Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 24 – (The Chapter About Al-Mafʿuul Min-Ajlih [Causative Object])

     بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَفْعُول مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬أَجْلِهِ

24 – (The Chapter About Al-Mafʿuul Min-Ajlih [Causative Object])

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَهُوَ‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمَنْصُوبُ‏‮ ‬‬الِذي‏‮ ‬‬يُذْكَرُ‏‮ ‬‬بَيَانًا لِسَبَبِ‏‮ ‬‬وُقُوعِ‏‮ ‬‬الْفِعْلِ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِجْلاَلاً‏‮ ‬‬لِعَمْرٍو وَقَصَدْتُكَ‏‮ ‬‬ابْتِغَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬مَعْرُوفِكَ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

وَهُوَ (It [al-mafʿuul min-ajlih – the causative object]) الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمَنْصُوبُ (is the noun in the case of naṣb) الِـذي (which) يُـذْكَرُ‏‮ ‬‬بَـيَانًـا (is mentioned to clarify) لِسَبَبِ‏‮ ‬‬وُقُوعِ (the reason for the occurrence of an action) – ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ‬(like when you say): قَـامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِجْـلاَلاً‏‮ ‬‬لِـعَمْرٍو (Zayd stood respectfully for ʿAmr) وَقَـصَدْتُـكَ‏‮ ‬‬ابْـتِغَـــاءَ‏‮ ‬‬معَْرُوفِـكَ and (I came to you seeking your kindness).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

الـمفعول من أجله هو ما وفعه الفعل كقولك قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِجْلاَلاً‏‮ ‬‬لِعَمْرٍو وَذَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬شَوْقًا إِلَيْكَ‏‮ ‬‬وهو الإسم الـمنصوب الذي‏‮ ‬‬يُذكر بيانًا لسبب وقوع الفعل الصادر من الفاعل فإن إِجلالاً‏‮ ‬‬قد ذُكِر بيانًا لسبب الْقِيَام وشوقًـــا‏‮ ‬‬ذُكِر بيانًا لسبب الذَّوْب و لذلك سُمِّي‏‮ ‬‬الـمفعول لأجله أي‏‮ ‬‬الإسم الذي‏‮ ‬‬فُعِل الفعل لأجله لأن القيام في‏‮ ‬‬الـمثال الأوّل إنّما صدر من زيد لأجل إجلال عَمْرٍو و الذَّوْب في‏‮ ‬‬الـمثال الثّاني‏‮ ‬‬صدر لسبب الشّوق‏‮ ‬‬

Explanation of Text in English:

‏‮ ‬‬الْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬أَجْلِهِ (The causative object) is the noun upon which the action falls – like when you say: قَـامَ‏‮ ‬‬إِجْـلاَلاً‏‮ ‬‬لِـعَمْرٍو‏‮ ‬‬‏‮ ‬‬ (Zayd stood respectfully for ʿAmr and ذَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬شَوْقًا إِلَيْك (I am pining away with longing for you); and it is the noun in the case of naṣb which is mentioned to clarify, the reason for the occurrence of an action which emanates/originates from the doer. And so إِجْـلاَلاً [respectfully] has been mentioned to clarify the reason for الْـقِيَام [the standing].  While شوقًـــا‏‮ ‬‬ [longing] has been mentioned to clarify the reason for الذَّوْب (the pining).  It is for this reason it is called الْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬مِـنْ‏‮ ‬‬أَجْـلِه (the causative object) – that is to say that the noun which has the action done لأَِجْـلِه (because of it), because القيام [the standing] which has been mentioned in the first example emanated from Zayd due to إجْـلالُ‏‮ ‬‬عَـمْرٍو (respect for Amr) and الذَّوْب [the pining] mentioned in the second example occurred as a result of الشَّوْق [the longing]).

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 23 – (The Chapter About Al-Munaadaa [The Noun in Direct Address])

بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُنَادَى

23 – (The Chapter About Al-Munaadaa [The Noun in Direct Address])

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬الـْمُنَادَى خَمْسَةُ‏‮ ‬‬أَنْوَاعٍ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُفْرَدُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَلَمُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالنَّكِرَةُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَقْصُودَة وَالنَّكِرَةُ‏‮ ‬‬غَيْرُالـْمَقْصُودَةِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْـمُضَافُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالـْمُشَبَّهُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالـمُضَافِ‏‮ ‬‬فَأَمَّاالـْمُفْرَدُ‏‮ ‬‬العَلَمُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالنَّكِرَةُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمَقْصُودَةُ‏‮ ‬‬فَيُبْنَيَانِ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَى الضَّمِّ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬غَيْرِ‏‮ ‬‬تَنْوِينٍ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬يَا زَيْدُ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬يَا رَجُلُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالثَّلاَثَةُ‏‮ ‬‬الْبَاقِيَةُ‏‮ ‬‬مَنْصُوبَةٌ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬غَيْرُ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

الْـمُنَادَى (The noun in direct address)خَمْسَةُ‏‮ ‬‬أَنْوَاعٍ‏‮ ‬‬ (is of five kinds) الْـمُفْرَدُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَلَمُ (the singular proper noun) وَالنَّكِرَةُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمَقْصُودَةُ and (the indefinite noun for whom the call is intended) وَالنَّكِرَةُ‏‮ ‬‬غَـيْرُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمَقْصُودَةِ and (the designated indefinite‏‮ ‬‬noun for whom the call is not intended)‏‮ ‬‬وَالْـمُضَافُ and (the constructed noun) الـْمُشَّبَه‏‮  ‬‬بِالْـمُضَافِ and (the noun which resembles الـمضاف [the construct noun]).  As for‏‮ ‬‬فَأَمَّاالـْـمُفْرَدُ‏‮ ‬‬العَلَمُ (the singular proper noun) وَالنَّكِرَةُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمَقْصُـودَةُ‏‮ ‬‬ and (the indefinite noun for whom the call is intended), فَيُبْنَيَانِ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَى الضَّـــمِّ (it is constructed on the ḍammah) مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬غَيْرِ‏‮ ‬‬تَنْوِيـــنٍ (without tanwiin)  –  نَحْوُ (like when you say): يَا زَيْــــــدُ‏‮ ‬‬(Oh Zayd!) وَيَا رَجُلُ. and (Oh man!). وَالثَّلاَثَةُ‏‮ ‬‬الْبَاقِيَةُ (And the remaining three) are in the case of naṣb لاَ‏‮ ‬‬غَيْرُ (only).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

الـمنادي‏‮ ‬‬هو الـمطلوب إِقباله بِيَا النّداء أو بإحدى أخواتها وهو خمسة أنواع أوّلها الـمفرد العلم نحو‏‮ ‬‬يَا زَيْدُ‏‮ ‬‬والثّاني‏‮ ‬‬النّكرة الـمقصودة بالنّداء دون‏‮ ‬‬غيرها وإن كان‏‮ ‬‬يرفع بضمَّة نحو‏‮ ‬‬يَا رَجُلُ‏‮  ‬‬تريد به رجلاً‏‮ ‬‬مْعيّـنـًا‏‮  ‬‬و إن كان‏‮ ‬‬يرفع بألاف أو بالواو نحو‏‮ ‬‬يَا زَيْدَانِ‏‮ ‬‬و‏‮ ‬‬يَا زَيْدُونَ

‏‬الثّالث النّكرة الغير الـمقصودة بالنّداء نحو‏‮ ‬‬يَا رَجُلاً‏‮ ‬‬لغير مُعيَّن والرّابع الـمضاف نحو‏‮ ‬‬يَا عَبْدَ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّهِ‏‮ ‬‬والخامس الـمشَّبه بالـمضاف نحو‏‮ ‬‬يَا طَالِعًا جَبَلاً‏‮ ‬‬وهذه الأنواع الخمسة‏‮  ‬‬التي‏‮ ‬‬ذكرت تنقسم إلى قسمين أحدهما‏‮ ‬‬يكون مـبْـنِيّـًا على الضّمّ‏‮ ‬‬بغير تنوين والآخر‏‮ ‬‬يكون منصوبًا فالذي‏‮ ‬‬يبنى على الضم هو الـمفرد العَلَم والنّكرة الـمقصودة نحو‏‮ ‬‬يَا زَيْدُ‏‮ ‬‬و يَا رَجُلُ إذا قصدت به رجلاً‏‮ ‬‬مُعَـيَّـنًا والذي‏‮ ‬‬يُنصَب هو النّكرة الغير الـمقصودة نحو‏‮ ‬‬يَا رَجُلاً إذا أردت به فردًا من أفراد الرجال‏‮ ‬‬غير معيّن والـمضاف نحو‏‮ ‬‬يَا عَبْدَاللَّهِ‏‮ ‬‬والـمشبه بالـمضاف نحو‏‮ ‬‬يَا طَالِعًا جَبَلاً‏‮  ‬‬

وأمَّا الـمشبه بالـمضاف فهو ما اتّصل به شيء من تمام معناه نحو‏‮ ‬‬يَا حَسَـنًا فِعْـلُهُ‏‮ ‬‬و يَا سَامِيًا بِرُّهُ‏‮ ‬‬فإنَّ‏‮ ‬‬حسنًا وسَامِيًا‏‮ ‬‬يَتَعلَّقُ‏‮ ‬‬معناهما بما بعدهما أي‏‮ ‬‬بفعله وبِرُّهُ‏‮ ‬‬إذ لو لم‏‮ ‬‬يُذكر ما بعدهما لم‏‮ ‬‬يكن معناهما كلامًا بخلاف الـمضاف فإنه ليس كذلك لأنّ‏‮ ‬‬الغلام في‏‮ ‬‬قولك‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬لا‏‮ ‬‬يتعلَّق معناه بما بعده‏‮ ‬‬

