The Ten Qirā’āt (Methods of Recitations) of the Holy Qur’an

A Qirā’āt is a method of pronunciation used in the recitations of the Qur’an.
There are seven qirā’āt (methods of recitations) out of the ten famous qirā’āt that have authentic chains of transmission outlined by Imam Ash-Shatibiyy.
Each of the seven qirā’āt has two separate modes of reading that were made famous by each of the two main students of the original teachers (imams) of the recitation.
Each qirā’āt (methods of recitations) was either transmitted directly from the Imam himself or transmitted with a shaykh or two in between the student and the main teacher.
What’s really interesting is that each qirā’āt has received its name from the two main students who mastered and popularized the reading rather than the master teacher who taught it. Another interesting point is that even though two modes of reading may have been transmitted from the same teacher, they may have very different rules, as each has its own chain of transmission and each has its own identity.
The remaining three qirā’āt have been mentioned by Imam ibn Al-Jazarī, are also named after the students of the scholars who were the original reciters. As in the way of Shaṭibiyyah, each qirā’āt has two narrators of the recitation of the first scholar, sometimes the two different narrations they learned from the first scholar are almost identical, other times, there is quite a difference between them.
These are all authentic ways of recitation passed down in chains of transmission from the Messenger of Allah, (S.A.W), person by person until the recitation has reached us today.
Conditions for the Validity of Different Qirâ’ât 
Conditions were formulated by the scholars of the Qur’anic recitation to facilitate critical analysis of the above mentioned recitations. For any given recitation to be accepted as authentic Sahih, it had to fulfill three conditions and if any of the conditions were missing such a recitation was classified as Shādh-dhun (irregular; abnormal)).

The first condition was that the recitation has an authentic chain of narration in which the chain of narrators was continuous, the narrators were all known to be righteous and they were all known to possess good memories. It was also required that the recitation be conveyed by a large number of narrators on each level of the chain of narration below the level of Sahābah (the condition of Tawātur). Narrations which had authentic chains but lacked the condition of Tawātur were accepted as explanations (Tafsīr) of the Sahābah but were not considered as methods of reciting the Qur’an. As for the narrations which did not even have an authentic chain of narration, they were classified as Baatil (false) and rejected totally.

The second condition was that the variations in recitations match known Arabic grammatical constructions. Unusual constructions could be verified by their existence in passages of pre-Islamic prose or poetry.

The third condition required the recitation to coincide with the script of one of the copies of the Qur’an distributed during the era of Caliph ʿUthmān. Hence differences which result from the placement of the dots (for example تعملمون with the two dots of the letter taa occurring above in the formation of the letter, and يعملمون with the two dots of yaa occurring below in the formation of that letter) are considered acceptable provided the other conditions are met. A recitation of a construction for which no evidence could be found would be classified Shādh-dhun. This classification did not mean that all aspects of the recitation was considered Shādh-dhun. it only meant that the unverified constructions were considered Shādh-dh.

