From the History of the Mālikīs 1 – The Significance of Madinah and the Muwaṭṭa in Relations to It

From the History of the Mālikīs

1 – The Significance of Madinah and the Muwaṭṭa in Relations to It

During the time of the rise of doctrines and sects such as the Khawaarij, Muʿtazalī and the Shiʿī which challenged the true beliefs of the Muslims, Imām Mālik faced these challenges by presenting theʿAmal of Madinah as the true representation of the Sunnah and as the most correct counterbalance to these  doctrines and sects.

Madinah gained significance and importance in the history of Islam, because it was the city where the Prophet Muhammad صلّى الله علىه وسلّم sought safe haven when he had to flee for his life from Makkah. It also became an abode of safety for those who follow him there from Makkah. It also became the city where the Dīn was established by The Prophet صلّى الله علىه وسلّم, and the place to look towards for the best example of its practice.

After the death of the Prophet صلّى الله علىه وسلّم, Madinah became increasingly more important in this regard. During the era of Imām Mālik, many great scholars lived in Madinah, and it was the city where the fiqh of Islam was still in its purest form, like that which was found during the time of the first three generations.

Imām Mālik saw the ʿAmal of Madinah as the foremost behavior for the Muslim ummah. This can be seen in his words of advice and warning to Yahyā ibn Yahyā al Laythī:

“…To it the Hijrah was made and in it the Qur’an was revealed, the lawful was declared lawful and the unlawful was declared unlawful while the Messenger of Allah صلى الله عليه وسلم was in their midst and they were in the presence of revelation to the Messenger Of Allah  صلى الله عليه وسلم and the act of revelation itself.  He صلى الله عليه وسلم gave them commands and they obeyed him.  He صلى الله عليه وسلم established the Sunnah for them and they followed him until Allah brought his life to an end and chose for him the reward of His Presence.  The Prays of Allah be upon him and His Peace, His Mercy and His Blessings.

Then after him صلى الله عليه وسلم, those people from his ummah who obeyed him, rose up and assume authority by means of that which had been sent down to them.  Whatever they knew, they acted by.  Whatever they didn’t have knowledge of, they asked questions concerning it. Then they adopted that which they found to be the strongest position. As a result of their ijtihaad and their direct knowledge of the matter through experience, memory or proximity.  If there were those who held a different opinion or people expressed other opinions which were stronger or more worthy to be followed, they would set their own opinions aside, and follow and practice the others’ opinion.  Then the Tabiʿuun came after them following that same path.  They followed that Sunnah.

Therefore, if a matter in Madinah is clearly practiced, I am not of the opinion that anyone has the right to go contrary to it because of the legacy which they (the people of Madinah) possess.  They (The other people) are  not allowed to assume this or presume this.  If the people of the (other) cities begin saying, ‘This is the ʿAmal which is in our city and this is what was done in it by those who passed from among us; they wouldn’t have certainty about that nor would that be permissible for them to claim.  Therefore, be careful…”

This is why Imām Mālik found it necessary it to codify this behavior in the Muwatta. Imām Mālik compiled his famous Muwaṭṭa to record the actions and behavior of these three outstanding generations, so that the rest of the Ummah might benefit from the pristine example of the inhabitants of this city so that it be preserved those living in a time when might become lost or corrupted.

The Muwaṭṭa is the earliest written source book of correct Salafī behavior.  The ‘Amal found in the Muwatta is based on the fundamental principles laid down by the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم, as well as authoritative pronouncements of the Khulafāh Rashīdūn and other companions charged with that responsibility, legal opinions and juristic statements of the fuquhaa, verdicts passed down by the Qaadis, and decisions of the past people of authority from the city of Madinah and those who were its current scholars during the time of Imām Mālik.

The khalifs like ʿUmar ibn Abdul Azīz, Harūn ar-Rashīd and Jaʿfar al-Manṣūr relied on Imām Mālik for guidance and fatawā because they knew that Imām Mālik, the city of Madinah and its inhabitants as previously mentioned had not become corrupted.

Ibn Taymiyyah again says:

فأما الأعصار الثلاثة المفضلة فلم‏  يكن فيها بالمدينة النبوية بدعة ظاهرة البتة،‏  ولا خرج منها بدعة في‏  أصول الدين البتة،‏  كما خرج من سائر الأمصار

“As for the three preeminent eras (the eras of the Prophet صلى اللّه عليه وسلّم and his Ṣaḥaabah, the Tabiʿuun and the Tabiʿu Tabiʿiin), there was no clear bidʿah (innovation) in the Prophetic City of Madinah during those eras at all nor did any innovation in usuulu-d-diin (the fundamental principles of religion) emerge from it like what emerge from the rest of the cities.”

Imām Mālik’s al-Muwaṭṭa was recognized as a text that had the genuine Sunnah preserved  on its pages. It is also the first book of fiqh written in Islam. It is said that the Khalif al-Mansūr wanted to used the Muwaṭṭa to unify the legal system of the ʿAbbāsid empired, however Imām Mālik said that he didn’t believe that idea would be accepted by the people or the fuquhaa’ of Iraq. It is also said that upon hearing that from Imām Mālik, ʿAbu Jaʿfar said if they didn’t submit then “their heads will be chopped off and their backs will be lashed by the whip”.

Imām Mālik knew all  to well that a man convince against his will was a man not convinced at all, and so he continuously resisted the idea of his book al Muwaṭṭa being forced down the people’s throats, and wisely so, because the Muwaṭṭa became famous and was used without enforcement. This is one of the proofs of its greatness in itself.

It was not spread by the whip or the sword, but rather by the dedicated students of Imām Mālik who spread it to every area the Muslim ummah, both in the east and the west.

Two versions of the Muwaṭṭa have been transmitted by two of his most famous students, Yahyā ibn Yahyā al Laythī from al-Andalus and Muhammad ash-Shaybānī, and also a student of Abū Hanīfah.

Published in: on February 21, 2011 at 23:00  Leave a Comment  

التَّيَمُّمُ at-Tayammum (Dry ablution) from Matn al ʿIzziyyah

التَّيَمُّمُ at-Tayammum (Dry ablution) from Matn al ʿIzziyyah

التَّيَمُّمُ (Dry ablution) طَهَارَةٌ تُرابِيَّةٌ (is purification with earth). تَشْتَمِلُ عَلَى (It consists of)  مَسْحِ الْـوَجْهِ (wiping the face) وَالْـيَدَيْنِ (and the hands). وَسَـبَبُهُ (The reason for this),  فَقَدُ الْـمَاءِ حَـقِيقَةَ (is the failure to actually find water)  أَوْ مَـا هُـوَ فِـي حُـكْمِهِ (or the water has a ruling in regards to its use), مِثْلُ أَنْ يَكُونَ  مَعَهُ مِنَ الْـمَاءِ مَا لاَ يَكْفِيهِ (for example: the water isn’t enough) أَوْ مَاءٌ يُخَافُ بِـاسْـتِعْمَالِـهِ فَـوَاتَ نَـفْسِهِ (or it’s water, about which there is feared that its usability has passed),أَوْ  فَـوَاتَ مَـنْفَعَتٍ (or its usefulness has passed), أَوْ زِيَـادَةَ مَـرْضٍ (or it may increase an illness),  أَوْ تَأَخُّرَ بُرْءٍ (or delay recovery) أَوْ حَـدُوث مَـرضٍ (or can cause of illness).

يُـبَاحُ التَيَمُّمُ (Dry ablution is recommended)  مِـنَ الْـحَـدَثِ الأَصْـغَرِ وَلأَكْـبَرِ (for both small and large impurity) إِذَا وُجِدَ سَـبَبَهُ (when the reason for performing it is)  لِـلْمَرِيضِ (that the worshipper is  sick) وَالْـمُسَافِرِ (or he is traveling).  لِـكُلِّ صَـلاَةٍ  ([it can be performed] for every prayer).  وَلِـلصَّحيحِ الْـحَاضِـرِ ([It is also recommended] for the healthy person who is not traveling)  لِـصَلاَةِ الْـجَنَازَةِ ([who is] attending the funeral prayer),  إِذَا تَـعَيْـنَتْ (if it is incumbent upon him). وَلِـفَرْضِ (Iit is recommended] for obligatory prayers)  غََـيْرِ الْـجُـمُعَةِ (other than Jumuʿah prayer), بِشَـرْطِ (on the condition) أَنْ يَخْشَـى (that it is feared) فَـوَاتِ الْوَقتِ (that the time will pass) بِاسْتِعْمَالِ الْـمَاءِ (before water can be used). وَلاَيُعِيدُ (These prayers are not redone).  بِـخِلاَفَةِ الْـجَنَازَةِ (The exception, [where in tayammum may not be performed] is the funeral prayer)   إِذَا لَـمْ تَـتَعَيَّنْ (if it is not incumbent upon the person)  وَ فَـرْضِ الْـجُـمُعَةِ (and the obligatory Friday prayer)  وَلَـوْ خَشِـيَ فَـوَاتَـهُ (even if he fears the time for it will pass), وَسَـائِـرِ النَّوَافِـلِ (and the rest of supererogatory prayers)  سُـنَنِهَا (including those that are sunnah) وَمُسْـتَحَبَّاتِـهَا (and the ones that are meritorious).

وَيىَبْطَلُ التَّيَمَّمُ (Dry ablution becomes nullified)  بِـمَا يَبْطُلُ بِهِ الْوُضُوءُ (by the same things that nullify wuduu’),  وَبِـوُجُـودِ الْـمَاءِ (as well as the discovery of water)  قَـبْلَ الصَّلاَةِ (before the prayer), إِلاَّ أَنْ يَخْشَى فَوَاتِ الْوَقْتِ (unless the worshipper fears the time will pass) بِاسْتِعْمَالِهِ (by waiting to use water).

وإِذَا رَأَى الْـمَاءَ (If he sees water) وَهُوَ فِي الصَّلاَةِ (while he is praying), لَمْ تَبطُلْ صَلاَتِهِ (his prayer does not become nullified).

وَيَـتَيَمَّمُ بِـالصَّعِيدِ الطَّيِّبِ (The worshipper should perform dry ablution with pure earth). وَهُـوَ التَّرَابُ (It could be soil), وَالْـحَجَرُُ (stone) وَالرَّمْلُ (or sand)  وَجَمِيع أجْـزَاءِ الأَرْضِ (and all types of  natural earthly material)  مَــا دَامَـتْ عَـلَى هَـيْئَتَهَا لَمْ تُـغَيِّرْهَـا (as long as its condition has not been changed) صَـنْعَةُ آدَمِـيٍّ (by human fabrication) بِـطَبْخٍ (through [the process of] baking) وَنَـحْوِهِ (and what is similar). وَالتَّرَابُ أَفْضَلُ مِنْ غَيْرِهِ (Soil is better than the other things mentioned).

وَلاَيَتَيَمَّمُ (A worshipper should not perform dry ablution) عَلَى شَيْءٍ  نَـفِيسٍ (on precious things)  كَالْـذَهْـبِ وَالْـفِضَّةِ (like gold or silver) وَلاَ عَـلَى لِـبْدٍ  (nor on wool)  وَلاَ عَـلَى بِسَاطٍ (or carpets) وَلاَحَـصِيرٍ (or on mats) وَإِنْ كَـانَ فِـيهَا غُـبَارٌ (even if dust is on them).

وَيَـجُوزُ لِـلْمَرِيضِ (It is permissible for the sick person) إِذَا لَمْ نَـجِدْ (who can’t find) مَنْ يُنَاوِلُهُ تُرَابًا (someone to bring him earth) أَنْ يَـتَيَمَّمَ (to perform dry ablution) بِـالْـجِـدَارِ (on a wall)  الْـمَبْنِيِّ بِـطُوبِ النِّيءِ (which has been constructed from unbaked brick) أَوْ بِـالْـحِجَارَةِ (or stone) إِذَا كَانَتْ غَـيْرَ مَسْـتُورَةٍ (if it is not covered)  بِالْـجِيرِ (lime).

وَمَـنْ تَـيَمَّمَ (Whoever performs dry ablution)  عَـلى مَـوْضِـعِ نَـجَسٍ (on an unclean place) وَلَـمْ يَـعْلَمْ بِـنَجَاسَـتِهِ (while not knowing about its uncleanliness), أَعَادَ فِـي الْـوَقْـتِ (should repeat the [dry ablution] within the designated time [for the prayer]).

وَلاَ يُكْرَهُ التَّيَمَّمُ (Dry ablution is not disliked)  بِتُرَابٍ تُيُمَّمَ بِهِ (with earth that has been used to perform dry ablution) مَرَّةً أُخْرَى (more than once).

وَلاَ يَصِحُّ التَّيَمَّمُ (It is not sound to perform dry ablution) قَبْلَ دَخُولِ الْوَقْتِ  (before the time [of the specific prayer] comes in).

وَصِفَتُهُ (The characteristics of dry ablution are):  أَنْ يَنْوِيَ اسْتِبَاحَةَ الصَّلاَةِ (to intend to make the performance of prayer permissible)   وَيَـنْوِيَ مِـنَ الْـحَـدَثِ الأَكْـبَرِ (and to intend [to make prayer permissible] under the condition of major impurity),  إِنْ كَـانَ مُحْدِثًا حَدَثًا  أَكْبَرَ (when the impurity is major). ثُـمَّ يَـقُولُ (Then the worshipper says:) بِـسْمِ اللَّهِ (In the Name of Allah) وَيَسْـتَعْمِلُ الصَّعِيدَ (using pure earth).  يَـضْرِبُ عَـلَيهَا (He pats on it) بِـيَدَيْـهِ جَـمِيعًا (with both hands) ضَرْبَةً وَاحِدَةً (with one patting).  وإِنْ تَـعَلَّقَ بِـهِمَا شَـيْءٌ (If anything sticks to them [the hands]) (he should dust them)  نَـفْضًا خَـفِيفًا ( lightly),  وَيَـمْسَحُ بِـهَا وَجْـهَهُ (Then he wipes his face) ولِـحيَتَهُ (and beard). يَبْدَأُ مِنْ أَعْلاَهُ (He should start from the top [of the face]) إِلَـى أَنْ يَسْـتَوْفِيَهُ (until [he wipes over] it completely).  ثُمَّ يَضْرِبُ (Then the worshipper should pat [the the soil]) الأُخْرَى (another time) لِيَدَيْهِ (with his hands), ثُمَّ يَـمْسَحُ (then he should wipe) ظَاهِرَ يَدِهِ الْيُمْنَى (the outside of the right hand) بِيَدِهِ الْيُسْرَى (with his left hand) حَتََّى يَنْتَهِي إِلَى الْـمَرْفَقِ (until he finishes at the elbow)  ثُمَّ يَـمْسَحُ (then he wipes)  بَاطِنَهَا (over the inside of it [the of the right arm])  إِلى آخِرَ الأَصَـابِـعِ (to the tips of the fingers).  ثُمَّ يَـمْسَحُ (Then he should wipe) ظَاهِرَ الْيُسْـرَى (the outside of the left hand)  بِـيَدِهِ الْـيُمْنَى (with his right hand)  إِلَـى الْـمَرْفَقِ (to the elbow)  ثُـمَّ يَـمْسَحُ (Then he should wipe)  بَـاطِـنَهَا (over the inside of it [the of the left arm])  إِلى آخِرَ الأَصَابِعِ (to the tips of the fingers)  ويَجِبُ تَخْلِيلُ الأَصَابِعِ (and comb through the fingers is a necessity) وَنَـزْعُ الْـخَاتِـمِ (and [so is] removing the ring).  فَـإنْ لَـم يَـنْزِعْهُ (Not removing it)  لَـمْ يَجْزِهِ (is not permissible).

وَالضَّرْبَةُ الثَّانِيَّةُ (The second patting of the earth) سُنَّةٌ (is a prophetic practice)  وَكَدَا الـْمَسْحُ (and so is wiping) إلَـى الْـمَرْفَـقَيْـنِ (to the elbows).

[If the worshipper decides to]  وَلَوِ اقْـتَصَرَ عَـلَى ضَـرْبَـةٍ وَاحِـدَةٍ (limits [his dry ablution] to one patting of the earth)  لِـلْوَجْـهِ وَالْـيَدَينِ (for the face and the hands), أَجْـزَأَهُ (it’s permissible),  وَلَوِ اقْتَصَرَ (but if he limits it) فِي مَسْحِ يَدَيْهِ ( to wiping his hands) عَـلَى الْـكَوْعَينِ (up to his wrist) وَصَـلَّى (and prays), أَعَادَ فِي الْوَقْتِ (he should repeat [the dry ablution] within the time [of the specific prayer]).

فصْلٌ (Section)

إِذَا كَـانَ (If there is) فِي أَعْضَاءِ الْوُضُوءِ  (on one of the limbs which require wuduu’)  أَو غَيْرِهَا (or any other limb) جُرْحٌ (a wound), وَخَـافَ مِـنْ غَسْـلِِهِ (and the worshipper fears that washing it)  بِـالْـمَاءِ  (with water ) فَـوَاتَ نَـفْسِهِ (will cause his passing [death]) أَوْ مَـنْفَعَةٍ (or incapacity) أَوْ زِيَادَةَ مَرْضٍ (or an increase in sickness) أَؤ تَـأَخُّرَ بُرْءٍ (or delay recovery) أَؤْ حُدُوثُ مَرْضٍ (or the occurrence of sickness)  فَـإِنَّّـهُ يَـمْسَحُ عَـلَيْهِ (then the worshipper should wipe over it). فَـإِنْ لَـمْ يَسْتَطِعِ الْـمَسْحَ عَـلَيْهِ (If he is not able to wipe over it), مَسَحَ عَلَى الْـجَبِيرَةِ  (then he should wipe over the dressing)  وَهِـيَ الدَّوَاءُ (which is the medical treatment and dressing)  الَّذِي يَـجْعَلُ عَـلَيْهِ (which he placed it  [on a wound]). فَإِنْ لَـمْ يَسْـتَطِعِ الْـمَسْحَ عَـلَيْهَا  (If he is not able to wipe over that), مَسَحَ عَـلَى الْـعِصَابَةِ (then he should wipe over the bandage) وَلَوْ عَلَى الزَّائِدِ غَيْرِ الْـمُقَابِلِ (even if it is bigger than the size)  لِلْجَـرْحِ (of the wound)  كَـفَصْدِ (it is similar in regards to a surgically opened or punctured vein) وَعِـمَامَـةٍ  (and a turban) خِيفَ بِنَزْعِهَا (when its removal is feared). وَيُشْـتَرطُ (There is a condition) فِي الْـمَسْحِ الْـمَذْكُـورِ (in regards to the wiping that has been mentioned)  أنْ يَـكُونَ جُـلُّّ جَسَـدِهِ  صَـحًيحًًا (that whether the majority of the body is uninjured) أَوْ جَرِيحًا (or wounded), وَلاَ يَـتَضَرَّرُ (it [the wounded are] should not be harmed)  إِذَا غَسْـلَ الصَّحِيحَ (by washing the uninjured area), فَـإِنْ كَـانَ يَـتَضَرَّرُ بِغَسْلِ الصَّحِيحِ (and if it is harmed by washing it [the uninjured area]) أَوْ كَانَ الصَّحِيحُ قَلِيلًا جِدًّا (or the uninjured area is very small) كَـانَ لَـمْ يَـبْقَ إِلاَّ يَـدٌ أَوْ رِجْـلٌ (to the extent that only a hand or leg remained [uninjured]),  فَإِنَّهُ لاَ يَغْسِلُ الصَّحِيحَ (then the worshipper should not wash the sound area)  وَلاَ يَـمْسَحُ عَلَى الْـجَرِيحِ (nor should he wipe over the wounded area),  بَـلْ يَـنْتَقِلُ  (but rather he should resort) إِلَى التَّيَمُّمِ (to dry ablution).  وَإِذَا تَعَذَّرَ مَسْحُ الْـجَـرِيحِ (If wiping over the wound is impractical),  بِـحََيْثِ لاَ يُـمْكِنُ  (because it is not possible) وَضْعُ شَيْءٍ  عَلَيّهِ (to put any thing on the wound)  وَلاَ مُلاَقَاتَهُ (and it should not come in contact)  بِالْـمَاءِ (with water) فَإِنْ كَـانَ فِي مَوْضِـعِ التَّيَمُّمِ (and if in the area where dry ablution [would be performed]) وَلاَ يُـمْكِنُ أَيْـضًا (its also not possible)  بِـالتُّرَابِ (to used soil), تَـرَكَـهُ (the worshipper should leave it [the wound]) بِـلاَ مَـسْحٍ (without wiping) وَلا غَسْـلٍ  (or washing [it]).  وَغَسَـلَ مَـا سِـوَاهُ (He should wash what similar to it) وَإِنْ لَـمْ يَـكُنْ فِـي أَعْـضَاءِ التَّيَمُّمِ (if it is not one of limbs on which  dry ablution [would be performed]), فَـإِنَّهُ لاَ يَغْسِـلُ الصَّحِيحَ (then he should not wash the uninjured area) وَيَتَيَمَّمُ عَلَى الْـجَرِيحِ (and he should perform dry ablution on the wound) عَـلَى أَحَـدِ الأَقْـوَالِ الأَرْبَـعَةِ (according to one of four opinions),  وَإِذَا مَسَحَ عَلَى الْـجَبِيرَةِ (and if he wipes over the dressing)  ثُمَّ نَزَعَهَا لِدَوَاءٍ (and then removes it for [the application of ] medicine)  أَوْ غَـيْرِهِ (or something else), أَوْ سَـقَطَتْ (or falls off) بِـنَفْسِهَا (by itself) بَـطَلَ الْـمَسْحُ عَـلَيْهَا (the wiping which was performed on it becomes nullified)  وَإِذَا رَدَّهَا (and if the worshipers replaces it [the dressing]), فَـلاَ بُـدَّ (undoubted) مِـنَ الْـمَسْحِ ثَـانِـيًا (the wiping [should be repeated] a second time).

The Things That Make Ghusl [Major Ablution] Necessary from Matn al ʿIzziyah

The Things That Make Ghusl [Major Ablution] Necessary

وَمَوْجُـبَاتُ  الْغُسْـلِ (The things that make ghusl [major ablution] necessary) أَرْبَعَةُ (are four): (1) انْقِطَاعُ‮ ‬دَمِ‮ ‬الْـحَيْضِ‮ ‬(the cessation of the blood of menstruation), (2) وَدَمِ‮ ‬النَّفَاسِ (the blood after child birth), (3) وَالْـمَوْتُ (death), (4) ‮ ‬وَالْـجَنَابَةُ and (major sexual impurity).

وَهيَ (and it) نَوْعَـانِ (is of two kinds):

1. [Ghusl becomes necessary] خُـرُوجُ‮ ‬الْـمَنِيِّ (due the emission of sperm) الْـمُقَارِنُ‮ ‬(simultaneously) لِلَّذَّةِ‮ ‬الْـمُعْتَادَةِ (with the usual pleasure derived) مِنَ‮ ‬الرَّجُلِ‮ ‬أَوْ‮ ‬الـْمَرْأَةِ (by the man or the woman) فِـي‮ ‬نَـومٍ‮ ‬أَوْ‮ ‬يَـقَظَةٍ‮ ‬بِـفَتْحِ‮ ‬الْـقَافِ (during sleep or while awake with fat-ḥah on the letter qaaf ).  ‮  ‬ضِدُّ‮ ‬النَوْمِ‮ ‬(meaning the opposite of asleep);

2. وَقَدْ‮ ‬يَجِبُ‮ ‬الْغُسْلِ (Ghusl becomes necessary)‮ ‬لِـخُرُوجِهِ (due the emission of sperm) مِنْ‮ ‬غَيْرِ‮ ‬مُقَارَنَةِ‮ ‬اللَّذَّةِ (without the occurrence of pleasure), مِـثْلُ  أَنْ  يُجَامِع ‬(like intercourse) فَـيَلْتَذَّ (wherein pleasure was derived sperm) وَلَـمْ‮ ‬يُنْزِلْ (without sperm being emitted),‮ ‬ثُـمَّ‮ ‬يَخْرُجُ‮ ‬مِنْهُ‮ ‬الْـمَنِيُّ (then sperm comes out)‮ ‬قَبْلَ‮ ‬أَنْ‮ ‬يَغْتَسَلَ‮ ‬ (before the person performs ghusl).

[Ghusl also becomes necessary because of] وَمُغِيبُ  حَـشَفَةِ  الْـبَالِـغِ (the disappearance of the mature male’s penis), وَهِيَ  رَأْسُ  الذَّكَـرِ (that is to say, the head of the penis) أَوْ‮ ‬مُـغِيبُ‮ ‬مِثْلِهَا مِنْ مَـقْطُوعِـهَا (or the similar disappearance of the circumcised penis)فِـي‮ ‬فَـرْجِ‮ ‬الأَدَمِِـيِّ (into the opening of the human being)أَوْ‮ ‬غَـيْرِهِ‮ ‬ (or an opening [orifice] of other than a human being),‮ ‬أُنْثَى أَوْ‮ ‬ذَكَرٍ‮ ‬(female or male),حَيِّ‮ ‬أَوْ‮ ‬مَيِّتٍ (living or dead),وَ‮ ‬إِنْ‮ ‬لَمْ‮ ‬يُنْزِلْ (even if sperm is not emitted).

تَـمْنُعُ‮ ‬الـْجَنَابَةُ (Major sexual impurity) ‮ ‬مَـوَانِـعَ‮ ‬الـْحَدَثِ‮ ‬الأَصْـغَر(prevents the performance [of everything that] (minor bodily impurities prevents),مَـعَ‮ ‬زِيَـادَةِ‮ ‬تَـحْـرِيـمِ‮ ‬ (in addition to preventing) ‮ ‬قِرَاءَةِ‮ ‬الْـقُرْآنِ‮ ‬(the recitation of the Qur’an), إِلاَّ  الآيَة (except for an āyat) وَنَحْوَهَا‮ ‬(or what in is similar), عَـلَى وَجْـهِ  التَّعَوُّذُ (for the purpose of seeking refuge in Allah), ‮ ‬وَالرُّقَـى (protection against magic) والاسْـتَدْلالِ (and seeking justice). [Major sexual impurity also prevents] وَدُخُولِ‮ ‬الْـمَسْجِدِ (entry into the masjid) وَالْـمُكْثِ‮ ‬فِيهِ (and staying in it).

وَالْغُسْـلُ‮ ‬مِنَ‮ ‬الْـجَنَابَةِ (Ghusl for major impurity) مُشْتَـمِلٌ  عَـلَى فَرَائِـضَ (consists of the obligatory actions), وَسُنَنٍ (the Prophetic actions) وَفَضَائِلَ (and beneficial actions).

‮ ‬فَأَمَّا فَرَائِضُهُ (As for the obligatory actions) فَخَمْسَةٌ (are five):

(1) نِيَّةُ‮ ‬رَفْعِ‮ ‬الْـحَدَثِ‮ ‬الأَكْبَرِ (the intention to remove major bodily impurity),

(2)  ‬وَتُـعْمِيمُ‮ ‬ظَاهِـرِ‮ ‬الْـجَسَـدِ‮ ‬بالْـمَاءِ (covering the entire body with water),

(3) وَالدَّلْكُ (vigorous rubbing of the limbs),

(4) وَتَخْـلِيلُ‮ ‬الشَّعْرِ (combing the fingers through the hair),

(5) وَالْـمُوَالاَةُ (uninterrupted washing of each limb, immediately one after the other).

وَأَمَّا سُـنَنُهُ (As for it’s sunnah), فَأَرْبَـعَةٌ (they are four):

(1) ‮ ‬الْـبَدْءُ‮ ‬بِغَسْـلِ‮ ‬الْـيَدَيْـنِ‮ ‬(starting by washing the hands) قَبْلِ‮ ‬إِدْخَالِهِمَا (before putting them) فِي‮ ‬الإِنَاءِ (in the water container),

(2) وَمَسْحُ  صِـمَاخِ  الأُذْنَـيْـنِ (wiping the meaty part of the inside of the ears),

(3) وَالْـمَضْمَضَةُ (rinsing the mouth),

(4) وَالإسْتِنْشَاقُ (sniffing water into the nostril).

وَأَمَّا فَضَائِلُهُ (As for it’s meritorious actions), فَسَبْعَةٌ (they are seven):

(1) التَّسْمِيَةُ (starting with the Name of Allah i.e. Bismillah),

(2) وَالْبَدْءُ‮ ‬بِالْغَسْلِ (starting with the washing of) مَا عَلَى بِدَنِهِ‮ ‬مِنَ‮ ‬الأَذَى (what is noxious from his body),

(3) ثُـمَّ‮ ‬الْوُضُـوءُ‮ ‬كَامِـلاً (then performance of a complete wuḍuu’) مَـرَّةَ  مَـرَّةَ (once on each limb) وَ‮ ‬يَـنْوِي‮ ‬بِـهِ (intending by it) رَفْـعَ‮ ‬الْـجَنَابَةِ (to remove the major impurity) عَنْ‮ ‬تِلكَ‮ ‬الأَعْضَاءِ‮ ‬(from those limbs),

(4) ثُمَّ‮ ‬إِقَاضَةُ‮ ‬الْـمَاءِ (then pouring water) عَلَى الرَّأْسِ  ثَلاَثَا (over the head three times),

(5) ثُمَّ‮ ‬إِقَاضَةُ‮ ‬الْـمَاءِ (and then pouring water) عَلَى شًقِّهِ‮ ‬الأَيْمَنِ (over the right side of the body)‮ ‬قَبْلَ‮ ‬الأَيْسَرِ (before the left side), وَالْبَدْءُ‮ ‬بِالأَعَالِـي (and begin at the upper part of the body) قَـبْلَ‮ ‬الأَسَـاقِـلِ (before the lower part),

(6) وَتَـقْلِيلُ‮ ‬الْـمَاءِ (using a small amount of water),

(7) مَـعَ  إِحْكَامِ  الْغَسْـلِبِ  كَسْـرِ  الْهَمْزَةِ (washing each limb meticulously with vowel kasrah on the hamzah) أَيْ (that is to say), إِتْقَانِهِ (with thoroughness).

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Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 10 – (The Chapter About Al – ʿAwaamil [The Governors] That Enter Upon The Subject And The Predicate

بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَوَامِلِ‏‮ ‬‬الدَّاخِلَةِ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَى الـْمُبْتَدَإِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْـخَبَرِ

10 – (The  Chapter  About  Al – ʿAwaamil [The Governors] That Enter Upon The Subject And The Predicate)

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬ثَلاَثَةُ‏‮ ‬‬أَشْيَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاتُهَا وَإِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاتُهَا وَظَنَنْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاتُهَا‏‮) ‬‬

English Translation:

وَهِيَ‏  ثَلاَثَةُ‏  أَشْيَاءَ‏ (And it is three things): كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬أَخْوَاتُهَا (kaana and its sisters), وَإِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬أَخْوَاتُهَا (and inna and its sisters) وَظَنَنْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬أَخْوَاتُهَا (and hanna and its sisters).

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬فَأَمَّا كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاتُهَا فَإِنَّهَا تَرْفَعُ‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمَ‏‮  ‬‬وَتَنْصِبُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْخَبَرَ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَمْسَى وَأََصْبَحَ‏‮ ‬‬وََأََضْحَى وَظَلَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَبَاتَ‏‮ ‬‬وَصَارَ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَيْسَ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا زَالَ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا اِنْفَكَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا فَتِئَ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا بَرِحَ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا دَامَ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا تَصَرَّفَ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْهَا نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬كاَنَ‏‮ ‬‬وَيَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬وَكُنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَصْبَحَ‏‮ ‬‬وَيُصْبِحُ‏‮ ‬‬وَأََصْبَحْ‏‮ ‬‬تَقُولُ‏‮ ‬‬كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدُ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمًا وَلَيْسَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٌو شَاخِصًا وَمَاأََشْبَهُ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِكَ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

فَأَمَّا كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاتُهَا (As  for  kaana  and  its  sisters) تَرْفَعُ‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمَ (they cause the noun to be in the case of rafʿ) وَتَـنْصِبُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْخَبَرَ (and they cause the predicate to be in the case of naṣb). ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِي(And they are): كَانَ (he/it was), وَأَمْسَى and (he/it became), وَأَصْبَحَ and (he/it became), وَأَضْـحَى and (he/it became), وَظَلَّ and (he/it became), وَبَاتَ and (he/it became), وَصَارَ and (he/it became), وَلَيْسَ and (he/it is not), وَمَا زَالَ and (he/it has not ceased [he/it continues), وَمَا انْفَكَّ and (he/it did not  stop  doing), وَمَا فَتِئَ  and (he/it did not stop), وَمَا‏ بَرِحَ and (he/it did not stop), وَمَا دَامَ and (he/it continued). وَمَا تَـصَرَّفَ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْهَا (And what is derived from them)  –‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ like when you say: كَانَ (he/it was) وَيَكُونُ and (he/it is) وَكُنْ and (be [the command tense meaning “you (singular masculine) be”] ) وَأَصْبَحَ and (he became) وَيُصْبِحُ and (he becomes) وَأَصْـبِحْ and (become). تَقُولُ‏‮ ‬‬(You say): كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمًا (Zayd was standing) وَلَيْسَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٌو شَاخِصًآ and (ʿAmr is not leaving) وَمَاأََشْبَهُ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِكَ (and what is similar to these examples).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

كان وأخواتها ترفع الـمبتدأ الَّذِي‮ ‬يُسَّمَى إسمها وتنصب الخبر الِّي‮ ‬يسّمى خبرها وهي‏‮ ‬‬ثلاثة عشر فعلاً‏‮ ‬‬كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬وأَمْسَى وأََصْبَحَ‏‮ ‬‬وأََضْحَى وظَلَّ‏‮ ‬‬وبَاتَ‏‮ ‬‬وصَارَ‏‮ ‬‬ولَيْسَ‏‮ ‬‬ومَا زَالَ‏‮ ‬‬ومَا اِنْفَكَّ‏‮ ‬‬ومَا فَتِئَ‏‮ ‬‬ومَا بَرِحَ‏‮ ‬‬ومَا دَامَ‏‮ ‬‬ويُشترَط في‏‮ ‬‬زَالَ‏‮ ‬‬التي‏‮ ‬‬مضارعها‏‮ ‬‬يَزَالُ‏‮ ‬‬واِنْفَكَّ‏‮ ‬‬وفَتِئَ‏‮ ‬‬وبَرِحَ‏‮ ‬‬أن‏‮ ‬‬يتقّدمها نفي‏‮ ‬‬أو شبهه وهو النهي‏‮ ‬‬والاستفهام نحو مَا زَالَ‏‮ ‬‬ولاَ‏‮ ‬‬تَزَلْ‏‮ ‬‬وهَلْ‏‮ ‬‬تَزَالُ‏‮ ‬‬وقِس عليه اِِنفَكَّ‏‮ ‬‬وفَتِئَ‏‮ ‬‬وبَرِحَ‏‮ ‬‬وأمّا دَامَ‏‮ ‬‬فَيُشتَرط فيها أن‏‮ ‬‬يتقدّمها ما الـمـصدرية نحو مَا دَامَ‏‮ ‬‬و اُلـْحِق بكان كُلُّ‏‮ ‬‬فِعْلٍ‏‮ ‬‬لا‏‮ ‬‬يستغني‏‮ ‬‬عن الخبر وهذه أمثلتها كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمًا أَمْسَى بَكْرٌ‏‮ ‬‬سَاهِرًا أصْبَحَ‏‮ ‬‬البَرْدُ‏‮ ‬‬شَدِيدًا أَضْحَى الْفَقِيهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَرِعًا ظَلَّ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٌو نَاسِكًا بَاتَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬سَاهِرًا صَارَ‏‮ ‬‬الطِّينُ‏‮ ‬‬إِبْرِيقًا لَيْسَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٌو زَاهِدًا مَا زَالَ‏‮ ‬‬أَحْمَدُ‏‮ ‬‬فَاضِلاً‏‮ ‬‬مَا اِنْفَكَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬نَاطِقًا مَا فَتِئَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٌو مُحِبّــًا مَا بَرِحَ‏‮ ‬‬الإِثْمُ‏‮ ‬‬مَكْرُوهًا لاَ‏‮ ‬‬أَصْحَبَكَ‏‮ ‬‬مَا دَامَ‏‮ ‬‬اللّهُ‏‮ ‬‬مَوْجُودًا وهكذا ما تصرَّف منها فإنّه‏‮ ‬‬يعمل عمَلَ‏‮ ‬‬مَاضِيها تقول في‏‮ ‬‬ما تصرّف من كان‏‮ ‬‬يَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬مُحْسِنًا وكُنْ‏‮ ‬‬مُحِبّــًا وعَجِبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬كَوْنِ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٍو صَدِيقًا وقِسْ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَيْهَا ما بقي‏‮ ‬‬

Explanation of Text in English:

كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬أَخْوَاتِهَا (kaana and its sisters) causes الْـمُبْتَدَأ (the subject) which is called إِِسْمُهَا (its noun) to be in the case of rafʿ and causes الْـخَبَر (the predicate) which is called خَبْرُهَـا (its predicate) to be in the case of naṣb. They are thirteen verbs: كَـانَ (he/it was), أَمْسَـى (he/it became), أَصْـبَحَ (he/it became), أَضْـحَى (he/it became), ظَـلَّ (he/it became), بَـاتَ (he/it became), صَارَ (he/it became), لَيْسَ (he/it is not), مَـا زَالَ (he/it has not ceased [he/it continues), مَـا إِنْـفَكَّ (he/it did not stop doing), مَـا فَـتِئَ (he/it did not stop), مَـا بَـرِحَ (he/it did not stop), مَـا دَامَ (he/it continued).

It has been made conditional for زَالَ which is conjugated in the present tense as يَزَالُ and فَتِئَ ,إِنْفَكَّ and بَرِحَ to be preceded by حَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬النَّفْي (a particle of negation) or what is similar to it like حَـرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬النَّهْـي (the particle of prohibition) and حَـرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الاِسْـتِفْهَام (the interrogative particle) – and so you say: مَـا زَالَ (he / it continued) and لاَ‏‮ ‬‬تَـزَالْ (do not stop / continue) and هَـلْ‏‮ ‬‬تَـزَالُ (is it still going on / are you [masc.] continuing / is she continuing) and it is like this with إِنْـفَكَّ and بَـرِحَ. As for دَامَ, it has been made conditional for it that مَا الـْمَصْدَرِيَّـة (the maa (مَا) that is used to introduce a clause that is equivalent to the infinitive) precedes it like when you say: مَا دَامَ (he / it did not ceased).

Every verb which is associated with كَـانَ must have a predicate and the example of these are: كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمًا  (Zayd was standing), أَمْسَى بَكْرٌ‏‮ ‬‬سَاهِرًا (Bakr became awake), أَصْـبَحَ‏‮ ‬‬الْبَرْدُ‏‮ ‬‬شَدِيدًا (the coldness became harsh),أَضْـــحَى الْفَقيـِـهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَرِعــــًا (the jurist became pious), ظَــلَّ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْــــرٌو نَـاسِكــــًا  (‘Amr  became  a  pious  man),  بَـــاتَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْــدٌ‏‮ ‬‬سـاهِرًا  (Zayd  stayed  awake  all night), صــــَـارَ‏‮ ‬‬طِـينُ‏‮ ‬‬إِبْـرِيقـًا (the clay became a jug [that  is  to say that it was made into a jug]), لَـيْسَ‏‮ ‬‬عَـمْرٌو زَاهِدًا (ʿAmr is not ascetic),

مَـا زَالَ‏‮ ‬‬أَحْمَدُ‏‮ ‬‬فَـاضِلاً (Ahmad continues to be kind), مَـا إِنْفَكَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدٌ‏‮ ‬‬نَـاطِـقًا (Zayd continues to be / is still eloquent), مَا فَـتِئَ‏‮ ‬‬عَـمْرٌو مُـحِِِـّبًا (‘Amr continues to be / is still a friend), مَـا بَرِحَ‏‮ ‬‬الإِثْـمُ‏‮ ‬‬مَـكْرُوهًـا (sin continues to be / is still detestable), لاَ‏‮ ‬‬أَصْـحَبُـكَ‏‮ ‬‬مَـا دَامَ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّهُ‏‮ ‬‬مَـوْجُـودًا (I do not need you as a companion while Allah is present). And so it is like this with what has been derived from them and it functions like its past tense. You say for what has been derived from كــــَـانَ: يَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيدٌ‏‮ ‬‬مُحْسِــنًا (Zayd is benevolent) and كُــنْ‏‮ ‬‬مُحِبّــًا (Be beloved) and عَجِبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬مِن كَوْنِ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٍو صَدِيقًا ( I was amazed by the friendship of ‘Amr) and so forth with the rest of them.

ʿArabic Text:‏‮

‏‮(‬‬وَأَمَّا إِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخَوَاتُهَا فَإِنَّهَا تَنْصِبُ‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمَ‏‮ ‬‬وَتَرْفَعَ‏‮ ‬‬الـْخَبَرَ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬إِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَكِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَكَأَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَيْتَ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَعَلَّ‏‮ ‬‬تَقُولُ‏‮ ‬‬إِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا قَائِمٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬لَيْتَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرًا شَاخِصٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا أَشْبَهُ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَعَنَى إِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وأَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬لِلتَّوْكِيدِ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَكِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬لِلاِسْتِدْرَاكِ‏‮  ‬‬وَكَأَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬لِلتَّشْبِيهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَيْتَ‏‮ ‬‬لِلتَّمَنِّي‏‮ ‬‬وَلَعَلَّ‏‮ ‬‬لِلتَّرَجِّي‏‮ ‬‬وَالتَّوَقُّعِ‏‮) ‬‬

English Translation:

إِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاتِهَا (And inna and its sisters) فَإِنَّهَا تَنْصِبُ‏  الإِسْمَ (they cause the noun to be in the case of naṣb) وَتَرْفَعُ‏  الـْخَبَرَ (and they cause the predicate to be in the case of rafʿ) وَهِـيَ‏‮ ‬‬(and they are): إِنَّ (verily, that), وَأَنَّ and (that), وَلَكِنَّ and (but), وَكَأَنَّ and (as if), وَلَيْتَ and (if only…) وَلَعَلَّ and (perhaps). تَقُولُ‏ (You say): إِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا قَائِمٌ (verily Zayd is standing),  وَلَيْتَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرًا شَاخِصٌ and (if only ʿAmr was leaving) وَمَا أَشْبَهُ (and what is similar to these examples). وَمَعَنَى (and the purpose of) إنَّ‏‮ ‬‬and أَنَّ is) لِـلتَّوْكِيدِِ‏‮ ‬‬(for emphasis); وَلَكِنَّ (and lakinna is) لِلاِسْتِدْرَاكِ‏‮ ‬‬(for correction) وَكَأَنَّ (and ka-anna is) لِلتَّشْبِيهِ‏‮ ‬‬(for comparison) وَلَيْتَ (and layta)‏‮ ‬‬لِلتَّمَنِّي (is used to express a desire). وَلَعَلَّ (and laʿlla) لِلتَّرَجِّي‏‮ ‬‬وَالتَّوَقُّعِ (is used to express hope and anticipation).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وإخواتها تعمل عكس عمل كان لأنها تنصب الـمبتدأ وترفع الخبر ويُسمَّيان إسمها وخبرها وهي‏‮ ‬‬ستـة أحرف إِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَكِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَكَأَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَيْتَ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَعَلَّ‏‮ ‬‬وهذه أمثلتها إِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا قَائِمٌ‏‮ . ‬‬بَلَغَنِي‏‮ ‬‬أَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬اَحْمَدَ‏‮ ‬‬نَاسِكٌ‏‮ . ‬‬عَمْرٌو حَكِيمٌ‏‮ ‬‬لاَكِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬ابْنَهُ‏‮ ‬‬جَاهِلٌ‏‮ . ‬‬كَأَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا أَسَدٌ‏‮. ‬‬لَيْتَ‏‮ ‬‬جَهُولاً‏‮ ‬‬حَكِيمٌ‏‮ . ‬‬لَعَلَّ‏‮ ‬‬اللََّهَ‏‮ ‬‬غَافِرٌ‏‮ ‬‬وهكذا عملها في‏‮ ‬‬قولك إِنَّكَ‏‮ ‬‬فَاضِلٌ‏‮ ‬‬ولَيْتَكَ‏‮ ‬‬مُحْسِنٌ‏‮ ‬‬ولَعَلَّكَ‏‮ ‬‬قَادِمٌ‏‮ ‬‬وما أشبه ذلك‏‮  ‬‬

Explanation of Text in English:

إِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاتِهَا  (Inna and its sisters) perform an opposite function to that of كَـانَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأخْوَاتِهَا (Kaana and its sisters), because it causes its subject to be in the case of naṣb and its predicate to be in the case of rafʿ. Both of them [the subject and the predicate] are called إِسْمُهَا وَخَبْرُهَا (its noun and its predicate [that is to say: the noun and predicate of Inna and sisters]).  إِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاتِهَا (Inna and its sisters) are comprised of six particles. إِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَكِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَكَأَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَيْتَ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَعَلَّ. Their examples (in  usage  are like when you say):    بَلَغَـــنِي‏‮ ‬‬أَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬أَحْمَدَ‏‮ ‬‬نَاسِكٌ (It has reached me that Ahmad is a pious man), عَمْرٌو حَكِيِمٌ‏‮ ‬‬لاَكِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬ابْنَهُ‏‮ ‬‬جَاهِلٌ (ʿAmr is wise but his son is ignorant), كَأَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا أَسَدٌ (It is as if Zayd was lion), ‏‮ ‬‬لَيْـتَ‏‮ ‬‬جَهُولاً‏‮ ‬‬حَكِيــمٌ  (If  only the ignorant  were  wise),  لَعَـــلَّ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّهَ‏‮ ‬‬غَافِرٌ (Perhaps Allah will forgive…) and like this, their  function is also like when you say: إِنَْكَ‏‮ ‬‬فَاضِلٌ (Surely you are kind), لَيْتَكَ‏‮ ‬‬مُحْسِنٌ (If only you were charitable) and لَعَلَّكَ‏‮ ‬‬قَادِمٌ (Perhaps you will arrive) and what is similar to these.

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَأَمَّا ظَنَنْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاتُهَا فَإِنَّهَا تَنْصِبُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُبْتَدَأَ‏‮ ‬‬وَالـْخَبَرَ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَى أَنَّهُمَا مَفْعُولاَنِ‏‮ ‬‬لَهَا وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬ظَنَنْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَحَسِبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَخِلْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَزَعَمْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَرََأَيْتُ‏‮  ‬‬وَعَلِمْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَوَجَدْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَاتَّخَذْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬جَعَلْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَسَمِعْتُ‏‮ ‬‬تَقُولُ‏‮ ‬‬ظَنَنْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا مُنْطَلِقًا وَخِلْتُ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرًا شَاخِصًا وَمَا أَشْبَهَ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِكَ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

وَأَمَّا ظَنَنْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاتِهَا (And as for hanantu [ḍhanna] and its sisters), فَإِنَّهَا تَنْصِبُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُبْتَدَأَ‏‮ ‬‬وَالـْخَبَر (they cause the subject and the predicate to be in the case of naṣb) عَلَى أَنَّهُمَا (due to the fact that both of them [the subject and the predicate]) مَفْعُولاَنِ‏‮ ‬‬لَهَا (are objects for them [ḍhanna and its sisters]). ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬(They are): ظَنَنْتُ (I thought) وَحَسِبْتُ and (I thought)‏‮ ‬‬وَخِلْتُ  and (I thought) وَزَعَمْتُ and (I believed) وَرَأَيْتُ and (I believed) وَعَلِمْتُ and (I knew) وَجَدْتُ and (I found) وَاِتَّخَذْتُ and (I took) وَجَعَلْتُ and (I made) سَمِعْتُ and (I listened). You say: ظَنَنْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا مُنْطَلِقًا (I thought Zayd was leaving) وَحَسَبْتُ‏  عَمْرًا ذَاهِبًا and (I thought ʿAmr was going) وَخِلْتُ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرًا شَاخِصًا and (I thought ʿAmr was leaving) and it is similar with what resembles these examples.

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إنّ‏‮ ‬‬ظَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وأخواتها تنصب الـمبتدأ والخبر على أنهما مفعولان لها وهي‏‮ ‬‬عشرة أفعال ظَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وحَسَبَ‏‮ ‬‬وخَالَ‏‮ ‬‬وزَعَمَ‏‮ ‬‬ورَأَى وعَلِمَ‏‮ ‬‬ووَجَدَ‏‮ ‬‬واتَّخَذَ‏‮ ‬‬وجَعَلَ‏‮ ‬‬وسَمِعَ‏‮ ‬‬وما في‏‮ ‬‬معناها وهذه أمثلتها ظَنَنْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيدًا قَائِمًا‏‮ . ‬‬حَسِبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرًا ذَاهِبًا‏‮ . ‬‬خِلْتُ‏‮ ‬‬اَجْمَدَ‏‮ ‬‬صَدِيقًا‏‮ . ‬‬زَعَمْتُ‏‮ ‬‬صِدْقَكَ‏‮ ‬‬رَاجِحًا‏‮ . ‬‬رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا مَاشِِيًا‏‮ . ‬‬عَلِمْتُ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّهَ‏‮ ‬‬رَاحِمًا  ‏‮. ‬‬وَجَدْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا مُحْسِنًا‏‮ . ‬‬اِتَّخَذْتُ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّهَ‏‮ ‬‬مُعيِنًا‏‮ . ‬‬جَعَلْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الطِينَ‏‮ ‬‬اِبْرِيقًا‏‮ . ‬‬سَمِعْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الشَّاعِرَ‏‮ ‬‬مُنْشِدًا وهكذا ما تصرَّف منها فإنَّه‏‮ ‬‬يعمل عمل ماضِيها تقول في‏‮ ‬‬ما تصرّف من ظَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬أَظُنُّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا صَادِقًا وَظُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬الأَمْرَصَالِحًآ وأَنَا ظَانُّ‏‮ ‬‬بَكْرًا ذَاهِبًا وعَجِبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬ظَنِّكَ‏‮ ‬‬زيْدًا قَائِمًا وعََمْرٌو مَظْنُونٌ‏‮ ‬‬أَبُوهُ‏‮ ‬‬نَائِمًا وقس على ذلك ما اَشْبَهَهُ

Explanation of Text in English:

ظَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاتِهَا (ḍhanantu [ḍhanna] and its sisters) cause the subject and the predicate to be in the case of naṣb due to the fact that they (the subject and the predicate) are direct and indirect objects of them (ظَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاتِهَا)  (that is to say: in the same sentence the subject and  the predicate  are  objects  of  ظَنَنْــتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬أَخْوَاتِــهَا.  ظَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاتِهَا include ten verbs: ظَنَّ (He thought), حَسِبَ (He thought), خَالَ (He thought), زَعَمَ (He believed), رَأَى (He believed), عَلِمَ (He knew), وَجَدَ (He found), اِتَّخَذَ (He took), جَعَلَ (He made), سَمِع (He listened) and those verbs which have similar meaning.  These are their examples: ظَنَنْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيدًا قَائِمًا (I thought Zayd was standing), حَسِبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرًا ذَاهِبًا (I thought ‘Amr was going), خِلْتُ‏‮ ‬‬أَحْمَدَ‏‮ ‬‬صَدِيقًا (I considered Ahmad a friend), زَعَمْت صِدْقَكَ‏‮ ‬‬رَاجِحًا (I believed your truthfulness is more acceptable), رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا مَاشِيًا (I saw Zayd walking), عَلِمْتُ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّهَ‏‮ ‬‬رَاحِمًا (I know Allah is Merciful), وَجَدْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا مُحْسِنًا (I found Zayd to be benevolent), اتَّخَذْتُ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّهَ‏‮ ‬‬مُعِينًا (I took Allah as a helper),جَعَلْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الطِّينَ‏‮ ‬‬إِبْرِيقًا (I made the clay into a jug) and سَمِعْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الشَّاعِرَ‏‮ ‬‬مُنْشِدًا (I heard that the poet is a singer) and it is similar to this for what is derived from them.  They function in accord with their past tense.  And so you say in what has been derived from dhanna: أَظُنُّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا صَادِقًا (I believe Zayd is truthful), ظُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬الأَمْرَ‏‮ ‬‬صَالـِحًا  (deem the affair sound) أَنَا‏‮ ‬‬ظَانٌّ‏‮ ‬‬بَكْرًا ذَاهِبًا (I think Bakr is going)  عَجِبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬ظَنِّكَ‏‮ ‬‬زيْدًا قَائِمًا  (I am surprised you thought Zayd was standing) and عََمْرٌو مَظْنُونٌ‏‮ ‬‬أَبُوهُ‏‮ ‬‬نَائِمًا (‘Amr thought his father was sleeping) and it is similar with what resembles these.

Published in: on February 13, 2011 at 16:17  Leave a Comment  

Fiqh of Minorities (Part 2)

From Mahdi Lock’s Blog

Fiqh of Minorities (Part 2)

Mawlid Khutbah[1]: Fiqh of Minorities is the most recent means of playing with Allah’s Dīn.

By Sheikh Muḥammad Saʿīd Ramaḍān Al-Būṭī

In the Name of Allah, The All Merciful, The Most Merciful

All praise is due to Allah, praise that complies with His blessings and compensates His abundance. Our Lord, for You is all praise as befits the majesty of Your countenance and the might of Your authority. O Allah, I cannot sufficiently enumerate praises upon You; You are as You have praised Your self. I bear witness that there is no god but Allah alone and He has no partner, and I bear witness that our Sayyid[2] Muḥammad is His slave and Messenger and His sincere and intimate friend, the best prophet that Allah sent to the entire world as a herald of glad tidings and admonition. O Allah, pray upon, give peace and give blessings upon our Sayyid Muḥammad and upon the family of our Sayyid Muḥammad, prayers and peace that last inseparably until the Day of Judgement. I advise you and my sinning self to have fearful awareness of Allah the Exalted.
To proceed, O slaves of Allah:
It has been authentically related from our Beloved Muṣṭafā, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, that he said: ‘None of you will truly have faith until Allah and His Messenger are more beloved to one than anything else.’ He also said: ‘None of you will truly have faith until I am more beloved to him than his wealth, his children and his own self that is between his two sides.’ It has been authentically related that one of the Companions asked the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, about the Hour, and Al-Muṣṭafā, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, said to him: ‘What have you prepared for it?’ He said: ‘By Allah, I have not prepared for it with many prayers or much fasting, but I have prepared for it with love for Allah and His Messenger’, so he said: ‘You will be with those whom you love.’
We, O brothers, are believers, and for Allah is all praise. This means that there must be from us some portion of love, even it is a little, for the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, and I hope that portion is not a little. I hope that it is as the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, said, that the love of Al-Muṣṭafā is greater than the love of wealth, children and one’s self. And if, in these days, the winds of remembering the birth of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, are blowing towards us, and the winds of feeling love for our Beloved Muṣṭafā, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, are circling our hearts, what will the effect be that these feelings will leave, which have soaked up and mixed with the winds of the remembrance?
O brothers, it is known that that which is called fiʿl [action] comes from the person by their volition, and that which is called infiʿāl [being acted upon] only comes from the person if it is forced upon him, and love is infiʿāl and not fiʿland the results of love are also infiʿālāt that are forced and not actions that are voluntary.[3]
If we want to imagine the extent of infiʿāl that should be invoked in the heart of the believer that loves his Master[4] and loves His Messenger Al-Muṣṭafā, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, then let us look at this last ḥadīth that is narrated by Al-Bukhārī in his Ṣaḥīḥ: ‘The Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, was seen fasting one day and it was not Ramaḍān and it was not ʿĀshūrāʾor Tāsūʿāʾ[5], so one of the Companions asked him about that day and why he was fasting on it, and he said: ‘It is the day on which I was born.’ It was Monday that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, celebrated as the day of his birth. What does it mean that the Messenger of Allah celebrates the day of his birth, except that it is gratitude to his Lord and Master, Glorified and Exalted is He, that He honoured him with this mission, so which of us has more of a right to be celebrating? The Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, who Allah sent as a mercy to all of creation or us, whom Allah has honoured with the Dīn by way of him, because if it were not for Muḥammad we would not have known our Lord, and if it were not for him we would not have known our slavehood to Allah the Exalted, which of us has more right to celebrate the day the Messenger of Allah was born? As for the Messenger of Allah, he celebrated it and expressed his celebration by fasting that day out of gratitude to Allah for honouring him with prophethood, but we have more right, O brothers. Our gathering here right now in this masjid and standing in front of our Master and Creator, the only preference in that is that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, he is the one who spread the message, and he is the one who fulfilled his trust. That is why the affair of every Muslim, when he stands in front of the resting place of the Messenger of Allah may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, he sends peace upon him and says to him: ‘I bear witness that you, the Messenger of Allah, have fulfilled your trust and you have conveyed the message. May Allah reward you on behalf of your Ummah with that which is better than what any prophet has been rewarded on behalf of his people and Ummah.’[6] It is our priority that the feelings of remembering the birth of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, are invoked between our ribs, as I have said to you. If the winds of remembering the birth of Al-Muṣṭafā are kindled with feelings of love for Al-Muṣṭafā in our hearts then the affair becomes something that is affected by force, and cannot be stopped by actions of volition. The love is affected by force. You have heard it now from the speech of our Sayyid, the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, and he has reiterated many times that the slave does not have complete faith unless he loves the Messenger of Allah more than his wealth, his children and his very soul between his two sides. This is what the Messenger of Allah said to Abu Bakr.
On this blessed and glorious day I call upon myself and all of you to look for a place in our hearts for loving the Messenger of Allah. I call upon myself and you to ask one another about the measure of faith, and the measure of faith is as you have heard. It is the love of the believer for the Messenger of Allah after his love for Allah, Glorified and Exalted is He. I fear, O brothers, that the love of this world is triumphant today. I fear that the love of wealth, family and children has mastery today. I fear that egotism, conceit, and narcissism are dominant today. If that is the case then I ask Allah to grant pardon and well-being to myself and you, for we would know that we are in a serious situation. We would know that our faith is only customary and not the faith that Allah, Exalted and Glorified is He, requires of us and which was implanted in the hearts of the pious predecessors.[7] That is the most sought-after objective.
O brothers: when I imagine the love of the Messenger of Allah for his Ummah and his longing for his brothers and I turn to the reality of our situation and I turn to where our hearts lie, I feel great shame, and I feel distress that torments me and pulls at my heart. Imam Mālik narrates in his Muwaṭṭaʾ, as do others, with an authentic chain of transmission that the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, once visited Al-Baqīʿ[8] with a group of his Companions and gave the greeting of peace to the people of Al-Baqīʿ. Then he said: ‘I wish that I could see our brothers.’ One of his Companions said to him: ‘Are we not your brothers, O Messenger of Allah?’ He said: ‘You are my Companions. My brothers are those who have not yet come, and I will be waiting for them at the Ḥawḍ.’[9] Someone asked: ‘And you will recognize them O Messenger of Allah? How will you recognize them when you won’t see them until you receive them at the Ḥawḍ?’ He said: ‘Do you not see how a man, if he has some brilliant white-faced and white-footed horses in the midst of some jet black horses that he would recognize them?’ Imagine if a man had a horse that had a white circle on its forehead and white bracelets on its legs and it was amongst some jet black horses, would he not recognize them? The man said: ‘Yes.’ He said: ‘And I will know them, because they will be white-faced and white-footed from the effects of wūḍū.ʾ’ When I stop at this speech and look at how the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s prayers and and peace be upon him,longed for us I have to ask: How is our longing for the Messenger of Allah? How is our yearning for the Messenger of Allah? Perhaps I’m just making a claim if I say that we yearn for him in the way that he yearns for us, but brother, this has nothing to do with claims.
Claims that are not backed by clear proofs are nothing more than claims for those who use them.
I must look for a proof that we long for the Messenger of Allah. What have I done to prove my longing for him? Have I revived a Sunnah that he left as a trust for us? Have I carried out the pieces of advice that he made us responsible for, that he made to be trust in our hands generation after generation? Have we preserved the pure white path that he left for us, the outward of which is like the inward? Look at the conclusion of the hadith, after he says: ‘And I will know them, because they will be white-faced and white-footed from the effects of wūḍū.ʾ’ He says: ‘Men will be driven away from my Ḥawḍ the way a stray camel is driven away.’ Meaning, men will be forced away from my Ḥawḍ the way a lost camel that has mixed in with other camels is forced away, and I will say: ‘“Indeed, come forward! Come forward!” But it will be said that you don’t know what they changed after you, and I will say: “Away with them, away with them, away with them!”
I fear, O brothers, that we become of those who change things. I fear that we have obscured our conduct with claims that have no proof to back them up.
I repeat: Let us find a hiding place in our hearts for the love of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him. If it is true that we are still holding to the covenant and that our hearts are embracing the love of our Messenger Muḥammad, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him; let us find proof of that. Are we guarding the Sharīʿah and protecting it from being altered, so that it is not changed in the name of traditions, or circumstances or ‘fiqh of minorities’, or any other excuse?
Indeed, what I see is that we have changed many things and we have corrupted many things. Online fatwas that are being issued in the western world, in Europe and America, is something that frightens the minds of the believers, something that induces fear and can have serious consequences in this life and the next. I am not concerned with mentioning whoever is making the fatwas that change and corrupt things, but were the matter to continue in this way we will find ourselves, in a few years’ time, in front of a new Sharīʿah, in front of a new Sharīʿah that we will cloak in the excuses of time and place, environmental factors, the weather, welfare and whatever else there is.
Consider this point. If our hearts had been embracing the love of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, in the same way that he loves us, and if our hearts had embraced the yearning for the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, in the same way that he yearns for us, would we be engaged in changing and corrupting our Dīn? Would we turn away from the authentic aḥādīth of which there is no doubt and hide them from examination and consideration and say: Indeed we are facing a bewildering trend called ‘Fiqh of Minorities’?
I said recently: If this path that is being travelled upon today is safe – and we don’t know where it will end, but indeed, where will it stop? If this way is safe and accepted in the Dīn of Allah, then why was emigration from the lands of Kufr legislated[10] if the Muslim finds that wherever he is able he can acclimatize himself with the environment that he is in by means of fatwas that he subjugates to the environment that he’s in, instead of doing the exact opposite?[11] That’s why we have been kept in order by the words of Allah the Exalted: ‘When the angels seized the souls of those who were doing wrong to themselves, they asked them: “What was the matter with you?” They answered: “We were oppressed in the land.” The angels replied: “Was not Allah’s earth spacious for you to emigrate in it?” Hell is the abode of such people.’ [An-Nisāʾ 4:97]. There is no need for this speech,[12] there is no need for emigration because the Muslims, wherever they are, it suffices them to assimilate with the place that they are living in.[13]
What is of greater consequence is that only recently we were expecting that these western societies, with the presence of so many Muslims, would gradually change into Islamic lands. We were expecting the peaceful, wise and serious Islamic current to become prodigious without any excessiveness, without any immoderation, without any terrorism – as they say – by means of the essential preservation of the realities of Islam and by means of patience and being more patient than others with the rulings of Allah, Glorified and Exalted is He. We were expecting, if things continued in this fashion, that the sun of Islam would rise in these places completely, just as our pious predecessors did on the day ‘Abdur Raḥmān Ad-Dākhil travelled to northwest Africa and with him were a group of his companions, and after a few years Islamic governance was established. He did not draw a weapon, he did not adopt a position of hostility and he never did any of the actions that are nowadays called extremism or terrorism, in any of their forms. It all comes down to two things: implementing the Sharīʿah as Allah has commanded and guarding it, and to act according to Islam’s distinguished manners, which is to implement the advice of the Messenger of Allah in which he said: ‘You will not increase amongst the people with your wealth, but you will be increased from them by having a pleasant face and beautiful manners.’ The sun of Islam radiated in those places and then spread and increased its rays far and wide, and quickly, for as long as Islamic governance was established there.
We were expecting that here as well, but today we are shocked to find that we are being threatened with the opposite. Muslims today, because of what is being called ‘fiqh of minorities’, are the ones who are being dyed[14] in the habits of this society and its conventions, circumstances and forbidden aspects. It is nothing other than us dying these customs that exist here in the dye of Islam and cloaking them in the cloak of the Islamic Sharīʿah.[15]
O brothers: When I look at this bitter reality I remember the words of the Messenger of Allah: ‘Men will be driven away from my Ḥawḍ the way a stray camel is driven away and I will say: “Indeed, come forward! Come forward!” But it will be said that you don’t know what they changed after you.’ O brothers, beware of becoming from these people. Beware, and the Messenger of Allah has yearned for you, that you cut off the outstretched ropes of this longing between you and him by means of the knife of changing and corrupting. Beware O brothers! Indeed it is a tremendous treasure. I hope that Allah the Exalted will honour me and you with him the day he said: ‘I wish that I could see our brothers.’ I ask Allah, the Lord of the Tremendous Throne, to make us from his brothers, those whom he longs for, and I ask Him, Exalted is He, to give us success in exchanging his longing for our longing. I ask Him, Exalted is He, to enable us to translate our yearning for him by preserving what he has passed down to us, by guarding the legislation that he has placed as a trust in our hands, made us responsible for, and made as a debt that we owe.
O brothers: Be vigilant with everything that you possess so that you do not change or corrupt anything. If someone says to you: ‘But the Sharīʿah of Allah the Exalted has much ease in it, and there is the maxim: ‘Wherever benefit is found then there is Allah’s legislation.’ We say ‘Yes’, but how we measure benefit and harm is based on the practice and understanding of our pious predecessors.[16] Return to the treasures of the Islamic Sharīʿah, return to what the Four Imāms have said. You will find in their fiqh and their fatwas that which suffices, and if you find yourselves in front of a red line then you have to be patient.[17] Al-Muṣṭafā said likewise in another hadith: ‘Indeed you will find many different ways[18] after me, so be patient until you meet me at the Ḥawḍ.’ By Allah, this advice is almost as if the Messenger of Allah is looking down on us. You will see after me the egoism of conceit, the egoism of passions, the egoism of desires and lusts. What position should we take? Be patient … be patient until you meet me at the Ḥawḍ.
O Allah, enable us to be patient. Enable us to be steadfast. Allah, make us by Your grace, Your bounty and Your favour, from the brothers of Your Beloved Al-Muṣṭafā, those who he yearns for. Ennoble us, O Lord of all creation, to yearn for him the way he yearns for us.
This is what I have said, and I seek forgiveness from Allah, the Most High, the Tremendous.
[Second Khutbah]
All praise be to Allah, much praise as He has commanded, and I thank Him for all of His manifest and hidden blessings, those I know about and those I don’t know, and I send prayers and peace upon our Beloved, Al-Muṣṭafā, Muḥammad, the son of ʿAbdullah. O Allah, send prayers, peace and blessing upon and our Master Muḥammad, prayers that please You and him and make You pleased with us, O Lord of all creation.
Slaves of Allah! Fear Allah in what He has commanded you and desist from what He has forbidden and rebuked. Remove the love of this world from your hearts, for indeed when it becomes dominant it takes prisoners. Know that Allah has commanded you decisively with a command in which He began by mentioning Himself and then the angels who glorify Him, the Almighty, The Wise, when He said: {Indeed Allah and His Angels send prayers upon the Prophet. O you who believe! Send prayers and much peace upon him} [Al-Aḥzāb 33:56.] Increase in your prayers upon Muḥammad, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, on this glorious day, the day of Friday. He [may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him] said: ‘Increase in your prayers upon me on the radiant day and the radiant night.’ So on this day we increase in our prayers upon our Beloved Al-Muṣṭafā, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him. O Allah, send prayers upon our Master Muḥammad and upon the family of our Master Muḥammad as You sent prayers upon our Master Ibrāhīm and the family of our Master Ibrāhīm, and bless our Master Muḥammad and the family of our Master Muḥammad as You blessed the family of our Master Ibrāhīm and the family of our Master Ibrāhīm, in all of creation, indeed You are the Most Praiseworthy, the Glorious, and may Allah be pleased with the rightly-guided Khulafāʾ and those who follow them in excellence until the Day of Judgement.
O Allah, forgive the Muslim men and women and the believing men and women, the living from amongst them and the dead, and join their hearts together, O Lord of all creation.
O Allah, indeed we ask you for guidance, chastity and sufficiency. O Allah, indeed we ask that You don’t cut us off from You because of our sins, and because of the ugliness of our vices. O He who holds both difficulty and ease, we ask You O Allah, nothing is hidden from You. O Allah, purify our hearts from any quality that takes us far from Your witnessing[19] and Your love. Prolong for us Your Providence and veil our sins with Your beautiful veil. O Allah, convey from us the greetings of peace to the spirit of our Master Muḥammad, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him. O Allah, as we have believed in him without seeing him, please do not deprive us of seeing him in the Paradise, O Lord of all creation. O Allah, assist us in guarding your Dīn. O Allah, do not make us from those who change it and corrupt it. O Allah, enable us to be patient with the treasure of this Dīn that you have honoured us with, O Lord of all creation, O Lord of Majesty and Generosity. O Allah, indeed we ask you in the submissiveness of our slavehood to You and the severity of our destitution towards You, to give victory to Your believing slaves who are being oppressed, vanquished and persecuted in Palestine and in the eastern lands of the Earth and the western lands, wherever they are O Lord of all creation, O Lord of Majesty and Generosity. O Allah, Revealer of the Book, Mover of the clouds, Vanquisher of the confederates, vanquish the transgressors who enter the Muslim world with their pride and their arrogance, opposing You, and they have declared war on Your Islam and Your Qurʾān, O Lord of all creation. O Allah, no-one knows Your armies but You, inflict upon them an army from your armies that will make them a lesson for those who reflect from amongst Your believing slaves, O Lord of Majesty and Generosity. O Allah, indeed Your Prophet Nūḥ supplicated to You and You answered him, and indeed Your Prophet Yūnus bin Matā supplicated to You and called upon You from the depths of darkness and You answered him, and indeed Your Prophet Zakariyā called upon You in secret and You answered him. Indeed Your Prophet Ayyūb supplicated to You and You saved him from grief and answered him, and indeed Your Prophet Muḥammad, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, supplicated to You on the day of Badr and on the day of the Confederates and You answered him, and we are Your believing slaves, O Lord of all creation. Make us from amongst those selected people whom you honoured and answered their supplications, even though we have not reached their rank, O Lord of all creation, but You are the Generous, Generous, Pitying, the Answerer of prayers, make us from amongst them. Answer our supplication as well, O Lord of all creation. We have extended to You our hands in supplication, do not leave them disappointed. We have extended our hands in submissiveness to Your door, we are knocking on the door of Your Mercy, O He who does not close His door on anyone, do not leave us disappointed, O Lord of Majesty and Generosity, O Lord of Power and Favour, You said: {It is a duty upon Us to give victory to the believers} [Ar-Rūm 30:47]. We are believers in You, O Lord of all creation.
Fulfil the promise that Your Exalted Essence has imposed upon itself. O Lord, You said: {When you begged your Lord He answered you} [Al-Anfāl 8:9]. Here we are begging you as Your Prophet Muhammad and those with him begged you. We are wallowing in our sins and we are wallowing in the burdens of our responsibilities that You have placed upon us, O Lord of all creation. You are the Loving and Forgiving Lord. Pardon us with Your beautiful pardon. You said: {Say: Everyone does things their own way} [Al-Isrāʾ 17:84]. Your way is the way of mercy. Your way is the way of forgiveness. Your way is the way of repentance. Forgive us our sins, and rectify our states.
The rulers of the Muslims, O Lord, gather their speech upon that which pleases you. Bring them to Your straight path and direct their hearts to what pleases You, purify them from the love of others. O Lord of all creation, purify them from the veils that take them far from you, O Lord of Majesty and Generosity. Rectify the affairs of all the Muslims and unify their hearts and their ranks. May Allah send prayers and peace upon our Master Muhammad, the Unlettered Prophet, and upon his family and all of his Companions, Āmīn, Āmīn, Āmīn.
And all Praise is due to Allah, Lord of all creation.

[1] This Khutbah was given on May 16th, 2003
[2] This term means ‘master’ and only applies to human beings.
[3] Love is something that is forced upon the person and cannot be brought about by one’s own volition.
[4] Arabic: Mawlā, which can be used for both human beings and Allah.
[5] The ninth and tenth of Muḥarram.
[6] This duʿā can be found in the books of fiqh of all four madhhabs in the chapter on Hājj under the section on visiting the grave of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him.
[7] Arabic: As-Salaf As-Ṣāliḥ. When Orthodox scholars use this term they mean the first three generations of Islam. This is based on the hadith, narrated by Imams Al-Bukhārī and Muslim, in which the Messenger of Allah, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, said: ‘The best generation is my generation, then those who come next, then those who come next.’
[8] A graveyard in Madīnah where many Prophetic Companions and saints are buried.
[9] The Ḥawḍ is one of the meeting places for the believers on the way to the Paradise and it is the source of the Kawthar’s sweet waters. It is sometimes translated as ‘pond’, ‘pool’ or ‘basin’, but none of these terms carry the necessary grandeur and majesty that is required.
[10] According to Imam ibn Mufliḥ al-Ḥanbalī in Al-Adāb ash-Sharʿīyyah [v.1 pp.191-92], Dār al-Kufr are the lands in which the laws of kufr are predominant, while Dār al-Islam are the lands in which the laws of Islam are predominant. It is worth mentioning that Sheikh Ramaḍān Al-Būṭī, may Allah preserve him, holds the position that it is impermissible to come to Dār al-Kufr unless it is for one of the following reasons: 1.Daʿwa (calling non-believers to faith, preaching the orthodox faith to cultists, and military expeditions sanctioned by a Muslim ruler). 2. Dire medical circumstances and 3. Acquiring knowledge to take back for the benefit of the Muslims.
[11] The point the Sheikh is making is that legal decisions are arrived at in a certain way, i.e. there is the reality, then the revelation, then the ruling. For example, a person may commit fornication, which would be the reality, and the revelation from the Sharīʿah is that such a person is lashed. However, if upon investigation of the case it is affirmed that the accused is not sane, and therefore not legally responsible, the ruling would be that they are pardoned. The opposite of this is for one to look at the reality and then formulate a ruling, and after that to attempt to find evidences to establish it in revelation. With regards to fiqh of minorities, it is one thing for Muslims to live in Dar Al-Kufr peaceably, and at times require a fatwa for certain eventualities, but it is an entirely different matter to go into Dar al-Kufr with a whole series of pre-planned fatwas that are subjugated to the environment. The environment must be subjugated to the Law, not the other way around.
[12] i.e. the verse above.
[13] Sheikh Muḥammad ibn Ibrāhīm Al-Ḥanbalī (d.1389/1969), in his textTaḥkīm Al-Qawānīn (p.6), says the following: ‘The Judgement of Allah and His Messenger does not change in its essence according to changing times and conditions, or new occurrences. There is no ruling, be whatever it may, except that its judgement is in the Book of Allah, or the Sunnah of His Messenger, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, or it is given to us by a direct statement of the scholars, or a choice between two rulings, or it is derived from the text. Whoever knows this, knows it, and whoever is ignorant of it is ignorant. But what the scholars have mentioned regarding different rulings under changing conditions has nothing to do with what is thought by some with small minds or complete lack of knowledge of the legal rulings or their underlying principles. These small-minded people desire that the rulings should be according to their bestial desires and their worldly pursuits and their sinful bodies, and because of this you will find them stalking about making the texts follow their desires and when possible they will distort words from their original context and use them for their own whims, whereas the understanding of a fatwa changing according to changing circumstances and times, the scholars say: “This is to do with what the Revealer of the Law has stated, the worthy goals He has mentioned, and the overall outcome, which is for the sake of Allah and His Messenger, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, no matter what.” It is well-known that the law-lords who fabricate laws are far from what we have just mentioned. They only speak of what tickles their fancy, be whatever it may, and reality is the most truthful witness.”’
[14] The Arabic word is the same word that is used for baptism.
[15] Sheikh Muḥammad ibn Ibrāhīm Al-Ḥanbalī, in his text Taḥkīm Al-Qawānīn(p.7), mentions five types of people who are disbelievers because they are judging by other than what Allah sent down, and the most severe is the fifth type of who he stated: ‘Of all the types of kufr, this is the most immense, universal, and manifest form which is stubbornly resistant to the Sharīʿah. It is arrogant towards the Sharīʿah’s rulings and is in opposition to Allah and His Messenger. They completely oppose the courts of the Sharīʿah. They have laid down their own courts and laws, prepared them, root and branch, dictated them, judged by them and made it compulsory to follow. They have authorities that they return to and sources of guidance. Just as the courts of the Sharīʿah all return to the authority of the Book of Allah and the Sunnah of His Messenger, may Allah’s prayers and peace be upon him, these false courts and laws return to fabricated sources and numerous canons of law, such as French law, American law, British law, and other law codes. Some of these codes take as authority innovators that attribute themselves to the Sharīʿah and other things besides. These courts are in many of the urban centres of the Muslims, open for business with their doors flung open, people rushing to them in throngs. Their leaders judge amongst them by what contradicts the Book and the Sunnah within their law codes. The leaders make them judge by it and command them and encourage them to practice it. So, what kufr is above thiskufr, and what greater opposition could there be to the testimony that Muḥammad r is the Messenger of Allah, after all of this has been said?’ We quote this because of the rise of “American” and “British” Islam, and the rise of “American” and “British” Islam will ultimately lead to, if we follow it to its logical conclusion, new canons of law as Sheikh Muhammad ibn Ibrahim mentioned above.
[16] See note 8.
[17] If we go back to notes 14 and 16, this is what Sheikh Muhammad ibn Ibrahim is also referring to. Fiqh of Minorities will inevitably lead to new ijtihād and new madhhabs while the people doing it will not be qualified mujtahids, absolute or otherwise.
[18] This refers to all the various religions, ideologies, cults and other false notions.
[19] This is a reference to the Jibrīl Ḥadīth in which the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, explained the true meaning of Iḥsān. Witnessing [mushāhada] means to worship Allah as if you are seeing Him. This ḥadīth is the first ḥadīth in Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim and the second in the Arbaʿīn An-Nawawiyyah.
Translated by Mahdi Lock. Click here for Original Arabic Version

 

Published in: on February 9, 2011 at 20:46  Leave a Comment  
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