Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 16 – (The Chapter About Al – Mafʿuul Bihi [The Object of the Verb])

     بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَفْعُول بِهِ‏‮ ‬‬

16 – (The Chapter About Al – Mafʿuul Bihi [The Object of the Verb])

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَهُو الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَنْصُوبُ‏‮ ‬‬الذِي‏‮ ‬‬يَقَعُ‏‮ ‬‬بِهِ‏‮ ‬‬الْفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا وَرَكَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَرَسَ‏‮ ‬‬وَهُوَ‏‮ ‬‬قِسْمَانِ‏‮ ‬‬ظَاهِرٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَمُضْمَرٌ‏‮ ‬‬فَالظَّاهِرُ‏‮ ‬‬مَا تَقَدَّمَ‏‮ ‬‬ذِكْرُهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْـمُضْمَرُ‏‮ ‬‬قِسْمانِ‏‮ ‬‬مُتَّصِلٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَمُنْفَصِلٌ‏‮ ‬‬فَالـْمُتَّصِلُ‏‮ ‬‬إِثْنَا عَشَرَ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبَنِي‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَنَا وَضَرَبَكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَكِ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَكمُا وَضَرَبَكُم‏‮ ‬‬ْ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَكُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَهَا وَضَرَبَهُمَا وَضَرَبَهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبَهُنُّ‏‮ ‬‬وَالـْمُنْفِصِلُ‏‮ ‬‬إِثْنَا عَشَرَ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬إِيَّايَ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬إِيَّانَا وَ‏‮ ‬‬إِيَّاكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّاكِ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّاكُمَا وَإِيَّاكُمْ‏‮  ‬‬وَإِيَّاكُنَّ‏‮  ‬‬وَإِيَّاهُ‏‮  ‬‬وَإِيَّاهَا وَإِيَّاهُمَا وَإِيَّاهُمْ‏‮  ‬‬وَإِيَّاهُنَّ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

وَهُـــو (And it [الـْمَفْعُــــولُ‏‮ ‬‬بِـــهِ (the direct object)] is)  الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَنْصُـوبُ (the  noun  in  the  case  of naṣb)  الذِي‏‮ ‬‬يَقَعُ‏‮ ‬‬بِهِ (upon which falls) الْفِعْلُ (the action of the verb) – نَحْو (like  when  you  say): ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـــدًا (I beat Zayd) وَرَكَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَرَسَ and (I mounted the mare).  وَهُو (It is) قِسْمَانِ‏‮ ‬‬ (of two kinds): ظَاهِرٌ (a distinct noun) وَمُضْمَرً (and a pronoun).   فَالظَّاهِرُ (And so the clearly distinct noun), مَا تَقَدَّمَ‏‮ ‬‬ذِكْرُهُ (is that which has already been mentioned previously) وَالْـمُضْمَرُ (and the   pronoun is) قِسْمَانِِِ (of two kind): مُـتَّصِلٌ (attached) and وَمُـنْفَصِلٌ (and detached).   فَالـْمُتَّصِــــلُ (And so the attached pronouns are) إِثْنَا عَشَرَ (twelve kinds): وَهِيَ (They are): ضَرَبَني (he beat me), وَضَرَبَنَا and (he beat us) وَضَرَبَكَ and (he beat you [masc. singular]) وَضَرَبَكِ and (he beat you [fem. singular]), ضَرَبَكُمَا and (he beat the two of you [two males or two females]) وَضَرَبَكُمْ and (he beat you  [three or more males]) وَضَرَبَكُنَّ and (he beat you [three or more females]) وَضَرَبَهُ and (he beat him) وَضَرَبَهَا  and (he beat her) وَضَرَبَهُمَا and (he beat the two of them) وَضَرَبَهُمْ and (he beat them – three or more males) وَضَرَبَهُنَّ and (he beat them [three or more females]).  وَالـْمُنْفِصِلُ (And the detached pronouns are) إِثْنَا عَشَر (twelve).  وَهِيَ (And they are): إِيَّايَ (I) وَإِيَّانَا and (we) وَإِيَّكَ and (you [masc. sing.]) وَإِيَّاكِّ and (you [fem. sing.]) وَإِيَّاكُمَا and (you [two males or two females]) وَإِيَّاكُمْ‏‮ ‬‬and (you [three or more males]) وَإِيَّاكُنَّ and (you [three or more females]) وَإِيَّاهُ and‏‮ ‬‬(he) وَإِيَّاهَا and (she) وَإِيَّاهُمَا and (they [two males or two females]) وَإِيَّاهُمْ and (they [three or more males]) وَإِيَّاهُنَّ and (they three or more females]).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

