Chapter On the Two ʿĪd Prayers from the Risālah of Ibn Abī Zayd

Chapter On the Two ‘Īd Prayers 

[This is Fitr and Aḍḥaa. He clarifies the time for going out to them and how they are done, and clarifies the path by which one returns from them and what he does and what he says when he goes out to them. He also explains the takbirs in the days of Mina and the time in which the takbir occurs on the days of Mina and clarifies what it is recommended to do on the day of the ʿĪd. He begins with their judgement]

17.1 Its judgement

Praying the two ʿĪd prayers is an obligatory sunna. [What is meant is that both of them are confirmed sunnah. So it is a confirmed sunnah and is an individual sunnah in respect of the one obliges to go to Jumuʿah: a legally responsible free man, etc. It is not sunna for a slave, child, madman, women or traveller. The traveller is the one who is more than three miles outside the land of Jumu’ah, but it  is recommended for the one who is not commanded to it to pray it. So it is desirable for the slave, woman, child and the one a parsang (a distance is about 3 or 3½ miles) outside the land of Jumuʿah although there is an exception for the hajji traveller at Mina. They are not commanded to establish it nor is it desirable or sunnahbecause the standing at the Mash’ar takes the place of his praying Jumu’ah. As for the people of Mina, their praying for it in a group is a blameworthy innovation.

There is no harm in a man praying it for himself. It is recommended for someone who misses the ʿĪd prayer with the Imam to pray it alone. If a woman goes to it, she does not wear clothes meant to attract people’s attention nor does she put

on perfume out of fear of sedition, i.e. doing that is unlawful is the fear is probable, and it is disliked if it is uncertain. The old woman and others are equal in this. ]

17.2. How to do the prayer

17.2a. The time of setting out

The imam and the people should leave for the prayer early in the morning so that by the time they arrive at the prayer place the time for the prayer has come.

[The time for setting out for the ʿĪd prayer for the Imam and people is after sunrise so when they reach the place of prayer, it is time for the prayer. This is for the one whose house is near. As for the one whose house is far, he leaves before that so that he can catch the prayer with the Imam. This is the clarification of the time of setting out, not the time of the prayer which he mentions: when he arrives, it is the time of the prayer. Its time is when the sun is the height of one or two Arab spears, which is 12 spans, by the medium span. This is is relation to what the eye sees. In actual terms, it is when the sun has traverses the distance which only Allah knows. It is recommended to go out for it to the place of prayer except with an excuse.

Makkah and other places are the same in that. Imam Mālik said that the people of Makkah prayed in the Masjid al-Haram, i.e. in sight of the Ka’bah. It is an act of worship lacking elsewhere. It is reported that every day 120 mercies descend on this House, 60 for those doing tawaf, 40 for those praying, and 20 for those looking at it.

It is recommended to walk when going to the ‘id prayers rather than returning because he has finished an act of nearness. It is recommended to eat before going to the prayer on the ʿĪd al-Fitr but not the ʿĪd al-Aḍḥaa.]

17.2b. No adhan or iqamah

There is no adhān or iqāmah for the ʿId prayers. [In the well-known position there is no call for the prayer to gather based on what is found in Muslim from ‘Ata’. Jabir reported that there is no adhān on the Day of Fitr before the Imam goes out nor after he goes out and there is no iqāmah or call in the mosque of the prayer and nothing is done to announce the prayer, like beating a drum, for instance. When there time comes, there is no adhān or iqāmah or call. The Imam simply begins the prayer.]

17.2c. Two rak’ats recited outloud

The imam leads the prayer in two rakʿats, reciting out loud in each of them. [He leads the people by reaching the place of prayer or the mosque after the nafilah when the people are gathered. He prays two rakʿats based on what is in the two Sahīh collections that the Prophet prayed it as two rakʿats. It was like that with the khalifs after them.There is no disagreement that he recites outloud.]

17.2d. What is recited

In both he recites the Fātihah and a surah such as Sūrat al-ʿA’laa (87) or Sūratu-sh-Shams (91).

[According to what is in the Muwatta‘ and (Sahīh) Muslim the Messenger of Allah used to recite Qaf (87) and al-Qamar (54) in Adha and Fitr. ]

17.2e. The Takbirs

In the first rak’a he says seven takbīrs including the takbīr al-ihram (opening takbīr). In the second he says five takbīrs not including the takbīr for standing up from sajdah.

[He does not raise his hands in any takbir, either in the first or second except the takbir al-Ihram in the well-known position. It is reported from Malik that he recommended it in every takbīr. The takbīrs are connected to each other except for the amount of the takbīr of those following. It is desirable for him to separate them by that amount. If the Imam says the takbīr more than seven in the first or more than five in the second, the follower does not follow him, even if that is the school of the imam. He says the takbīr before recitation, even if the school of the Imam is to delay, as the literal evidence of the people of the School indicates. If the Imam forgets a takbīr of the ‘id prayer, he goes back as long as he has not moved into ruku’. When he places his hands on his knees, he does not go back.

If he goes back, some of them deduce that it is not invalid and others deduce that it is invalid. The reason for that is he returns from a fard to a sunnah. If he places his hands on his knees having missed a takbīr inadvertantly, he continues and prostrates before the salaam. Anyone who comes after the Imam has finished the takbirs and finds him reciting, says that the takbīr in the well known position as opposed to Ibn Wahb. He said it is because he becomes someone who is making up in the judgement of the Imam. The opinion of the one with the well-known position is that he is not making up by the insignificance of the matter.

It is like that when he catches of the takbīrs. He says the takbīr with him for what he caught of it and then completes what remains of the Imam beginning the recitation. He does not say that takbīr for what he has missed in thetakbīrs of the Imam. If he finds him in the ruku‘, he says the takbīr al-iḥraam and owes nothing. If he catches the recitation in the second rakʿat, he says five takbīrs since the takbīr of standing is cancelled for him. When he makes up the first, he says the takbīr seven times counting the takbīr of standing in them since he missed the takbīr al-iḥraam.]

17.2f. Tashahhud

There are two sajdahs in each rak’a and the prayer is completed with the tashahhud followed the salaam. [After the two prostrations comes the tashahhud, i.e. the prayer on the Prophet and supplication. He includes all of it. There is the salam after the tashahhud.]

Published in: Uncategorized on May 24, 2020 at 01:55  Leave a Comment  

The Chapter On the Zakat al-Fitr from Risaalah Ibn Abi Zayd

The Chapter On the Zakat al-Fitr

27.1. Its ruling

The Zakat al-Fitr is an obligatory sunnah which the Messenger of Allah made compulsory for all Muslims, whether old or young, male or female, free or servant. [It is a confirmed sunna. It seems that is is obligatory in the School. There is disagreement about the words “the Messenger of Allah made it compulsory”. It is said that it means he stipulated it and so it is sunnah, and that does not contradict his words, “On all, whether old or young.” The shaykh uses the terms for what is less than obligatory. The Messenger of Allah said, “Zakat al-Fitr after Ramadan obligatory for the Muslims – servant or free, male or female, young or old, being a sa’ of dates or a sa’ of barley.” It is said that it means that he made it compulsory. That what the author of the Mukhtasar of Sīdī Khalīl thinks.]

27.2. Its amount

27.2a. Its measure

Its amount is one sa’a measuring by the sa’a of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace.

[It is four mudds by the mudd of the Prophet. A sa’a is a measure of volume equivalent to 4 mudds. A mudd is the amount contained by a man’s cupped hands.]

27.2b.What it is paid in

It should be paid in kind using the staple food of the people of the region, which might be wheat or barley or sult barley or dates or dried cheese or raisins or millet or sorghum or rice. It is also said that if the staple food of the people is al-‘alas, which is a small grain similar to wheat, that the Zakat al-Fitr can be paid with that. [The land where the zakat is paid, whether their food is like his food or better or worse. If his food is better than their food and he pays the zakat in it, that is allowed. If it is less valuable than their food, and he pays it with it out of avarice, then the apparent words of Ibn al-Hajib mean that it does does not satisfy the requirement by agreement. If he pays it from other than these nine types, it is not allowed in the well-known position. This is when some or all of them exist as foods. If they do not exist, all or some, and other things are used as food, they satisfy the requirement.]

27.3. Who pays the zakat of children and servants

The Zakat al-Fitr of a servant is paid by his master and that of a young child, who has no personal wealth, by his father. A man has to pay the zakat of every Muslim for whose maintenance he is responsible, and he should also pay for his mukātab (indentured servant) because even if he is not responsible for his maintenance, the mukātab (indentured servant) is nevertheless still his servant. [The father pays for the child who has no wealth. It is understood from this that he does not pay for an adult. It is not absolute: if he is male, adult and wealthy, he does not pay for him. If he becomes adult within the time it is due, he prays for him. He pays for the female, even if she is adult, until she marries. What is understood by “no personal wealth” is that if he has wealth, he does not pay for him. That is the case. It is paid by Muslims, but not unbelievers.]

27.4. When it is paid

It is recommended to pay the Zakat al-Fitr at daybreak on the day of the ‘Id al-Fitr.

[In Muslim it reports that the Prophet used to command that the zakat al-fitr be paid before people went out to the place of prayer. This is the time of recommendation and not the time of obligation.

There are two well-known statements about that. One is that it becomes obligatory at sunset of the last of the day of Ramadan and ends at the rising of dawn on the day of the ‘id. It is permitted that it be paid a day or two before the day of Fitr. It is not cancelled when its time passes because it is a right of the poor for which liability remains. He does not sin as long as the day of Fitr still remains. If he delays it when he is able to pay it, he sins. He gives to a free poor Muslim. He does not give it to an unbeliever, nor to a wealthy man.]

Published in: Uncategorized on May 23, 2020 at 08:19  Leave a Comment  

Tafsīr al-Jalālayn: Sūratu-l-Fātiḥah Explained

81BFfhwYsYLكتاب: تفسير الجلالين

Tafsīr al-Jalālayn Sūratu-l-Fātiḥah

.سورة الفاتحة 

Sūratu-l-Fātiḥah

.تفسير الآيات (1- 2) {بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ (1) الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ (2)}

    2 Explanation of Verses 1 and

{بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ (1) الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ (2)}

1. In the Name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful:

{الحمد للَّهِ} جملة خبرية قصد بها الثناء على الله بمضمونها من أنه  تعالى مالك: لجميع الحمد من الخلق أو مستحق لأن يحمدوه والله علم على المعبود بحق 

2.  (All) Praise belongs to Allah, is a noun sentence wherein the praise of Allah  (alone) is intended by certifying that  that creation belongs to Allah the Most High King, or (and) that He [alone] is most entitled (to be praise) because they (the creation) praise Him; and that Allah is the proper name of the One Who is solely worthy of being worship.

{رَبّ العالمين} أي مالك جميع الخلق من الإنس والجنّ والملائكة والدواب وغيرهم وكل منها يطلق عليه عالم، يقال: عالم الإنس وعالم الجنّ إلى غير ذلك. وغلب في جمعه بالياء والنون أولو العلم على غيرهم وهو من العلامة لأنه علامة على موجده.

Lord of all Worlds, that is, [He is] the One Who is the Owner of creation, from among: humans, jinn, angels, animals and other forms of creation, each of which is referred to as a world (ʿaalim); it is said ‘the world of men’, or ‘world of the jinn’ and so forth. The plural form of (ʿaalim) is affixed at its end the letters yaa (يَـ)’ and nuun like in the word (عَالَمِين [‘āalamīyn] worlds) which is used to denote, ūlū ‘ilm (knowledgeable creatures) from the rest of creation. The expression [‘ālamīn] is derived from  the word ( عَلَامَة [‘alāmah] sign) , because He (Allah) created it (the world) .

تفسير الآية رقم (3): {الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ (3)}

{الرحمن الرحيم} أي ذي الرحمة وهي إرادة الخير لأهله.

3. The Compassionate, the Merciful: that is to say, the One who possesses ‘mercy’, and it (possessing mercy) is to desire good for those who deserve it.

تفسير الآية رقم (4): {مَالِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّينِ (4)}

{مالك يَوْمِ الدين} أي الجزاء وهو يوم القيامة وخص بالذكر لأنه لا ملك ظاهرا فيه لأحد إلا لله تعالى بدليل لمن الملك اليوم لله الواحدالقهارِ} [40: 16] ومن قرأ مالك فمعناه مالك الأمر كله في يوم القيامة: أي هو موصوف بذلك دائما ك {غافر الذنب} [40: 3] فصح وقوعه صفة لمعرفة.

4. Master of the Day of Judgement: that is to say, (master of الجزاء) The Day of reward and punishment, (master of يوم القيامة) The Day of Resurrection. The specific mention [of the Day of Judgement] is that there will clearly no dominion for anyone in it (The Day of Judgement) except Allah, the Most, as is indicated by [Allah’s words] ‘to whom does the sovereignty belong today? It belongs to Allah, the One, the Almighty [Q. 40:16] (if one reads mālik [instead of malik], then this signifies that He (Allah) is the owner of every affair on the Day of Resurrection, that is to say, He is always characterized by this [expression], in the same way as [He is described as] ‘Forgiver of sin’ (ghāfir al-dhanb). Thus, one can take it as an adjective for a proper noun). 

تفسير الآية رقم (5): {إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ (5)}

{إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ} أي نخصك بالعبادة من توحيد وغيرهونطلب المعونة على العبادة وغيرها.

5. You [alone] do we worship, and You [alone] do we ask for help: that is to say, we reserve worship for You [alone] by way of acknowledging Your Oneness (tawhīd) and so on, and we ask for [Your] assistance in worship and in other things.

تفسير الآية رقم (6): {اهْدِنَا الصِّرَاطَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ (6)}

{اهدنا الصراط المستقيم} أي أرشدنا إليه ويبدل منه.

6. Guide us to the straight path: that is, ‘show us the way to it’. This can be substituted for it (Guide us to the straight path);

تفسير الآية رقم (7): {صِرَاطَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ غَيْرِ الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا الضَّالِّينَ (7)}

{صِرَاطَ الذين أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ} بالهداية ويبدل من الذين بصلته غَيْرِ المغضوب عَلَيْهِمْ} وهم اليهود وَلاَ} وغير الضالين} وهم النصارى ونكتة البدل إفادة أن المهتدين ليسوا يهوداً ولا نصارى. والله أعلم بالصواب، وإليه المرجع والمآب وصلى الله على سيدنا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه وسلم تسليما كثيرا دائما أبدا، وحسبنا الله ونعم الوكيل، ولا حول ولا قوة إلا بالله العلي العظيم.

the path of those whom You have favored (through guidance), (the entire relative clause الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ al-ladhiina anʿamta ʿalayhim can be used interchangeably (to arrive at a similar meaning) with غَيْرِ المغضوب عَلَيْهِمْ (ghayri-l-maghduubi ʿalayhim) other than [the path of] those upon whom wrath has fallen, which refers to the Jews, and  وَلَا الضَّالِّينَ  (wa laaḍ-ḍaaliin or ghayriḍ-ḍaaliin) nor of those who are astray, which refers to the Christians. 

What is implied by this substitution is that those who are among the guided ones are neither the Jews nor the Christians. But Allah knows best what is right, and to Him is the Return and the [final] Resort. May Allah bless our master Muhammad, his Family and Companions and grant them everlasting peace. Sufficient is Allah for us; an excellent Guardian is He. There is no power and no strength save in Allah, the High, the Tremendous.

The Fatihah is a Makkan revelation.

Published in: Uncategorized on May 4, 2020 at 03:07  Leave a Comment  
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