Explanation of Text in English: 

الـْمُنَادَى (The noun in direct address) is the noun which represents someone or something being summoned.  It is precede byحَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬النِّدَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬‏‭:‬‬ (the particle of summoning‏‮ ‬‬= يَا) or أَخْوَاتِه (its sisters).  الْـمُنَادَى (The noun in direct address) is of five kinds: the first is الـْمُفْرَدُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَلَمُ (the singular proper noun) – like when you say: يَا زَيْدُ (Oh Zayd!), the second  is النَّكِرَةُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَقْصُودَة (the indefinite noun intended) by the call  /  summoning  and  no  one  else.  If it is in the case of rafʿ by ḍammah,  it like when  you  say: يَا رَجُلُ (Oh Man!) – when you wish to call a particular man, and if it is in the case of rafʿ with alif or waaw, it is like when you say: يَا زَيْدَانِ ( Oh two Zayds!) and يَا زَيْدُونَ (Oh Zayds! – three or more), the third  is النَّكِرَةُ‏‮ ‬‬الغَيْرُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَقْصُودَةُ (the designated  indefinite  noun  unintended) – like when you say: يَا رَجُلاً  – when .you are not calling a particular person, the fourth is الـمضاف (the construct noun) like when you say:  يَا عَبْدَ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّهِ  (Oh! Abdullaahi), the fifth is that which resembles الـْمُضَاف (the construct noun) like when you say:  يَا طَالِعًا جَبَلاً (Oh! Mountain climber).

These five kinds of الْـمُنَادَى  are (further) divided into two types. One of them is مَـبْـنِيّـًا عَلَى الضَّمِّ‏‮ ‬‬بِغَيْرِ‏‮ ‬‬تَنْوِينٍ  (constructed on a fixed ḍammah without tanwiin at its end) and the other is ‏‮ ‬‬مَنْصُوبًا (in the case of naṣb [without tanwiin].  As for the one that is constructed on ḍammah it is الْـمُفْرَدُ‏‮ ‬‬اْلعَلَمُ (the singular definite noun) and النَّكِرَةُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمَقْصُودَةُ (the indefinite noun for whom the call is intended) – like when you say: يَا زَيْدُ and يَا رَجُلُ  if you intend to summon a particular man.

As for الـمُنَادَى (noun in direct address) in the case naṣb, they are النَّكِرَةُ‏‮ ‬‬الْغَيْرُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمَقْصُـــودَةُ (the unspecified indefinite noun) – like when you say: يَا رَجُلاً  if you are summoning any man – no one in particular and  الـْمُضَــــــافُ (the constructed noun)- like when you say: يَا عَبْدَ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّهِ.

As for الْــمُشْبِه بالْـمُضَــافُ (what resembles the constructed noun), it is like when you say: يَا طَالِعًا جَبَلاً (Oh Climber of a mountain), and  like when you say: يَا حَسَنًا فِعْـلُهُ‏‮ ‬‬ (Oh he whose actions are good) and  يَا سَامِيًا بِرُّهُ (Oh he whose righteousness is high).

And so حَسَنًا and سَامِيًا, their meanings are connected to the nouns that follow them, which are فِعْـلُهُ and بِرُّهُ.  If these words are not mention, then the meaning of what is being stated is not speech. .Unlike الْـمُضَاف, it is not like that, because the word  غُلاَم ( for instance) in the phrase غُلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ is not linked in meaning to the word coming after it.

Published in: on April 24, 2012 at 01:55  Leave a Comment  
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Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 22 – (The Chapter About Laa)

بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ

22 – (The Chapter About Laa)

‏‮ ‬‬ʿArabic Text: 

‏‮(‬‬إِعْلَمْ‏‮ ‬‬أَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬تَنْصِبُ‏‮ ‬‬النَّكِرَاتِ‏‮ ‬‬بِغَيْرِ‏‮ ‬‬تَنْوِينٍ‏‮ ‬‬إِذَا بَاشِرَتِ‏‮ ‬‬النَّكِرَةَ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَمْ‏‮ ‬‬تَتَكَرَّرْ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬فَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬تُبَاشِرْهَا وَجَبَ‏‮ ‬‬الرَّفْعُ‏‮ ‬‬وَوَجَبَ‏‮ ‬‬تَكْرَارُ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬امْرَأَةٌ‏‮ ‬‬فَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَكَرَّرَتْ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮  ‬‬جَازَ‏‮ ‬‬إِعْمَالُهَا وَإِلْغَاؤُهَا فَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬شِئْتَ‏‮ ‬‬قُلْتَ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬امْرأَةَ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬شِئْتَ‏‮ ‬‬قُلْتَ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬رجُلٌ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬امْرَأَةٌ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

إِعْلَمْ (Know), that لاَ (laa) تَنْصِبُ‏‮ ‬‬النَّكَرَاتُ (causes the indefinite nouns to be in the case of naṣb) بِغَيْرِ (without) التَّنْوِيــــنِ (adding the nuun sound to the end of the noun),  إِذَا بَاشِرَتِ (when it [لا – laa] comes in contact with) النّكرة (the indefinite noun) وَلَمْ‏‮ ‬‬تَتَكَرَّرْ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ (and is not repeated) – نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬ like when you say: لاَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلَ فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ (there is no man in the house).

‏‮ ‬‬فَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬تُبَاشِرْهَا (If it [لَا – laa]) does not come in contact with it [النّكرة – the indefinite noun]), وَجَبَ‏‮ ‬‬الرَّفْعُ (the case of rafʿ is required) وَوَجَبَ‏‮ ‬‬تَكْرَارُ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ (and لاَ must  be  repeated)  نَحْـــــوُ  (like when you  say): لاَ‏‮ ‬‬فِــي‏‮ ‬‬الــدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬امْرَأَةٌ (No man nor woman are in the house).

‏‮ ‬‬ فَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَكَـــرَّرَتْ‏‮ ‬‬لا(If لاَ is repeated),  جَازَ‏‮ ‬‬إِعْمَالُهَا وَإِلْغَاؤُهَا (the use and non-use of [the case of naṣb] is permitted.  فَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬شِئْتَ (So if you wish), قُلْتَ (you can say): لاَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُـــلَ‏‮ ‬‬فِـي‏‮ ‬‬الــدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬امْرأَةَ (No man nor woman are in the house);  وَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬شِئْتَ (and if you wish),  قُلْتَ (you can say): لاَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلٌ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬امْرَأةٌ.

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

لاَ‏‮ ‬‬النَّافِيَة هي‏‮ ‬‬الحرف التي‏‮ ‬‬يُرادَُ‏‮ ‬‬بها نفي‏‮ ‬‬الجنس على سبيل التـنصيص أي‏‮ ‬‬أنها تنفي‏‮ ‬‬الجسم الدّاخلة عليه نفيًا عامًا حتى لا‏‮ ‬‬يجوز أنْ‏‮ ‬‬يُستـثـنى واحد من أفـراده كقولك لاَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ فإنّ‏‮ ‬‬لا فيه نافية لجسم الرّجال حتى لا‏‮ ‬‬يجوز أنْ‏‮ ‬‬تقول بل رجلان وهي‏‮ ‬‬تعمل عمل إِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬فتنصب الـمبتدأ إسمًا لها وترفع الخبر خبرًا لها ولا فرق في‏‮ ‬‬هذا العمل بين الـمفردة وهي‏‮ ‬‬التي‏‮ ‬‬لم تتكرّر نحو لاَ‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمَ‏‮ ‬‬سَفَـرٍ‏‮ ‬‬حَاضِرٍ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬بين الـمُكرَّرة نحو لاَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلَ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬امْرأَةَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬غير أنّها متي‏‮ ‬‬تتكرّرت مع مباشرتها النكرة جاز الغاؤها نحو لاَ‏‮ ‬‬حَوْلٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬قُوَّةٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬بِاللَّهِ‏‮ ‬‬بالرفع في‏‮ ‬‬الحول والقوّة‏‮ ‬‬

Explanation of Text in English: 

لاَ‏‮ ‬‬النَّافِيَة (The laa of negation) is the particle by which the negation of a specific category of noun is desired according to the way it is quoted – that is to say لاَ (laa) negates the category of noun by preceding it with a total negation of (it) to the point of not allowing anything from it (the category) to be excluded (in the negation) – like when you say:لاَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ (there is not (one) man in the house).  And so لاَ (laa) negates the category of men in it (the house) until it is impossible for you to (even) say: بلْ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلاَنِ (except two men).  It operates in the same manner as إِنَّ.  It (laa) causes الْــمُبْتَدَأ (the  subject) which is  referred to as إِسْمًا لَهَا (its noun) to be in the case of naṣb and it causes the predicate which is refer to as خَبْرًا لَهَا (its predicate) to be in the case of rafʿ.  There is no differentiation made in this function between the لا that is expressed  only once – which is the لا that is not repeated,  like when you say: لاَ‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمَ‏‮ ‬‬سَفَرٍ‏‮ ‬‬حَاضِــــرٌ (there is no traveling servant here) –  and the لا which is repeated,  like when you say :لاَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلَ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬امْرأَةَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ (there is no man nor woman in the house).  However, if it (لا – [laa)] is repeated, while having the indefinite noun coming in direct contact with it, then the cancellation of the naṣb case is allowed – like when you say: لاَ‏‮ ‬‬حَوْلٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬قُوَّةٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬بِاللَّهِ (there is no power nor might except with Allah) with حَوْلٌ and قُوَّةٌ being in the case of rafʿ.