In regards to the Ten Famous Recitations, the following information is taken from Al-Qira’atu-l-ʿAshru-l-Mutawātir min Ṭarīqati Ṭayyibati-n-Nashri found on introduction pages:ز، س، ش, – Publisher: Dar al-Sahaba Ṭanṭā, Egypt. It mentions the names of the ten famous master reciters and their two most outstanding students who transmitted the readings take from the original teacher:
1. Teacher: Nafiʿ al-Madanī (of Medinah): Ibn ʿAbd ar-Raḥmān ibn Abī Naīm.
1) Student of Nafiʿ: Qalun: He is Abū Mūsa, ʿIsa ibn Mina.
2) Student of Nafiʿ: Warsh: ʿHe is ʿUthmān ibn Saʿīd al-Qutbī.
2. Teacher: Ibn Kathir and he is ʿAbdullāh Ibn Kathir.
1) Student of Ibn Kathir: Al-Bazzī: He is Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad ibn ʿAbdullāh bin Abū al-Ḥasan al-Bazzi.
2) Student of Ibn Kathir: Qunbul: He is Muḥammad bin ʿAbd ar-Raḥmān bin Muhammad bin Khālid.
3. Teacher: Abū ʿAmr: He is Zubān ibn al-ʿAlā ʾbin ʿAmmār
1) Student of Abū ʿAmr: Ḥafṣ al-Durī: He is Ḥafṣ ibn ʿUmar ibn ʿAbd al-ʿAziz.
2) Student of Abū ʿAmr: As-Sūsī: He is Ṣāliḥ ibn Ziyād.
4. Teacher: Ibn ʿĀmir: He is ʿAbdullāh ibn ʿĀmir.
1) Student of IbnʿĀmir: Hishām: He is Hishām ibn ʿAmmār
2) Student of IbnʿĀmir: Ibn Dhakwān: He is Abdullāh bin Aḥmad Bashīr bin Dhakwān.
5. Teacher: ʿAasim, He is ʿAasim bin Bihdalah.
1) Student of ʿAasim: Shuʿbah: He is Abū Bakr Shuʿbah ibn ʿAyyash.
2) Student of IbnʿĀmir: Ḥafṣ: He is Ḥafṣ ibn Sulayman ibn al-Mughirah.
6. Teacher: Ḥamzah ibn Ḥabib ʿAmmāratul-Zayyat al-Taymi
1) Student of Ḥamzah: Khalaf bin Hishām.
2 )Student of Ḥamzah:  Khallād ibn Khālid.
7. Teacher: ʿAlī bin Ḥamzah Al-Kasaa’ī
1) Student of Al-Kasaa’ī: Abū al-Ḥarith al-Layth bin Khālid.
2) Student of Al-Kasaa’ī: Ḥafṣ al-Duri, the transmitter of Abū ʿAmr (see above).
8. Teacher: Abū Jaʿfar: Yazīd ibn al-Qaʿqaaʿ
1) Student of Abū Jaʿfar:  Ibn Wardān: He isʿĪsā ibn Wardān.
2) Student of Abū Jaʿfar: Ibn Jummāz: He is Sulayman bin Muslim bin Jummāz.
9. Teacher: Yaʿqūb bin  Isḥāq bin Zayd al-Ḥaḍramī
1) Student oYaʿqūb: Ruways: He is Muḥammad bin al-Mutawakkil al-Lu’lu’ī.
2) Student oYaʿqūb: Rawḥ: Abū-l-Ḥasan, Rawḥ ibn ʿAbd al-Muʾmin.
10. Teacher: Khalafbin Hishām  The transmitter of Ḥamzah (see above)
1) Student oKhalaf: Isḥaq bin Ibrahim bin ʿUthman al-Warāq.
2) Student oKhalaf: Idrīs: He is Idrīs bin ʿAbdul Karīm.
Click the following links to download copies of the Qur’an with color-coded rules for each of the reading styles mentioned above:
1. Nāfiʿ
Qālūn
Warsh
2. Ibn Kathīr
Bazzi
Qunbal
3. Abū ʿAmr
Ḥafṣ al-Duri
Al-Sūsī
4. Ibn ʿAmir
Hishām
Ibn Dhakwān
5. ʿAasim
Shuʿbah
Ḥafṣ
6. Ḥamzah
Khalaf
Khallad
7. Al-Kisa’i
Abū al-Ḥārith
Ad-Dūriī
8. Abū Jaʿfar
ʿĪsā ibn Wirdān
Ibn Jummaz
9. Yaʿqub
Ruways
Rawḥ
10. Khalaf
Isḥāq
Idrīs
(click on the following link to download the section on the Ten Imams of recitation:
 Al-Qira’atu-l-ʿAshru-l-Mutawātir min Ṭarīqati Ṭayyibati-n-Nashri found on introduction pages:ز، س، ش, – Publisher: Dar al-Sahaba Ṭanṭā, Egypt.
(click on the following link to download the entire book:
Al-Qira’atu-l-ʿAshru-l-Mutawātir min Ṭarīqati Ṭayyibati-n-Nashri
Published in: Uncategorized on January 17, 2019 at 08:01  Comments (4)  

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4 CommentsLeave a comment

  1. JazakAllah khayr for this.

    do you have a working link for #8 Ibn Jummaz , all other links work fine

    Like

    • As Salaams Alaykum,

      Thank you for your good observation. The problem has been rectified. There are now links for number 8

      Wa-s-Salaam

      Like

  2. Number #6 hamza(khalaf, khalad)both links or the same files

    jzk

    Like

    • As Salaams Alaykum,

      Thank you for your good observation. The problem has been rectified. There are now separate links for each of them.

      Wa-s-Salaam

      Like


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