الـمفعول به هو الإسم الذي‏‮ ‬‬يقع عليه فعل الفاعل كقولك ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا ورَكَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَرَسَ‏‮ ‬‬فزيدًا والْفَرَسَ‏‮ ‬‬مفعولان بهما لأنّ‏‮ ‬‬قد وقع عليهما فعل الفاعل وهو الضَرْبُ‏‮ ‬‬والرُّكُوبُ‏‮ ‬‬فالـمفعول به قسمان ظاهر كزيد والفرس في‏‮ ‬‬الـمثالين الـمتقدمين ومضمر وهو‏‮ ‬‬ينقسم إلى متّصل ومنفصل وفالـمتّصل هو الياء ونا والكافات الخمسة وهي‏‮ ‬‬كَ‏‮ ‬‬،‏‮ ‬‬كِ‏‮ ‬‬،‏‮ ‬‬كُمَا‏‮ ‬‬،‏‮ ‬‬كُمْ‏‮ ‬‬،‏‮ ‬‬كُن و الْهَاءاتُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْخَمْسَة وهي‏‮ ‬‬هُ‏‮ ‬‬،‏‮ ‬‬هَا‏‮ ‬‬،‏‮ ‬‬هُمَا‏‮ ‬‬،‏‮ ‬‬هُمْ‏‮ ‬‬،‏‮ ‬‬هُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬نحو قولك ضَرَبَنِي‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَنَا وَضَرَبَكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَكِ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَكُمَا وَضَرَبَكُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَكُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَهَا وَضَرَبَهُمَا وَضَرَبَهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَهُنُّ‏‮ ‬‬فأما الضَّمِيرُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُنْفَصِل‏‮ ‬‬يدخله إِيَّا كقولك إِيَّايَ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّانَا وَإِيَّاكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّاكِ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّاكُمَا وَإِيَّاكُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّاكُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّاهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّاهَا وَإِيَّاهُمَا وَإِيَّاهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّاهُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬

فالياء ونا في‏‮ ‬‬إياى وإيانا حرفان دالاّن على الـمتكلِّم في‏‮ ‬‬الاول وعلى الـمتكلمين في‏‮ ‬‬الثّانى والكاف في‏‮ ‬‬ما بعد حرف خطاب والهاء في‏‮ ‬‬الخمسة الأخيرة حرف‏‮ ‬‬غيبة‏‮ ‬‬

وأمّا الأحرف اللاحقة للضمير متصلاً‏‮ ‬‬ومنفصلاً‏‮ ‬‬فهي‏‮ ‬‬للدلالة على معان مثلاً‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬الالف في‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبَها وإِيَّاهَا للدلالة على الثّانيث في‏‮ ‬‬الـمفرد واالـميم والالف‏‮  ‬‬في‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبكُمَا وإِيَّاكُمَا وضَرَبَهُمَا وإِيَّاهُمَا للدلالة على التثنية مطلقًا في‏‮ ‬‬الـمذكّر والـمؤنّث والـميم في‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبَكم وإِيَّاكُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وضَرَبَهُمْ‏‮  ‬‬وإِيَّاهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬للدلالة على جمع‏‮     ‬‬الـمـذّكر والنّون الـمشدّدة في‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبَكُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وإِيَّاكُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وضَرَبَهُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وإِيَّاهُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬لدلالة على جمع الإناث

Explanation of Text in English:

الْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬بِهِ (The direct object) is the noun upon which the action of الْفَاعِـــل (the doer) falls – like when you say: ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا (I beat Zayd) and  رَكَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَرَسَ (I rode the mare). زَيْــدًا (Zayd) and الْفَـــرَسَ (the mare) are the الْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬به of ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬ ‬(I beat) and رَكَبْتُ (I rode) because فِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَاعِلِ (the action of the doer) has fallen upon them, and it is the ‏‮ ‬‬الضَرْبُ (the beating) and‏‮ ‬‬الرُّكُوبُ (the riding).‏‮ ‬‬

الْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬بِهِ (The direct object) is of two kinds: ظَاهِرٌ (a clearly distinct noun) – like زَيْدٌ and الْفَرَسُ in the two previous examples and مُضْمَرٌ ( a pronoun) which is (also) divided between two kinds: مُتَّصِلٌ (attached) and مُنْفَصِلٌ (detached).  الـمُتَّصِلُ (The attached pronouns) are: الْيَاء = يَ and نَا and الْكَافَاتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْخَمَسَة (the five kaafs of the person being spoken to) and they are: كَ،‏‮ ‬‬كِِ،‏‮ ‬‬كُمَا،‏‮ ‬‬كُمْ،‏‮ ‬‬كُنَّ  and الْهَاءَاتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْخَمْسَة (the five haas of the person being spoken about) and they are: هُ،‏‮ ‬‬هَا،‏‮ ‬‬هَمَا،‏‮ ‬‬هُمْ،‏‮ ‬‬هُنَّ،. – like when you say:

 ضَرَبَنِي‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَنَا وَضَرَبَكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَكِ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَكُمَا وَضَرَبَكُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَكُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَهَا وَضَرَبَهُمَا وَضَرَبَهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَهُنُّ‏‮     ‬‬

As for الضَّمِيرُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُنْفَصِلُ (the detached pronouns), they are prefixed with إِيَّ  – like when you say:

إِيَّايَ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّانَا وَإِيَّاكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّاكِ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّاكُمَا وَإِيَّاكُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّاكُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّاهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّاهَا وَإِيَّاهُمَا وَإِيَّاهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّاهُنَّ.

The yaa ( يَ ) and naa ( نَا ) in إيَّايَ and إِيَّانَا are two letters which are signs of الـْمُتَكَلِّم (the first person singular – the person speaking) in the first case and الـْمُتَكَلِّمُونَ (the first person plural) in the second..  الْكَافُ (The kaaf) in the next five (detached pronouns) is  حَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬اـْخِطَابِ (the letter for addressing the second person – the person being spoken to) and الْهَاءُ (the haa) in the last five is حَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الْغَيْبَة (the letter for addressing the third person – the person absent from the conversation).

As for the affixed letters which belong to الْـمُتَّصِل (the attached pronouns) and الْـمُنْفَصِلُ (detached pronouns),   they are signs with meaning also.  For example, الأَلِفُ (the alif) in ضَرَبَهَا and إِيَّاهَا belongs to the signs of التَّأْنِيث (the feminine) in الْـمُفْرَد (the singular) pronoun; and الـْمِيم(the miim) and الأَلِفُ (alif) in ضَرَبكُمَا and إِيَّاكُمَا and ضَرَبَهُمَا and إيّاهما are all signs for التَّثْنِيَة (the dual) unrestricted in both الْـمُذَكِّر (the male) and الْـمُؤَنِّث (the female) pronoun; and  الْـمِيمُ in ضَرَبَكُمْ and إِيَّاكُــمْ and ضَرَبَهُــــمْ and إِيَّاهُــــمْ belong to the signs of  جَمْعُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُذَكِّر (the masculine plural); and النُّونُ (the nuun bearing shaddah نّ) in ضَرَبَكُنَّ and إِيَّاكُنَّ and ضَرَبَهُنَّ and إِيَّاهُنَّ belong to the signs of جَمْع الإِنُاث (the feminine plural).

Published in: on September 24, 2011 at 18:26  Leave a Comment  

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 15 – (The Chapter About Al-Manṣuubaatu-l-Asmaa’i [The Nouns In The Case Of Naṣb])

   بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬مَنْصوُبَاتِ‏‮ ‬‬الأَسْمَاءِ  

15 – (The Chapter About Al-Manṣuubaatu-l-Asmaa’i [The Nouns In The Case Of Naṣb])

ʿArabic Text: 

‏‮(‬‬الْـمَنْصُوبَاتُ‏‮ ‬‬خَمْسَةَ‏‮ ‬‬عَشَرَ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬بِهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالـْمَصْدَرُ‏‮ ‬‬وَظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَانِ‏‮ ‬‬وَظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَانِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْحَالُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالتَّمْيِيزُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْـمُسْتَثْنَى وَاسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬وَالـْمُـنَادَى وَالْـمَـفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬أَجْلِهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْـمَفْعُول مَعَهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَخََبَرُ‏‮ ‬‬كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاتِهَا وَاسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬إِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬أخْوَاتِها وَالتَّابِعُ‏‮ ‬‬لِلْمَنْصُوبِ‏‮ ‬‬وَهُوَ‏‮ ‬‬أَرْبَعَةُ‏‮ ‬‬أَشْيَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬النَّعْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْعَطْفُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالتَّوْكِيدُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْبَدَلُ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

الْـمَنْصُوبَاتُ (The nouns in the case of naṣb) خَمْسَةَ‏‮ ‬‬عَشَرَ‏‮ ‬‬ (are fifteen).  وَهِيَ (They are): الْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬بِهِ (the direct object) وَالْـمَصْدَرُ (and the verbal  noun), وَظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الزّمَانِ (and the adverb time) وَظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَانِ (and the adverb of place) وَالْـحَالُ (and the circumstantial noun) وَالتَّمْيِيزُ (and the accusative of specification) وَالْـمُسْتَـثْـنَى‏‮‬‬ (and the excluded noun) وَاسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ (and the noun of the laa [of negation for generic nouns]) وَالْـمُنَادَى (and the one who is addressed), وَالْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬أَجْلِهِ  (and the causative object)  وَالْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬مَعَهُ  (and the  object  that  accompanies the subject in the execution of an action) وَخَبْرُ‏‮ ‬‬كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاِتهَا (and the predicate of kaana and its sisters) وَاسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬إِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاتِهَا (the noun of inna and  its  sisters) وَالتَّابِعُ‏‮ ‬‬لِلْمَنْصُوبِ (and the  appositive for the nouns in the case of naṣb) وَهِي (and they are) أَرْبَعَةُ‏‮ ‬‬أَشْيَاءَ (four  things): النَّعْتُ (the adjective) الْعَطْفُ (the noun linked by the conjunction) التَّْوكِيدُ (the noun use for  emphasis) ‏‮ ‬‬الْبَدَلُ (and the noun used as the substitute).


Published in: on September 24, 2011 at 18:08  Leave a Comment  
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