Further Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

يشترط في‏‮ ‬‬عمل لا أمران أحدهما أن‏‮ ‬‬يكون إسمها وخبرها نكرتين والثاني‏‮ ‬‬أنْ‏‮ ‬‬يكون الإسم مقدّمًا والخبر مؤخرًا وذلك كقولك لاَ‏‮ ‬‬صَاحِبَ‏‮ ‬‬عِلْمٍ‏‮ ‬‬مَمْقُوتٌ‏‮ ‬‬ولاَ‏‮ ‬‬طَالِعًا جَبَلاً‏‮ ‬‬حَاضِرٌ‏‮ ‬‬فلو دخلت على معرفة أو على خبر مقدّم وجب إما إِهْمَالِها أو تكرارها فمثال دخولها على الـمعرفة قولك‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـــدٌ‏‮ ‬‬فِـي‏‮ ‬‬الــدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٌو بِتكرارها ومثال تقدّم خبرها قولك لاَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬امْرَأةٌ‏‮ ‬‬بإِهْمَالِها‏‮ ‬‬

Further Explanation of Text in English:

Two conditions have been made prerequisite for the function of لاَ (laa).  The first of them is that إِسْمُهَا (its noun) and خَبْرُهَا (its predicate) must both be indefinite.  The second condition is that the noun comes first and the predicate comes last – like when you say: لاَ‏‮ ‬‬صَاحِبَ‏‮ ‬‬عِلْمٍ‏‮ ‬‬مَمْقُوتٌ‏‮ ‬‬ (no owner of knowledge is hated) and ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬طَالِعًا جَبَلاً‏‮ ‬‬حَاضِرٌ (there is no mountain climber present).  If لاَ (laa) comes in front of a definite noun or a predicate that comes before its noun, either its omission or its repetition is required.  The  example of لاَ (laa) coming in front of the definite noun is like when you   say: ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـــدٌ‏‮ ‬‬فِـي‏‮ ‬‬الــدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٌو (there is know Zayd nor ʿAmr in the house) with لاَ (laa) being repeated.  The example of the predicate of لاَ coming first is like when you  say: لاَ‏‮ ‬‬فِــي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬امْرَأةٌ (there is no man nor woman in the house) with لاَ‏‮ ‬‬(laa) being omitted.

Further Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

أعلم‏‮ ‬‬أوّلاَ‏‮ ‬‬إن لا إنْ‏‮ ‬‬لم تباشر النكرة أي‏‮ ‬‬إنْ‏‮ ‬‬فصل بينهما فاصل فحينئذ لا‏‮ ‬‬يجوز نصب النكرة بها‏‮ ‬‬يجب رفعها ويجب مع ذلك تَكْرار لا نحو لاَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلٌ‏‮ ‬‬ولا امْرَأَةٌ‏‮ ‬‬ثانيا إن لاَ‏‮ ‬‬إنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَكَرَّرَتْ‏‮ ‬‬مع مباشرتها النكرة جَازَ‏‮ ‬‬إعمالها والغاؤها أي‏‮ ‬‬جاز أن تنصب بها النكرة الواقعة بعدها أو تُبْقِيهَا مرفوعة وتُبْطِل عمل لا نحو لاَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلَ‏‮ ‬‬أَوْ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬امْرَأَةَ‏‮ ‬‬أَوْ‏‮ ‬‬امْرَأَةٌ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدّارِ‏‮ ‬‬بفتح الإسمين أو رفعهما

Further Explanation of Text in English: 

Know, firstly, that if لاَ (laa) doesn’t come in direct contact with the indefinite noun  –  that is to say, if something is standing between them, then it is not permissible for the indefinite noun to be in the case of naṣb.  The case of rafʿ is required for it and in addition to that, لاَ must be repeated. – like when you say: لاَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬امْرَأَةٌ.

Secondly, if لاَ (laa) is repeated due to contact with the النَّكِرَة (the indefinite noun), its application and its omission is permitted. – that is to say, النَّكِرَة (the indefinite noun) which comes after لاَ (laa) can be in the case or naṣb or it can remain in the case of rafʿ and the function of لاَ (laa) will be cancelled – like when you say: لاَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُـــــلَ‏‮ ‬‬أَوْ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُـــلٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬امْرَأَةَ‏‮ ‬‬أَوْ‏‮ ‬‬امْرَأَةٌ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدّارِ with fat-ḥah placed on both nouns or the case of rafʿ (that is to say, ḍammah is place on the end of the each noun).

Further Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

فاسم لا‏‮ ‬‬،‏‮ ‬‬إلّا‏‮ ‬‬يخلو من ثلاثة أحوال الأوّل أن‏‮ ‬‬يكون مضافًا نحو لاَ‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلٍ‏‮ ‬‬حَاضِرٌ‏‮ ‬‬الثّاني‏‮ ‬‬أن‏‮ ‬‬يكون مشابهًا للمضاف والـمراد به كل إسم تعلّق بما بعده إما بعمل نحو لاَ‏‮ ‬‬طَالِعًا جَبَلاً‏‮ ‬‬حَاضِرٌ‏‮ ‬‬ولاَ‏‮ ‬‬حَسَـنًا فِعْـلُهُ‏‮ ‬‬مَوْجُودٌ‏‮ ‬‬ولاَ‏‮ ‬‬مَارًّا بِزَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬مُقْبِلٌ‏‮ ‬‬وإمّا بعطف نحو لاَ‏‮ ‬‬ثُـلُـثًا وَثُـلُثَيْنِ‏‮ ‬‬عِنْدَنَا وحكم الـمضاف والـمشبّه به النّصب لفظًا كما مُثـّل والحال الثّالث أن‏‮ ‬‬يكون مفردًا والـمراد به هنا ما ليس بمضاف ولا مشبَّه بالـمضاف فيدخل فيه الـمثنى والـمجمع وحكم البناء على ما كان‏‮ ‬‬يُنصب به نحو لاَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬في‏‮ ‬‬حال الـمفرد ولاَ‏‮ ‬‬قَمَرَيْنِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬السَّمَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬في‏‮ ‬‬حال الـمثنى ولاَ‏‮ ‬‬مُومِنينَ فِي‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَدِينَةِ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬مُسْلِمَاتِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الْبَلَدِ في‏‮ ‬‬حال الجمع

Further Explanation of Text in English: 

The noun of لاَ (laa) does not function outside of three cases.  The first case is: that it is مُضَافٌ (annexed to another noun) like when you say: لاَ‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلٍ‏‮ ‬‬حَاضِرٌ (there is no servant of [any] man present).

The second case is that it is  مُشَابَهًا لِلْمُضَافِ  (what  resembles الْـمُـضَاف).  What is desired is that every noun which is connected to what comes after it is connected either by function – like when you say: لاَ‏‮ ‬‬طََالِعًا جَبَلاً‏‮ ‬‬حَاضِرٌ (there is no mountain climber here) and لاَ‏‮ ‬‬حُسَـنًا فِعْـلُهُ‏‮ ‬‬مَوْجُودٌ (there is no good which he has done in existence) and لاَ‏‮ ‬‬مَارّ‏‮ ‬‬ًا بِزَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬مُقْبِلٌ (there is no one who passed by Zayd coming) or connected to what comes after it by a conjunction – like when you say:  لاُ‏‮ ‬‬ثُـلُـثًا وَثُـلُـثَيْنِ‏‮ ‬‬عِنْدَنَا (there is not one third nor two thirds with us – that is to say, we do not have one third or two thirds).  The rule for الـمُضَافُ and مُشَابَهًا‏‮ ‬‬ِللْمُضَافِ (what resembles الْـمُـضَاف) is that the case of naṣb is expressed as shown in previous examples.

The third case is that the noun following لاَ (laa) is مُفْـرَدًا (singular) and what is desired here is not مُضَاف or مُشَابَهًا‏‮ ‬‬ِللْمُضَافِ (what resembles الْـمُـضَاف).  And when الـْمُثَـنَّى (the dual) or الـمْجَمْــعُ (the plural) are joined to it (لاَ [laa]), the rule for its construction is in accordance with that for a noun in the a case of naṣb – like when you: لاَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ  (there is no man in the house) in the case of the singular noun; and لاَ‏‮ ‬‬قَمَرَيْنِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬السَّمَاءِ (there are not two moons in the sky) in the case of the dual noun and لاَ‏‮ ‬‬مُومِنينَ فِي‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَدِينَةِ (there are no believers in the city) and لاَ‏‮ ‬‬مُسْلِمَاتِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الْبَلَدِ (there are no female Muslims in the  country) in the case of the plural noun.

