weakness is ruled out as an Islamic strategy. As long as there exists the possibility, to disseminate Islam peacefully, the scholar must maintain the peace and utilized all peaceful methods at his disposal. If the situation changes from what is possible to what is impossible, the next course of action is for the scholar to make hijrah to another area of safety (dar al-Islam) where he can continue his efforts peacefully.

Recourse to armed confrontation is allowed only when all the possibilities for a peaceful education of the people have been exhausted or dar al-Islam comes under the threat of attack or more appropriately, when one has mustered sufficient strength to confront the prevailing order, because once the fighting begins, it does not stop ‘until the war lays down its burden’ as Allah has mentioned in the Qur’an 47:4.

It was only after the hijrah to Gudu and the Hausa rulers threatened the Muslims with razi’ah (the infliction of heavy losses or extermination) that the Shehu declared jihād. The jihād would become a struggle to both establish and revive Islam in Hausaland. The jihād was declared against four kinds of kings who who under the Islamic legal ruling were considered to be kuffaar (plural of kaafir): 1. the unbelieving king who never was a Muslim, 2. the unbelieving king who professed Islam for outward show only, 3. an apostate king who abandons Islam and return to unbelief, and 4. the king who outwardly remains Muslim, but mixed the practices of Islam with the practices of unbelief.

The jihād fought by the Shehu and his followers was not a revolution. There is no question that dramatic and wide-reaching changes took place in the people’s actions and ideas, and so under those circumstances, the jihād in Hausaland might be seen as a revolution, however the Shehu’s jihād was fought to overthrow kufr, whereas, if it was a revolution in the sense of insurrection and coup d’état, the battle would have been fought merely to overthrow kings. The kings of Hausaland weren’t fought because they were defenders of corrupt monarchy. They were fought because they were defenders of kufr.

Another reason why the Shehu’s jihād, was not a revolution is because the jihād he fought was a conflict between truth and falsehood and not a confrontation between individuals or economic philosophies or bankrupt political systems.

Jihād is a command from Allah, while revolution is born out of the ambition of men. The Shehu’s jihād was a conflict between two orders, two diins: diinu-l-Islam (life transactions based on belief) and diin-l-kufr (life transactions based on disbelief). Jihād is a conflict between those who want to empower Islam, and its pure practice and method of governance, on the one hand, and those who want kufr to continue to prevail in all aspects of the social and political transaction on the other.

Finally, we will quote the author of this work, Ibraheem Sulaiman who himself has succinctly and eloquently written in Chapter Five of this book about the difference between the genuine process of tajdiid and the mere effort to effect change by a political revolution:

“If tajdiid were merely a matter of political revolutions or change of leadership, then there are quicker ways than the recourse to the Qur’an and Sunnah, but tajdiid is the transformation of the heart, of human disposition and of the destiny of man itself which clearly transcends the attainment of political power. To believe that a quick political ascendancy is all that Islam is about, is to cast a vulgar look at a sublime system. What Islam wants is an enduring transformation, which cannot be realized by a social hurricane which brings destruction and consumes even what it claims to rectify.” p. 98.

On another note, the tendency of certain non-Muslims writers and scholars, who as outsiders to Islam writing about Shehu ʿUthmaan dan Fodio and the establishment of the Sokoto Caliphate, is to concentrate on the jihād in Hausaland while ignoring the prevailing conditions of corruption and the degeneration of Islamic practice in Hausaland, and the work of tajdiid initiated by Shehu Usman to rectify the situation. This often occurs, because it is not the responsibility of non-Muslim writers and scholars to defend Islam nor is it their responsibility to present the life and work of Muslims such as Shaykh Uthmaan dan Fodio in a light or manner that reflects the whole truth.

This book on the other hand has been authored by a Muslim scholar, who does not have the disadvantage of standing on the outside of Islam looking in or the disadvantaged of being restrained by restrictive and ‘straight-jacketing’ academic or publishing requirements and technicalities that are found in the writings of some non-Muslims and Muslims who write about Islam and Muslims. This book, thus is a seminal work on the subject of tajdiid and jihād and ‘a must read’ for Muslims who are seriously interested in understanding the methodology of tajdiid and the methodology used to conduct lawful jihād, that are found in the Kitaab wa-s-Sunnah (The Qur’an and the behavioral pattern of the Messenger of Allah صلّى اللّه عليه وسلّم).

Non-Muslims also stand to benefit from reading this book. Non-Muslims have been bombarded by the media and other would-be commentators with the term ‘jihād’ out of the context of its correct meaning, application and reality. This book puts jihād as a methodology back into its proper context. It clarifies that tajdiid, hijrah and then jihād is the sequential pattern of action that has been carried out by the people of knowledge, since the time of the first generation of Muslims up until the time of the arrival of the European colonial powers in Muslim lands. This book confirms that jihād has proper rules of engagement and conduct, and that jihād is a last resort measure coming towards the final stage in the process of the establishment or reestablishment of Islam, and not the first or only resort for Muslims.

Click on the link below to read and / or download this important work Dr. Ibrahim Sulaiman:

https://drive.google.com/file/d/1f0Ku8_X6dxr62vgvd6oT_siv4nmc23Q_/view?usp=sharing

Published in: on January 1, 2011 at 20:44  Leave a Comment  
%d bloggers like this: