Tafsīr al-Jalālayn: Sūratu-l-Fātiḥah Explained

81BFfhwYsYLكتاب: تفسير الجلالين

Tafsīr al-Jalālayn Sūratu-l-Fātiḥah

.سورة الفاتحة 

Sūratu-l-Fātiḥah

.تفسير الآيات (1- 2) {بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ (1) الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ (2)}

    2 Explanation of Verses 1 and

{بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ (1) الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ (2)}

1. In the Name of Allah, the Compassionate, the Merciful:

{الحمد للَّهِ} جملة خبرية قصد بها الثناء على الله بمضمونها من أنه  تعالى مالك: لجميع الحمد من الخلق أو مستحق لأن يحمدوه والله علم على المعبود بحق 

2.  (All) Praise belongs to Allah, is a noun sentence wherein the praise of Allah  (alone) is intended by certifying that  that creation belongs to Allah the Most High King, or (and) that He [alone] is most entitled (to be praise) because they (the creation) praise Him; and that Allah is the proper name of the One Who is solely worthy of being worship.

{رَبّ العالمين} أي مالك جميع الخلق من الإنس والجنّ والملائكة والدواب وغيرهم وكل منها يطلق عليه عالم، يقال: عالم الإنس وعالم الجنّ إلى غير ذلك. وغلب في جمعه بالياء والنون أولو العلم على غيرهم وهو من العلامة لأنه علامة على موجده.

Lord of all Worlds, that is, [He is] the One Who is the Owner of creation, from among: humans, jinn, angels, animals and other forms of creation, each of which is referred to as a world (ʿaalim); it is said ‘the world of men’, or ‘world of the jinn’ and so forth. The plural form of (ʿaalim) is affixed at its end the letters yaa (يَـ)’ and nuun like in the word (عَالَمِين [‘āalamīyn] worlds) which is used to denote, ūlū ‘ilm (knowledgeable creatures) from the rest of creation. The expression [‘ālamīn] is derived from  the word ( عَلَامَة [‘alāmah] sign) , because He (Allah) created it (the world) .

تفسير الآية رقم (3): {الرَّحْمَنِ الرَّحِيمِ (3)}

{الرحمن الرحيم} أي ذي الرحمة وهي إرادة الخير لأهله.

3. The Compassionate, the Merciful: that is to say, the One who possesses ‘mercy’, and it (possessing mercy) is to desire good for those who deserve it.

تفسير الآية رقم (4): {مَالِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّينِ (4)}

{مالك يَوْمِ الدين} أي الجزاء وهو يوم القيامة وخص بالذكر لأنه لا ملك ظاهرا فيه لأحد إلا لله تعالى بدليل لمن الملك اليوم لله الواحدالقهارِ} [40: 16] ومن قرأ مالك فمعناه مالك الأمر كله في يوم القيامة: أي هو موصوف بذلك دائما ك {غافر الذنب} [40: 3] فصح وقوعه صفة لمعرفة.

4. Master of the Day of Judgement: that is to say, (master of الجزاء) The Day of reward and punishment, (master of يوم القيامة) The Day of Resurrection. The specific mention [of the Day of Judgement] is that there will clearly no dominion for anyone in it (The Day of Judgement) except Allah, the Most, as is indicated by [Allah’s words] ‘to whom does the sovereignty belong today? It belongs to Allah, the One, the Almighty [Q. 40:16] (if one reads mālik [instead of malik], then this signifies that He (Allah) is the owner of every affair on the Day of Resurrection, that is to say, He is always characterized by this [expression], in the same way as [He is described as] ‘Forgiver of sin’ (ghāfir al-dhanb). Thus, one can take it as an adjective for a proper noun). 

تفسير الآية رقم (5): {إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ (5)}

{إِيَّاكَ نَعْبُدُ وَإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِينُ} أي نخصك بالعبادة من توحيد وغيرهونطلب المعونة على العبادة وغيرها.

5. You [alone] do we worship, and You [alone] do we ask for help: that is to say, we reserve worship for You [alone] by way of acknowledging Your Oneness (tawhīd) and so on, and we ask for [Your] assistance in worship and in other things.

تفسير الآية رقم (6): {اهْدِنَا الصِّرَاطَ الْمُسْتَقِيمَ (6)}

{اهدنا الصراط المستقيم} أي أرشدنا إليه ويبدل منه.

6. Guide us to the straight path: that is, ‘show us the way to it’. This can be substituted for it (Guide us to the straight path);

تفسير الآية رقم (7): {صِرَاطَ الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ غَيْرِ الْمَغْضُوبِ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا الضَّالِّينَ (7)}

{صِرَاطَ الذين أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ} بالهداية ويبدل من الذين بصلته غَيْرِ المغضوب عَلَيْهِمْ} وهم اليهود وَلاَ} وغير الضالين} وهم النصارى ونكتة البدل إفادة أن المهتدين ليسوا يهوداً ولا نصارى. والله أعلم بالصواب، وإليه المرجع والمآب وصلى الله على سيدنا محمد وعلى آله وصحبه وسلم تسليما كثيرا دائما أبدا، وحسبنا الله ونعم الوكيل، ولا حول ولا قوة إلا بالله العلي العظيم.

the path of those whom You have favored (through guidance), (the entire relative clause الَّذِينَ أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيْهِمْ al-ladhiina anʿamta ʿalayhim can be used interchangeably (to arrive at a similar meaning) with غَيْرِ المغضوب عَلَيْهِمْ (ghayri-l-maghduubi ʿalayhim) other than [the path of] those upon whom wrath has fallen, which refers to the Jews, and  وَلَا الضَّالِّينَ  (wa laaḍ-ḍaaliin or ghayriḍ-ḍaaliin) nor of those who are astray, which refers to the Christians. 

What is implied by this substitution is that those who are among the guided ones are neither the Jews nor the Christians. But Allah knows best what is right, and to Him is the Return and the [final] Resort. May Allah bless our master Muhammad, his Family and Companions and grant them everlasting peace. Sufficient is Allah for us; an excellent Guardian is He. There is no power and no strength save in Allah, the High, the Tremendous.

The Fatihah is a Makkan revelation.

Published in: Uncategorized on May 4, 2020 at 03:07  Leave a Comment  

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