Published in: on April 10, 2012 at 01:50  Leave a Comment  
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Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 21 – (The Chapter About (Al-Istath-naa’ [The Exclusion of Nouns])

   بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬الاِسْتَثْنَاءِ  

21 – (The Chapter About (Al-Istathnaa’ [The Exclusion of Nouns])

 ʿArabic Text: 

‏‮(‬‬وَحُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الاِسْتَثْنَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬ثَمَانِيَةٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَغَيْرٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَسِوًى وَسُوًى وَسَوَاءٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَخَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬وَعَدَا وَحَاشَا فَالـْمُسْتَثْنَى بِإِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬يُنْصَبُ‏‮ ‬‬إِذَا كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬الْكَلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬تَامّـًا مُوجَبًا نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَامَ‏‮   ‬‬الْقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا وَخَرَجَ‏‮ ‬‬النَّاسُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرًا وَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬الْكََلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬مَنْفِيًا تَامّا جَازَ‏‮ ‬‬فِيهِ‏‮ ‬‬الْبَدَلُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالنَّصْبُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَى الاِسْتِثْنَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬اِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا أَوْ‏‮ ‬‬اِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬الْكَلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬نَاقِصًا كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَى حَسَبِ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَوَامِلِ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬اِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا وَمَا مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬بِزَيدٍ‏‮  ‬‬وَالـْمُسْتَثْنَى بِغَيرِ‏‮ ‬‬وَسِوًى وَسُوًى وَسَوَاءٍ‏‮ ‬‬مَجْرُورٌ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬غَيْرُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالـْمُسْتَثْنَى بِخِلاَ‏‮ ‬‬وَعَدَا وَحَاشَا‏‮ ‬‬يَجُوزُ‏‮ ‬‬نَصْبُهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَجَرُّهُ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوُْمُ‏‮  ‬‬خَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا وَزَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬عَدَا عَمْرًا وَعَمْرٍو وَحَاشَا بَكْرًا وَبَكْرٍ‏‮)‬‬‏‮ ‬‬

English Translation:

وَحُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الاِسْتَثْنَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬(And so, the particles of exclusion)   ‏‮ ‬‬ثَمَانِيَةٌ (are eight) وَهِيَ (and they are): إِلاَّ (except) , وَغَيْرٌ and (other than / except) وَسِوًى and (other than / except) وَسُـوًى and (other than / except) and وَسَـوَاءٌ and (except) ‏‮ ‬‬وَخَـلاَ and (except) وَعَدَا and (except) وَحاَشَا and (except).  فـَالـْمُسْتَثْنَى بِإِلاَّ (The noun that has been exclude by illa) يُـنْصَبُ is in the case of naṣb), ‏‮ ‬‬إِذَا كَـانَ‏‮ ‬‬الْـكَلاَمُ (if the statement [preceding illa]) تَـامّـًـا (is complete) مُـوجَـبً ([and] affirmative), نَـحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬(like when you say): قَـامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْـقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬ إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْــدًا (The  people stood [all] except Zayd), and وَخَـرَجَ‏‮ ‬‬النَّاسُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرًا and (The people left [all] except ʿAmr).  وَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬الْـكََلاَمُ (However, if the statement) تَامّـًا (is complete), but مَنْفِيًا (negative), جَـازَ‏‮ ‬‬فِـيهِ ( permitted in it is)  الْـبَدَلُ (the substitute noun) وَالنَّصْبُ‏‮ ‬‬(and [that noun] is in the case of naṣb)  عَـلَى الاِسْـتِثْنَاءِ (in accordance with the rule for the exclusion of nouns), نَحْوُ (like when you say): مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَومُ‏‮ ‬‬اِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا أَو اِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ (None of the people stood except Zayd). وَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬كَـانَ‏‮ ‬‬الْـكَلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬ (When the statement) [preceding illa]) نَـاقِصًا (is negative [and does not have الـْمُسْـتَثْنَى مِـنْهُ mentioned in it,‏‮ ‬the case of the noun which comes after illa]‬, كَـانَ‏‮ ‬‬عَـلَى حَسَـبِ (is determined by) الْـعَوَامِـلِ (the governors) [which precede illa]), نَحْوُ (like when you say): مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ (None came except Zayd)‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا and (I didn’t beat anyone except Zayd) ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬بِزَيدٍand (I didn’t pass by anyone except Zayd). 

‏‮ ‬‬ وَالـْمُسْتَثْنَى(And the excluded noun) بِـ (preceded and excluded by) غَيْر وَسِوًى وَسُوًى وَسَوَاءٌ (ghayrun, siwan, suwan and sawaa’un) مَجْـرُورٌ (is in the case of jarr) لاَ‏‮ ‬‬غَـيْرُ (only).  وَالـْمُسْتَثْنَى (And the excluded noun) بِـ (preceded and excluded by) خَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬وَعَدَا وَحَاشَا (khalaa, ʿadaa and ˙ashaaنَصْبُهُ (placing it in the cased of naṣb) وَجَرُّهُ (and in the case of jarr) يَـجُوزُ  ([are both] permitted)  –  نَحْو (like when you say):  قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬خَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا وَخَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ (The people left except Zayd) وَعَــــدَا عَمْـــــرًا وَعَــــدَا عَمْــــرٍ and (except ʿAmr) حََاشَا بََكْرًا وَحََاشَا بَكْرٍ and (except Bakr).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إن الـْمُسْتَثْنَى هو الخارج من حكم الـْمُسْتَثْنَى منه بإلاّ‏‮ ‬‬وإحدى اخواتها مثل له جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا فزيد هو الـمستـثـنى وهو خارج بإلاّ‏‮ ‬‬من حكم الـْمُجِيءِ‏‮ ‬‬الدّاخل فيه الـمستـثـنى منه وهو القوم وقس على ذلك‏‮ ‬‬

Explanation of Text in English: 

الـْمُسْتَثْنَى (the excluded noun) is the noun which has  fallen outside of the rule of what has been decreed for الـْمُسْـتَثْنَى مِـنْهُ  (the noun from which it has been excluded), because إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬أَخْوَاتِـهَا (illaa and one of its sisters ) precedes it.  The example of this rule is: جـَـاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الْـقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا (the people came (all) except Zayd).  And so, Zayd is الْـمُسْـتَثْنَى (the excluded noun), and it is outside of what has been decreed for the noun which precedes إِلاَّ, which is called الـْمُسْـتَثْنَى مِـنْهُ (the noun from which it has been excluded); and in the previous example, that noun is الْقَوْمُ, and it like that with similar example.

 Further Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

حُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الاِسْتَثْنَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬ثَمَانِيَةٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَغَيْرٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَسِوًى وَسُوًى وَسَوَاءٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَخَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬وَعَدَا وَحَاشَا وسُوًى بالقصر وجواز ضمّ‏‮ ‬‬السّين وكسرها وقد جاء سواءٌ‏‮ ‬‬بالـمدّ‏‮ ‬‬وجواز فتح السّين وكسرها وهي‏‮ ‬‬كسوى معنىً‏‮ ‬‬وحكمًا‏‮  ‬‬فإلاّ‏‮ ‬‬هي‏‮ ‬‬حرف وغَيْرٌ‏‮ ‬‬وسِوًى هما إسمان وأمّا خَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬وعَدَا وحَاشَا فإن جررن ما بعدها فحروف وإِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬فأفعال‏‮ ‬‬

Further Explanation of Text in English:

حُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْتَثْنَاءِ (the particles of exclusion) are eight.  They are: إِلاّ (except) , غَيْرٌ (other than / except) ,‏‮ ‬‬سِـوًى (other than / except) , سُـوًى  (other than / except), سَـواءٌ (except), ‏‮ ‬‬خَـلاَ (except), عَـدَا (except) , حاَشَـا (except) and سُـوًى with alif maqsuurah and the allowance for it to bear ḍammah or kasrah on the letter س (siin).  سَـوَاءٌ comes with الـْمَدُّ (madd = آ) and the allowance for it to bear fat-ḥah or kasrah on the letter siin (س) as well as kasrah; and it is similar to سِـوًى in meaning and rules.  اِلاَّ (illaa) is a particle while غَـيْرٌ (ghayr) and سِـوًى‏‮ ‬‬(siwan [سُوًى (suwan]) are nouns.  As for خَلاَ (khlaa) and عَدَا (ʿadaa) and حَاشَا (ḥaa-shaa), they cause whatever is coming after them to be in the case of jarr (khafḍ) when they are particles but not when they are verbs.

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

والـمستـثـنى له ثلاث حالاتٍ‏‮ ‬‬أوّلها وجوب النصب ثانيها جواز الرفع والنصب ثالثها إعرابه حسب العوامل الـمتـقدّمة على إِلا‏‮ ‬‬َّ‏‮ ‬‬فيجب نصبه متى كان الكلام الـمتقدّم على إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬تامّا موجَـبًا ونعني‏‮ ‬‬بالتّامّ‏‮ ‬‬ما‏‮ ‬‬يُذكَر به الـمستـثـنى منه وبالـموجَب ما‏‮ ‬‬يكن مسبوقًا بأداة نفي‏‮ ‬‬أو شبهه وشبه النفي‏‮ ‬‬هو الاستفهام والنهي‏‮ ‬‬مثال ذلك قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬القَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا فقام القوم كلام تام لأن الـمستـثـنى منه وهو‏‮ ‬‬القوم الـمذكور به ومُوجَب لأنه‏‮ ‬‬غير مسبوق بأداة نفي‏‮ ‬‬ولا شبهه‏‮ ‬‬

Explanation of Text in English:

الْـمُسْـتَثْنَى (the excluded noun) has three (possible) cases: the first of these cases is the necessity for it to be in the case of naṣb, the second of them is the permissibility for it to be in the case of rafʿ or naṣb, the third (possible case) is that the inflection of the noun is determined by the governor which precedes إِلاّ.  

الْـمُسْـتَثْنَى (the excluded noun) is required to be in the case of naṣb when the statement preceding إِلاّ is complete and affirmative.  What is meant by the word التّامّ (complete) is that  الـْمُسْـتَثْنَى مِـنْهُ (the noun from which [الـمُسْـتَثْنَى the excluded noun] has been excluded) is mentioned in it (the statement), while (what is meant by الـْـمُوجَـب (affirmative) is  that it [the statement coming before إِلاَّ] is not preceded by أَدَاةُ‏‮ ‬‬نَـفْي (a particle of negation)  or  what  is  similar  to  it  –  like when you say: ‏‮ ‬‬قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا.‏‮ ‬‬ And so قَامَ الْقَوْمُ  is كَلاَمٌ‏‮ ‬‬تامٌّ (a complete statement), because  الـْمُسْـتَثْنَى مِـنْهُ  (the  noun  from which [الـمُسْـتَثْنَى has been excluded) – and that noun is الْـقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬- has been mentioned in the statement, and مُـوجَبٌ (it is affirmative), because it has not been preceded by أَدَاةُ‏‮ ‬‬نَـفْي (a particle of negation) nor what resembles it.

Further Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

وأمّا جواز الرفع والنصب للإسم الـواقع بعد إلاّ‏‮ ‬‬فيجوز ذلك متى كان الكلام تامّــًا أي‏‮ ‬‬مذكورًا به الـمستـثـنى منه إلاّ‏‮ ‬‬أنّه‏‮ ‬‬غير موجب أي‏‮ ‬‬مسبوق بأداة نفي‏‮ ‬‬أو شبهه من الاِسْتِفْهَام والنَّهْي‏‮ ‬‬نحو مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬أحَدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬وهَلْ‏‮ ‬‬قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬أَحَدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْد ولاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَقُومُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬أَحَدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬يرفع زيد على البدلية ويجوز رفعه على الاستثناء هذا إذا كان ما بعد إلاّ‏‮ ‬‬من جنس ما قبلها إن لم‏‮ ‬‬يكن كذلك فلا‏‮ ‬‬يجوز إلاّ‏‮ ‬‬النّصب نحو مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْم إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬حِمَارًا بالنصب على الاستثنَاء ولا‏‮ ‬‬يجوز البدل فيه‏‮ ‬‬

Further Explanation of Text in English:

As for the permissibility of the case rafʿ or naṣb for the noun that comes after إِلاّ, that is allowed when the statement has been completed – that is to say, that الـمُسْـتَثْنَى مِـنْهُ (the noun from which [الـمُسْـتَثْنَى) has been excluded) has been mentioned with the statement and that the statement is not affirmative – that is to say that it is preceded by أَدَاةُ‏‮ ‬‬النَّفْي (the particle of negation) or what resemble it from  الاِسْـتِفْهَام (the particles of interrogation) and النَّهْـي (the particles of prohibition) – like when you say: مَا قَـامَ‏‮ ‬‬أَحَـدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدٌ‏‮ ‬‬أَوْ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدًا (No one stood except Zayd), هَلْ‏‮ ‬‬قَـامَ‏‮ ‬‬أَحَـدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدٌ‏‮ ‬‬أَوْ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدًا  (Did anyone stand except Zayd?), and لاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَـقُومَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬أَحَـدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدٌ‏‮ ‬‬أَوْ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬رَيْـدًا (There is no one standing except Zayd) with Zayd being in the case of rafʿ in all three examples because it is الْـبَدَلُ (the substitute noun).  The case of rafʿ  is permitted for the noun زَيْـد  according to the rules of exclusion for this noun, if what comes after the إِلاّ is of the same species or classification as what comes before إِلاّ ; and  if  that is not the case, then nothing except the case of naṣb is allowed – like when you say: مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬حِـمَارًا (None of the people stood except a donkey) with [حِـمَارًا] being in the case of naṣb in accordance with the rules for the exclusion of nouns; while الْبَدَلُ (the substitute noun) is not permitted for it at all.

Further Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

فــأمّا الإسم الواقع بعد إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬الذي‏‮ ‬‬يُعْرَب بحَسَبِ‏‮ ‬‬العواملِ‏‮ ‬‬الـمتـقدِّمةِ‏‮ ‬‬عليه إن كان الكلام ناقصًا منفيًا أي‏‮ ‬‬تفرّغ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُسْتَثْـنَى منه وما قبل إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬منفيّ‏‮ ‬‬فكان الإسم الواقع بعد إلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬معربًا بإعراب ما‏‮ ‬‬يقتضيه ما قبل إلاّ‏‮ ‬‬قبل دخولها وذلك نحو مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ و مَا رَأََيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا ومَا مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬بِزَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬فزَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬مرفوع بقَامَ‏‮ ‬‬وزَيْدًا منصوب برَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬ومجرور بالبآءِ‏‮ ‬‬متعلّق بمررت كما لو لم تُذكر إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬وهذا هو الاستثناء الـمفرّغ‏‮ ‬‬وهو لا‏‮ ‬‬يقع في‏‮ ‬‬كلام موجَب إلاّ‏‮ ‬‬نادرًا فلا‏‮ ‬‬يقال ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاِّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا‏‮ ‬‬

Further Explanation of Text in English:

As for the noun coming after إِلاّ which is inflected in accordance with العَوَاِملُ‏‮ ‬‬الْــمُتَقَدِّمَةُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَى إِلاَّ (the governors which  precede إِلاّ), if the statement has a portion (part) that has been omitted  and is negative – that is to say, that الـْمُسْـتَثْنَى مِـنْهُ is omitted from the statement and what comes before إلا has been negated, then the noun which comes after إِلاّ is inflected with the inflection that would have been required for a noun preceding إِلاّ – prior to إِلاّ being placed in front of the noun‏‮ ‬‬ – like when you say:  مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ (no one stood up except Zayd) and مَا رَأََيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬رَيْدًا (I didn’t see anyone except Zayd) and مَا مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬بِـزَيْدٍ (I did not pass by (anyone) except Zayd).  Zayd is in the case of rafʿ due to the influence of قَـامَ and in the case of naṣb, because of رَأَيْـتُ and (in the case of jarr) because it is being governed by the preposition بِ which is linked to the verb مَرَرْتُ.  It is as if إِلاَّ had not been expressed.  This is الاِسْتَثْـنَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُفَـــرَّغُ (the  excluded noun which has been omitted.  It does not occur in speech except on rare occasions while the statement: ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا (I beat (all of them) except Zayd) is not said at all.

Further Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

 إن الـمستـثـنى بغَيْر وسِوى وَسُوًى وَسَوَاء مجرور فحكم الإسم الواقع بعدها الجر لإضافتها إليه وتُعْرَبُ‏‮ ‬‬غَيْر بما كان‏‮ ‬‬يُعْرَبُ‏‮ ‬‬به الإسم الـمستـثـنى مع إلاّ‏‮ ‬‬فتقول قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬غَيْرَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬ينصب‏‮ ‬‬غير كما تقول قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا بنصب زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬وتقول مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬أَحَدٌ‏‮ ‬‬غَيْرُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬وَغَيْرَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬بالإتباع والنصب كما تقول مَا قَام أَحَدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا وتقول مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬غَيْرُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬برفع‏‮ ‬‬غير وجوبًا كما تقول مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬برفع زيد وجوبًا وأمّا سوى فمذهب قوم أنّها تعامل بما تعامل به‏‮ ‬‬غير من الرفع والنّصب والجرّ‏‮ ‬‬ومذهب سيبويه والجمهور إنّها لا تخرج عن الظّرفيّة‏‮ ‬‬

Further Explanation of Text in English:

And الْـمْسْتَثْنَى (the excluded noun) preceded by غَيْر,سِوًى, سُوًى and‏‮ ‬‬سَوَاء isمَجْرُور (in the case of jarr [khafḍ]) لاِضَافَتِهَا إِلَيْهِ (because of their construction the noun.  غَيْرٌ (Ghayrun) is inflected according to the rules of inflection for الإِسْمْ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُسْتَثْنَى (the excluded noun) when it is precede by إِلاّ.  And so you say: قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬غَيْرَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ (the people stood [all] except Zayd) with غير in the case of naṣb – likewise you say: قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا with Zayd in the case of naṣb and you say: مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬أَحَدٌ‏‮ ‬‬غَيْرُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدٍ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬غَيْرَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ in compliance (with the rule for the case of rafʿ) and the case of naṣb – and like what you say: مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬أَحدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيـْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا and you say: مَا قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬غَيْرُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ (none stood except Zayd) with غير being in the case of rafʿ as a requirement.

As for سِـوًى (siwan), it is the opinion of the grammarians that it is governed by that which governs غَيْرُ  (ghayrun) in the case of rafʿ, naṣb and jarr (khafḍ),  and the view of Siybawayhi and the people of grammatical knowledge in general is that it is not include with the adverbs.

Further Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

فأمّا خلا وعدا وحاشا فإن الـمستـثـنى الـمتقدم بهذه الأدوات‏‮ ‬‬يجوز جرّه على أنها حروف جرّ‏‮ ‬‬نحو قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬خَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬وعَدَا زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬وحَاشَا زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬بِجَر زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬بعدها ويجوز نصبه على الـمفعوليّة وتكون خَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬وعَدَا وحَاشَا أيضًا أفعالاً‏‮ ‬‬ماضيــةً‏‮ ‬‬فَاعِلُهَا ضمير عائد على البعض الـمفهوم من القوم وهو مستتر وجوبًا نحو‏‮ ‬‬ قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَومُ‏‮ ‬‬خَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا وَمَا عَدَا زَيْدًا وحَاشَا زَيْدًا بنصب زيد على أنه مفعول به وفاعل خلا وعدا وحاشا مستتر وجوبًا والتّقدير خلا بعضهم زَيْدًا وعَدَا بعضهم زَيْدًا وحَاشَا بعضهم زَيْدًا وأمّا إِنْ‏‮ ‬‬تقدّمت ما على خلا وعدا وجب النّصب بهما نحو قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَومُ‏‮ ‬‬مَا خَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا وَمَا عَدَا زَيْدًا بالنّصب و أمّا حاشا فلا تتقدّم ما عليه فلا تقول ما حاشا

Further Explanation of Text in English:

As for  خَـلاَ (khalaa), عَـدَا (ʿadaa) and حَـاشَـا (haa-shaa), when الْـمُسْـتَثْنَى is (preceded) by these particles it is permissible for it to be in the case of jarr (khafḍ) due to the fact that they are prepositions – like when you say: قَـامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْـقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬خَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيـدٍ and عَـدَا زَيدٍ and حَاشَـا زَيْدٍ. And so  خلا (Khalaa), عدا (ʿadaa) and حَاشَا (ḥaa-shaa)  are also أَفْـعَالاً‏‮ ‬‬مَـاضِـيَةً (past tense verbs).  Their فَـاعِـل (doer) is a pronoun traceable back to someone who is understood to be from among the people and it is concealed out of necessity – like when you say : قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَومُ‏‮ ‬‬مَا خَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا وَمَا عَدَا زَيْدًا وَحَاشَا زَيْدًا (The people stood without Zayd).  Zayd is the case of naṣb, because it is الْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬بِـهِ (the object of the verb [خَـلاَ‮ ‬,عَدَا and حَـاشَـا respectively]).  The فَاعِـل of خَـلاَ‏‮ ‬‬and عَـدَا and حَاشَـا as stated before, it is a pronoun concealed out of necessity.   Its  implication is that خَـلاَ‏‮ ‬‬بَـعْضُهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدًا (some of them [the people] acted without Zayd) and عَدَا بَعْضَهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدًا  (some of them excluded Zayd) and حَـاشَـا بَعْضُهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا (some of them are not with Zayd).  As for مَا preceding خَـلاَ‏‮ ‬‬and عَـدَا, it is necessary that the case of naṣb (be affixed to the noun which is govern by them) like when you say: قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَــــومُ‏‮ ‬‬مَا خَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا وَمَا عَدَا زَيْدًا with Zayd in the case of naṣb.  As for the حاشا, مَا does not come in front of it, therefore you cannot say: مَا حَاشَا.


Published in: on March 22, 2012 at 12:25  Leave a Comment  
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Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 20 – (The Chapter About At-Tamyiiz [The Noun Of Specification])

  بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬التَّمْيِيزِ 

 20 – (The Chapter About At-Tamyiiz 

   [The Noun Of Specification])

ʿArabic Text: 

‏‮(‬‬التَّمْيِِيزُ‏‮ ‬‬هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَنْصُوبُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُفَسِّرُ‏‮ ‬‬لـِمَا انْبَهَمَ‏‮ ‬‬مِنَ‏‮ ‬‬الذَّوَاتِ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬تَصَبَّبَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬عَرَقًا وَتَفَقَّأَ‏‮ ‬‬بَكْرٌ‏‮ ‬‬شَحْمًا وَطَابَ‏‮ ‬‬مُحَمَّدٌ‏‮ ‬‬نَفْسًا وَاشْتَرَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬عِشْرِينَ‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمًا وَمَلَكْتُ‏‮ ‬‬تِسْعِينَ‏‮ ‬‬نَعْجَةً‏‮ ‬‬وَزَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬أَكْرََمُ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْكَ‏‮ ‬‬أَبًا وَأَجْمَلُ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَجْهًا وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬التَّمْيِيزُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬نَكِِرَةً‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬بَعْدَ‏‮ ‬‬تَمَامِ‏‮ ‬‬الْكلاَمِ‏‮)‬‬

‏‮ ‬‬English Translation:

التُّمْيِيــــــزُ  (The  noun  of  specification)  هُوَ  (is) الإِسْـمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَنْصُوبُ‏‮ ‬‬ (a noun in the case of naṣb) الْـمُفَسِّرُ‏‮ ‬‬(which clarifies) لـِـمَا انْـبَهَمَ (what is unclear) مِـنَ‏‮ ‬‬الذَّوَاتِ (about the nature [of a verb and the exact details of what resulted from its action]) – نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ (like when we say): تَصَـبَّبَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬عَرَقًا (Zayd was dripping with perspiration) وَتَفَقَّأَ‏‮ ‬‬بَكْرٌ‏‮ ‬‬شَحْمًا and (Bakr is bursting with fat) وَطَابَ مُحَمَّدٌ‏‮ ‬‬نَفْســًا and (Muhammad is good  by nature [good natured]) أَشْتَرَيتُ‏‮ ‬‬عِشْرِينَ‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمًا and  (I bought twenty servants) مَلَكْتُ‏‮ ‬‬تِسْعِينَ‏‮ ‬‬نَعَجَةًً and (I own ninety‏‮ ‬‬ewes) زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬أَكْرَمُ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْكَ‏‮ ‬‬أَبًا وَأَجْمَلُ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَجْهًا and (Zayd is more noble than you as a father and has a more handsome face than you).  وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬التَّمْيِيزُ (And so [a noun] is not the noun of specification) إِلاَّ (unless) نَـكِِرَةً (it is indefinite) وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَكُون (nor is it [the noun of specification] إِلاَّ (unless) بَعْدَ‏‮ ‬‬تَمَامِ‏‮ ‬‬الْكلاَمِ ([occurs] at the end of the statement).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إن التّمييز هو نكرة جامدة مفسرة لـما أُبْهِِِمَ‏‮ ‬‬من الذّوات متضمّنة معنى من دون لفظها كقولك زَرَعْنَا الأَرْضَ‏‮ ‬‬قَمْحًا فقَمْحًا نكرة‏‮  ‬‬جامدة مفسِّرة لذات الـمزروع في‏‮ ‬‬الأرض الذي‏‮ ‬‬كان مُبْهَمًا قبل ذكره وهو متضمّنُ‏‮ ‬‬معنى من دون لفظها لأن التّقدير من قمح وقس عليه للتّمييز شرطان إحدهما أن‏‮ ‬‬يكون نكرة و الثّاني‏‮ ‬‬إن‏‮ ‬‬يكون واقعًا بعد تمام الكلام

Explanation of Text in English:

التَّمْيِيزُ (the noun of  specification)  is  an indefinite noun in the case of naṣb which clarifies what is unclear about the nature of a something, while implying the meaning of  مِـنّ without expressing it. – like when you say: زَرَعْـنَا الاَرْضِ‏‮ ‬‬قَـمْحًا (we planted the ground with wheat.  And so, قَـمْحًا (wheat) is an indefinite noun in the case of naṣb that explains the nature of what was planted in the earth  –  which was unclear before it (قَـمْحًا) was mentioned.  التَّمْيِيــزُ (The noun of specification) contains the meaning of مِـنْ (some) without expressing it, because what is implied in the above example is مِـنْ‏‮ ‬‬قمحٍ (some wheat – [that is to say,  زَرَعْـنَا الاَرْضِ‏‮ ‬‬مِـنْ‏‮ ‬‬قَـمْحٍ  – “we planted (مِـنْ [some] قَـمْحٍ [wheat] in the ground”]) and so forth.

التَّمْيِيزُ (the noun of specification) has two determinate conditions: the first of them is that it is indefinite, and the second is that it occurs at the end of the statement.

(*note in ʿArabic)

التّمييز يُقسَم إلى مَا‏‮ ‬‬يبيّن إبهام إسم مفرد وإلى ما‏‮ ‬‬يبيّن إبهام إجمال نسبةٍ‏‮ ‬‬فَمَا‏‮ ‬‬يبيّن إبهام اسم مفرد كالـْمِسَاحَات‏‮ ‬‬نحو هَذَا شِبْرٌ‏‮ ‬‬أَرْضًا والْـمِكْيَلاَت نحو عِنْدِي‏‮ ‬‬إِرْدَبٌّ‏‮ ‬‬قَمْحًا والْعَدَد نحو لِي‏‮ ‬‬عِشْرُونَ‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمًا والْـمَوْزُونَات نحو عِنْدِي‏‮ ‬‬رَطْلٌ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْتًا وما‏‮ ‬‬يبيّن إبهام إجمال نسبةٍ‏‮ ‬‬نحو طَابَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬نَفْسًا وزَرَعْناَ‏‮ ‬‬الأَرْضَ‏‮ ‬‬قَمْحًا‏‮  ‬‬وزَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬أَكْثَرُ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْكَ‏‮ ‬‬فَضْلاً‏‮ ‬‬وقس على ذلك

(*note in English)

التَّمْيِيـــزُ (the noun of specification) is divided between that which clarifies what is uncertain about a singular noun, and that which clarifies what is unclear about  إِجْمَال نِسْبَةٍ (the entire relationship)The clarification of what is uncertain about a singular noun is like الـمِسَاحَات (the measurement for land area)  – like when you say:: شِـبْرٌ‏‮ ‬‬أَرْضًـا (a shibr [foot] of ground); and الـمِكْيَلاَت  (the dry measure for grains)  –  like when you say:‏‮ ‬‬إِرْدَبٌّ‏‮ ‬‬قَمْحًا  (an irdabb of wheat); and العَدَد (the numerical amount of something) – like: لِـي‏‮ ‬‬عِشْـرُونَ‏‮ ‬‬غُـلاَمًـا (I have twenty servants); and  الْـمَوْزُونَـات (that which is weighed)  – like: عِنْدِي‏‮ ‬‬رَطْلٌ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْتـًا (I have a‏‮ ‬‬ral of oil).  The clarification of what is unclear about إِجْـمَال نِسْـبَةٍ (the entire relationship) is – like when you say: طَـابَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدٌ‏‮ ‬‬نَـفْسًا (Zayd was good in spirit [good spirited]) and زَرَعْـناَ‏‮ ‬‬الأَرْضَ‏‮ ‬‬قَـمْحًا (We planted the ground with wheat [we planted some wheat in the ground) and زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬أَكْـثَرُ‏‮ ‬‬مِـنْكَ‏‮ ‬‬فَضْلاً (Zayd is greater than you in  kindness / generosity [Zayd is kinder / more generous than you]) and so forth.

