Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 19 – (The Chapter About Al-Haal [The Circumstantial Noun])

بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬الْحَالِ

19 – (The Chapter About Al-Haal  [The Circumstantial Noun])

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬الـْحَالُ‏‮ ‬‬هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَنْصُوبُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُفَسِّرُ‏‮ ‬‬لـِمَا انْبَهَمَ‏‮ ‬‬مِنَ‏‮ ‬‬الْهَيْئَاتِ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬رَاكِبًا وَرَكِبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَرَسَ‏‮ ‬‬مُسْرَجًا وَلَقِيتُ‏‮ ‬‬عَبْدَ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّهِ‏‮ ‬‬رَاكِبًا وَمَا أَشْبَهَ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬الْحَالُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬بَعْدَ‏‮ ‬‬تَمَامِ‏‮ ‬‬الْكلاَمِ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬صَاحِِبُهُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬مَعْرِفَةً‏‮)‬‬

‏‮ ‬‬English Translation:

الـْحَالُ (The circumstantial noun) هُوَ (is)الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَنْصُوبُ‏‮ ‬‬ (the noun in the case of naṣb) الـْمُفَسِّرُ (which clarifies) لـِمَا انْبَهَم (what is unclear) مِنَ‏‮ ‬‬الْهَيْئَاتِ (about the circumstances [of الْفَاعِـل (the doer) or الـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬بِهِ (the receiver of the action) or الـْمَجْـرُور (the noun in the case of jarr]) – (like when you say):  جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬رَاكِـبًا (Zayd came riding) وَرَكِبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَرَسَ‏‮ ‬‬مُسْرَجًا and (I rode the mare with a saddle) وَلَقِيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬عَبْـدُ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّهِ‏‮ ‬‬رَاكِـــــبًا and (I met Abdullaahi riding) وَمَا أَشْبَهَ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِــكَ‏‮ ‬‬ (and what is similar to these).  وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَــكُونُ الـْـحَالُ (The circumstantial noun must not be anything) إِلاّ (other than) نَكِـرَةً‏‮ ‬‬ (an indefinite noun) وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَكُــــــونُ (nor  does  it  occur) إِلاّ (other  than) بَـعْدَ‏‮ ‬‬تمَـامِ‏‮ ‬‬الْـكلاَمِ (after the completion of the statement) وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَـكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬صَاحِِـبُهُ (and it is not accompanied [by another noun] إِلاّ (unless) مَعْرِفَةً (it is definite).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إن الحال نكرة مُشْتَقَّة واقعة بعد تمام الكلام تبين هيئَة الفاعل والـمفعول و كقولك جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬رَاكِبًا ورَكِبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَرَسَ‏‮ ‬‬مُسْرَجًا ومَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِعُمْرٍو جَالِسًا فراكبًا ومُسْرَجًا وجالسًا نكرات لأنّه‏‮ ‬‬يصلح دخول‏‮ ((‬‬ال‏‮)) ‬‬على كلّ‏‮ ‬‬منها ومشتقات لأنّ‏‮ ‬‬كُلاّ‏‮ ‬‬منها‏‮ ‬‬يدلّ‏‮ ‬‬على معنى وصاحبه وواقعات بعد تمام الكلام لأنّه‏‮ ‬‬يصح الاستغناءُ‏‮ ‬‬عنها‏‮ ‬‬

وراكبًا‏‮ ‬‬يبين هيئة الفاعل‏‮ ((‬‬زيد‏‮)) ‬‬ومسرحًا‏‮ ‬‬يبين هيئة الـمفعول‏‮ ((‬‬الْفَرَسَ‏‮)) ‬‬وجالسًا‏‮ ‬‬يبين هيئة المجرور‏‮ ((‬‬عمرو‏‮)) ‬‬وكلها متضمّنة معنى‏‮ ((‬‬في‏‮)) ‬‬دود لفظها لأنّ‏‮ ‬‬التّقدير في‏‮ ‬‬حال ركوبه إلى آخره شروط الحال ثلاثة أوّلها أن‏‮ ‬‬يكون نكرة ثانيها أن‏‮ ‬‬يكون فضلة ثالثها أن‏‮ ‬‬يكون صاحبه معرفة وهذه الشّروط تجدها في‏‮ ‬‬راكبًا من قولك جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬رَاكِبًا لأنّه نكرة واقع بعد تمام الكلام وصاحبه معرفة وهو زيد

Explanation of Text in English:

الْـحَالُ (The circumstantial noun) is a separate indefinite noun which occurs after the completion of a statement and which clarifies the circumstance of الفَاعِل (the doer), الـْـمَفْعُول (the object of the verb) and الـْمَجْـرُور (the object of the preposition) – like when you say: جَـاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدٌ‏‮ ‬‬رَاكِـبــًا (Zayd came riding) and رَكَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَرَسَ‏‮ ‬‬مُسْرَجـــــًا (I rode the saddled horse) and  مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِعَمْرٍو جَالِسَا (I passed by ʿAmr while he was sitting). And so رَاكِـبًا , مُسْرَجًـا and جَـالِـسًا are indefinite because the prefixing of اَلْـ is not permissible for any of them. They are separate from the rest of the statement, because each of them gives meaning to what accompanies it and they occur after the completion of the statement, because it is (grammatically) permissible to leave or drop them from the statement.  And so رَاكِبًا clarifies the circumstances of زَيْدٌ (Zayd) – the doer – (that is to say, how he performed a particular act) and مُسْرَجًـا clarifies the situation or condition in which الْفَرَسَ the object of the verb was found (when it received the action of the verb) and جَـاِلسًا clarifies the situation ofعَـمْرٍو (‘Amr) – the object of the preposition (during the occurrence of the action being carried out by the doer).

The determinate conditions of الْـحَالُ (The circumstantial noun) are three.  First it must be نَـكِرَةٌ (indefinite), second it must be فُـضْلَةً (more than what is needed to complete the statement – (that is to say, it would be [grammatically] permissible to leave or drop it from the statement), and third ‏‮ ‬‬صَـاحِبُهُ‏‮ ‬‬مَـعْرِفَـةٌ(a definite noun must accompany it).‏‮ ‬‬ These conditions can be found in the noun راكبًا like when you say:  جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬رَاكِـبًا, because it is نَـكِرَة (an indefinite noun) وَاقِـعُ‏‮ ‬‬بَـعْدَ‏‮ ‬‬تَـمَامِ‏‮ ‬‬الْـكَلاَمِ (which occurs after the completion of the statement) and صَاحِبَهُ‏‮ ‬‬مَعْرِفَةٌ (a definite noun accompanies it) and that noun is Zayd.

Published in: on December 27, 2011 at 12:50  Leave a Comment  
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