Published in: on February 16, 2012 at 11:18  Leave a Comment  
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Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 19 – (The Chapter About Al-Haal [The Circumstantial Noun])

بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬الْحَالِ

19 – (The Chapter About Al-Haal  [The Circumstantial Noun])

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬الـْحَالُ‏‮ ‬‬هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَنْصُوبُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُفَسِّرُ‏‮ ‬‬لـِمَا انْبَهَمَ‏‮ ‬‬مِنَ‏‮ ‬‬الْهَيْئَاتِ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬رَاكِبًا وَرَكِبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَرَسَ‏‮ ‬‬مُسْرَجًا وَلَقِيتُ‏‮ ‬‬عَبْدَ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّهِ‏‮ ‬‬رَاكِبًا وَمَا أَشْبَهَ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬الْحَالُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬بَعْدَ‏‮ ‬‬تَمَامِ‏‮ ‬‬الْكلاَمِ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬صَاحِِبُهُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاّ‏‮ ‬‬مَعْرِفَةً‏‮)‬‬

‏‮ ‬‬English Translation:

الـْحَالُ (The circumstantial noun) هُوَ (is)الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَنْصُوبُ‏‮ ‬‬ (the noun in the case of naṣb) الـْمُفَسِّرُ (which clarifies) لـِمَا انْبَهَم (what is unclear) مِنَ‏‮ ‬‬الْهَيْئَاتِ (about the circumstances [of الْفَاعِـل (the doer) or الـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬بِهِ (the receiver of the action) or الـْمَجْـرُور (the noun in the case of jarr]) – (like when you say):  جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬رَاكِـبًا (Zayd came riding) وَرَكِبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَرَسَ‏‮ ‬‬مُسْرَجًا and (I rode the mare with a saddle) وَلَقِيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬عَبْـدُ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّهِ‏‮ ‬‬رَاكِـــــبًا and (I met Abdullaahi riding) وَمَا أَشْبَهَ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِــكَ‏‮ ‬‬ (and what is similar to these).  وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَــكُونُ الـْـحَالُ (The circumstantial noun must not be anything) إِلاّ (other than) نَكِـرَةً‏‮ ‬‬ (an indefinite noun) وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَكُــــــونُ (nor  does  it  occur) إِلاّ (other  than) بَـعْدَ‏‮ ‬‬تمَـامِ‏‮ ‬‬الْـكلاَمِ (after the completion of the statement) وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَـكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬صَاحِِـبُهُ (and it is not accompanied [by another noun] إِلاّ (unless) مَعْرِفَةً (it is definite).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إن الحال نكرة مُشْتَقَّة واقعة بعد تمام الكلام تبين هيئَة الفاعل والـمفعول و كقولك جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬رَاكِبًا ورَكِبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَرَسَ‏‮ ‬‬مُسْرَجًا ومَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِعُمْرٍو جَالِسًا فراكبًا ومُسْرَجًا وجالسًا نكرات لأنّه‏‮ ‬‬يصلح دخول‏‮ ((‬‬ال‏‮)) ‬‬على كلّ‏‮ ‬‬منها ومشتقات لأنّ‏‮ ‬‬كُلاّ‏‮ ‬‬منها‏‮ ‬‬يدلّ‏‮ ‬‬على معنى وصاحبه وواقعات بعد تمام الكلام لأنّه‏‮ ‬‬يصح الاستغناءُ‏‮ ‬‬عنها‏‮ ‬‬

وراكبًا‏‮ ‬‬يبين هيئة الفاعل‏‮ ((‬‬زيد‏‮)) ‬‬ومسرحًا‏‮ ‬‬يبين هيئة الـمفعول‏‮ ((‬‬الْفَرَسَ‏‮)) ‬‬وجالسًا‏‮ ‬‬يبين هيئة المجرور‏‮ ((‬‬عمرو‏‮)) ‬‬وكلها متضمّنة معنى‏‮ ((‬‬في‏‮)) ‬‬دود لفظها لأنّ‏‮ ‬‬التّقدير في‏‮ ‬‬حال ركوبه إلى آخره شروط الحال ثلاثة أوّلها أن‏‮ ‬‬يكون نكرة ثانيها أن‏‮ ‬‬يكون فضلة ثالثها أن‏‮ ‬‬يكون صاحبه معرفة وهذه الشّروط تجدها في‏‮ ‬‬راكبًا من قولك جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬رَاكِبًا لأنّه نكرة واقع بعد تمام الكلام وصاحبه معرفة وهو زيد

Explanation of Text in English:

الْـحَالُ (The circumstantial noun) is a separate indefinite noun which occurs after the completion of a statement and which clarifies the circumstance of الفَاعِل (the doer), الـْـمَفْعُول (the object of the verb) and الـْمَجْـرُور (the object of the preposition) – like when you say: جَـاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدٌ‏‮ ‬‬رَاكِـبــًا (Zayd came riding) and رَكَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَرَسَ‏‮ ‬‬مُسْرَجـــــًا (I rode the saddled horse) and  مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِعَمْرٍو جَالِسَا (I passed by ʿAmr while he was sitting). And so رَاكِـبًا , مُسْرَجًـا and جَـالِـسًا are indefinite because the prefixing of اَلْـ is not permissible for any of them. They are separate from the rest of the statement, because each of them gives meaning to what accompanies it and they occur after the completion of the statement, because it is (grammatically) permissible to leave or drop them from the statement.  And so رَاكِبًا clarifies the circumstances of زَيْدٌ (Zayd) – the doer – (that is to say, how he performed a particular act) and مُسْرَجًـا clarifies the situation or condition in which الْفَرَسَ the object of the verb was found (when it received the action of the verb) and جَـاِلسًا clarifies the situation ofعَـمْرٍو (‘Amr) – the object of the preposition (during the occurrence of the action being carried out by the doer).

The determinate conditions of الْـحَالُ (The circumstantial noun) are three.  First it must be نَـكِرَةٌ (indefinite), second it must be فُـضْلَةً (more than what is needed to complete the statement – (that is to say, it would be [grammatically] permissible to leave or drop it from the statement), and third ‏‮ ‬‬صَـاحِبُهُ‏‮ ‬‬مَـعْرِفَـةٌ(a definite noun must accompany it).‏‮ ‬‬ These conditions can be found in the noun راكبًا like when you say:  جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬رَاكِـبًا, because it is نَـكِرَة (an indefinite noun) وَاقِـعُ‏‮ ‬‬بَـعْدَ‏‮ ‬‬تَـمَامِ‏‮ ‬‬الْـكَلاَمِ (which occurs after the completion of the statement) and صَاحِبَهُ‏‮ ‬‬مَعْرِفَةٌ (a definite noun accompanies it) and that noun is Zayd.

Published in: on December 27, 2011 at 12:50  Leave a Comment  
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Matn Al Ajurruumiyyah (Audio) – Quick Recitation and Slow Recitation

Matn Al Ajurruumiyyah (Audio) – Quick Recitation and Slow Recitation  

Click here for the: Matn Al Ajurruumiyyah (Arabic Text)

Click here for the: 1. Complete Audio Quick Recitation

Click here for the: 3. Complete Audio Slower Recitation

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 18 – (The Chapter About Ḍharfu-z-Zamaan [The Adverb Of Time] and Ḍharful-Makaan [The Adverb Of Place])

 بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬ظَرْفِ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَانِ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬ظَرْفِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَانِ 

18 – (The Chapter About harfu-z-Zamaan  [The Adverb Of Time] and harfu-l-Makaan  [The Adverb Of Place])

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬ظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَانِ‏‮ ‬‬هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬اسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَانِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَنْصُوبُ‏‮ ‬‬بِتَقْدِيرِ‏‮ ‬‬فيِ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬الْيَوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬وَاللَّيْلَةَ‏‮ ‬‬وَغُدْوَةً‏‮ ‬‬وَبُكْرَةً‏‮ ‬‬وَسَحَرًا وَغَدًا وَعَتَمَةً‏‮ ‬‬وَصَبَاحًا وَمَسَاءً‏‮ ‬‬وَأَبَدًا وَأَمَدًا وَحِينًا وَمَا أَشْبَهُ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَانِ‏‮ ‬‬هَوَ‏‮ ‬‬اسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَانِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَنْصُوبُ‏‮ ‬‬بِتَقْدِيرِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬أَمَامَ‏‮ ‬‬وَخَلْفَ‏‮ ‬‬وَقُدَّامَ‏‮ ‬‬وَوَرَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬وَفَوْقَ‏‮ ‬‬وَتَحْتَ‏‮ ‬‬وَعِنْدَ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَعَ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِزَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬وَحِذَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬وَتِلْقَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬وَهُنَا وَثَمَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا أَشَْبَهَ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِكَ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

ظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَانِ (The adverb of time) هُوَ (is) اسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَانِ (the noun of time) الـْمَنْصُوبُ (in the case of naṣb) بِتَقْديرِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي (it is expressed with [the preposition] فِي being implied) –  (like when you say): الْيَوْمَ (today) وَاللَّيْلَةَ and (tonight) وَغُدْوَةً and (in the morning) وَبُكْرَةً and (at dawn) وَسَحَرًا and (at dawn) وَغَدًا and (tomorrow) وَعَتَمًا and (in the first third of the night) وَصَبَاحًا and (in the morning) وَمَسَاءً and (in the evening) وَأَبَدًا and (always / never) وَأَمَدًا and (briefly) وَحِينًا and (sometimes) وَمَا أَشْبَهُ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِكَ (and what is similar to these).

وَظَـــرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَـــانِ‏‮ ‬‬ (And the adverb of place) هُو (is)   اسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَانِ the noun of location) الـْمَنْصُوبُ (in the case of naṣb) بِتَقْديرِ‏‮ ‬‬في (it is expressed with [the preposition] فِي being implied)  – like when you say: أَمَامَ (across from / in front of) وَخَلْفَ and (behind), وَقُدَّامَ and (in front of)  وَوَرَاءَ and (behind) وَفَوْقَ and (above) وَتَحْتَ and (below) وَعِنْدَ and (with) وَمَعَ and (with) وَإِزَاءَ and (face to face / opposite someone or something) وَحِذَاءَ and (opposite / face to face with) وَتِلْقَاءَ and (opposite /in  front  of) وَهُنَــا  and  (here) ‏‮ ‬‬وَثَـــمَّand  (there)  وَمَا أَشَْبَهَ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِك (and what is similar to these).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

ظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَان وَظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَان هما الإسمان الـمنصوبان الواقع فيهما الفعل متضمِّنًا معنى في‏‮ ‬‬دون لفظها كقولك خَرَجْتُ‏‮ ‬‬يَوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬الْعِيدِ‏‮ ‬‬ومَشَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَرَآءَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمِ‏‮ ‬‬فيوم وورآء مفعول فيهما لأنّه قد وقع فيهما الفعل وهو الخروج والـمشِي‏‮ ‬‬وكلاهما متضمّن معنى في‏‮ ‬‬دون‏‮  ‬‬لفظها لأنّ‏‮ ‬‬التّقدير في‏‮ ‬‬اليوم والورآء ومثل جِئْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْيَوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬وأَذْهَبُ‏‮ ‬‬غَدًا‏‮ ‬‬وقُمْتُ‏‮ ‬‬صَبَاحًا ونِمْتُ‏‮ ‬‬مَسَـاءً‏‮ ‬‬وجَـلَسْتُ‏‮ ‬‬حِذَاءَكَ‏‮ ‬‬ووَقَفْتُ‏‮ ‬‬قُدَّامَكَ‏‮ ‬‬إلى آخره‏‮ ‬‬

ظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَان هو الإسم الدّالّ‏‮ ‬‬على الزّمان نحو الْيَوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬واللَّيْلَةَ‏‮ ‬‬وغُدْوَةً‏‮ ‬‬وبُكْرَةً وسَحَرًا وغَدًا وعَتَمًا وصَبَاحًا ومَسَاءً‏‮ ‬‬وأَبَدًا وأَمَدًا ووَقْتًآ وحِينًا وما أشبه ذلك فهذه‏‮  ‬‬جميعًا تُنْصَبُ‏‮ ‬‬على الظَّرْفيَّةِ‏‮ ‬‬تقول أَتَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْيَوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬وذَهَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بُكْرَةً‏‮ ‬‬

وظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَان هو الاسم الدّال على الـمكان نحو أَمَامَ‏‮ ‬‬وخَــلْفَ‏‮ ‬‬وقُدَّامَ‏‮ ‬‬ووَرَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬وفَوْقَ‏‮ ‬‬وتَحْتَ‏‮ ‬‬وعِنْدَ‏‮ ‬‬ومَعَ‏‮ ‬‬وإِزَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬وتِلْقَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬وحِذَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬وهُنَا وثَمَّ‏‮ ‬‬ومَا أشبه ذلك تقول جَلَسْتُ‏‮ ‬‬أَمَامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬أو حِذَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٍو أو تِلْقَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الْبَيْتِ‏‮ ‬‬وقس الباقي

Explanation of Text in English:

ظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَانِ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬ظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَانِ  (the adverb of time and the adverb of place) are the nouns in the case of naṣb wherein their verb [is expressed] with an implied meaning  [which includes] the preposition  فِي   –  like when you say: خَرَجْــــتُ‏‮ ‬‬يَـوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬الْعِيــــدِ  (I  left  on  the  feast  day) and  مَشَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَرَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمِ (I walked behind the people); and so يَوْمَ and وَرَاءَ are adverbial objects for both of the verbs  (خَرَجْتُ‏‮ ‬‬ and مَشَيْتُ), because the action falls on both of these objects which is the action of  الْـخُرُوجُ (leaving) and the action of الْـمَشِي (walking).  Both contain the meaning of the preposition فِي without the expression of it, because it is implied by الْيوْمَ and الْوَرَاءَ.  Similar examples are: جِئْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْيَوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬وأَذْهَبُ‏‮ ‬‬غَدًا‏‮ ‬‬(I came today and I am leaving tomorrow), قُمْتُ‏‮ ‬‬صَبَاحًا ونِمْتُ‏‮ ‬‬مَسَـآءً (I arose in the morning and slept in the evening), جَلَسْتُ‏‮ ‬‬حِذَاءَكَ‏‮ ‬‬ووَقَفْتُ‏‮ ‬‬قُدَّامَكَ (I sat across from you and I stood in front of you) and so forth

ظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَان (the adverb of time) is the noun which demonstrates time  – like when you say: الْيَوْمَ (today), اللَّيْلَةَ (tonight), غُدْوَةً (in the morning), بُكْرَةً (at dawn), سَحَرًا (at dawn), غَدًا (tomorrow/on the morrow), عَتَمًا (in the first third of the night), صَبَاحًا (in the morning), مَسَاءً (in the evening), أَبَدًا (always / never), أَمَدًا (briefly), and حِينًا (sometimes) and what is similar to these.  All of these nouns are in the case of naṣb because they are in the adverbial condition.  And so you say:‏‮ ‬‬أَتَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْيَوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬ذَهَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بُكْرَةً (I came in the day and left in the evening).

ظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَان (the adverb of place) is the noun which demonstrates location  – like when you say:  أَمَــــامَ (across from / in front of), خَلْفَ (behind), قُدَّامَ (in front of), وَرَاءَ (behind), فَوْقَ (above), تَحْتَ (below), عِنْدَ (with), مَعَ (with), إِزَاءَ (face to face / opposite someone or something), حِذَاءَ (opposite / face to face with), تِلْقَاء (opposite / in front of), هُنَا (here),‏‮ ‬‬ثَمَّ (there) and what is similar to these.  And so you say: جَلَسْتُ‏‮ ‬‬أَمَامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ (I sat across from Zayd) and حِذَا عَمْرٍو (opposite ʿAmr) and تِلْقَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الْبَيْتِ (in front of the house).  The rest of the adverbs of time are use in a similar manner.

(*note in ʿArabic)

الظرف هو الـمسمَّى الـمفعول فيه أيضًا فهو الـمـنصوب الواقع فيه الفعل متضمنًا معنى في‏‮ ‬‬دون لفظها فهكذا قلنا ظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَان وَظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَان‏‮ ((‬‬منصوب على تقدير في‏‮ ‬‬دون لفظها‏‮)) ‬‬لأنّ‏‮ ‬‬معنى قولك أَتَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْيوْمَ‏‮ ((‬‬أَتَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الْيَوْمِ‏‮))‬‬ ومعنى قولك جَلَسْتُ‏‮ ‬‬عِنْدَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ‏‮ ((‬‬جَلَسْتُ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَانِ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَرِيبِ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْهُ‏‮)) ‬‬فلو لم‏‮ ‬‬يكن على معني‏‮ ‬‬في‏‮ ‬‬نحو انْتَطَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬يَوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬الْعِيدِ‏‮ ‬‬أو كانت‏‮ ((‬‬في‏‮)) ‬‬ظاهرةً‏‮ ‬‬نحو أَتَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الصَّبَاحِ‏‮ ‬‬كان الأوّل منصوبًا على انه مفعولٌ‏‮ ‬‬به والثَّانِي‏‮ ‬‬مجرورًا بالحرف‏‮   ‬‬

(*note in English)

الظَّرْفُ (The adverb) is also known as الْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬فِيهِ (the adverbial object).  It is the noun in the case of naṣb upon which the action of the verb falls and implies the meaning of the preposition فِي (in) without expressing it. Therefore, we  have  said, “ظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَانِِ (the adverb of time) and ظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَانِِِ (the adverb of place) are in the case of naṣb because of the implication of [the harf] فِي”. It means that what is being implied is the prepositions فِي (in) without it being expressed, because when you say: أَتَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْيَوْمَ (I came today) what you mean is أَتَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الْيَوْمِ (I came in the day) and when you say:  جَلَسْتُ‏‮ ‬‬عِنْدَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ (I sat with Zayd) what you mean is  جَلَسْتُ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَانِ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَرَيبِ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْهُ (I sat in a place near him).  The preposition فِي is not implied however, if you say: أَنْتَطَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬يَوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬الْعِيدِ (I await the day of ‘Iid)  or when the word فِي comes in (a sentence) like:أَتَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الصَّبَاحِ‏‮ ‬‬(I came in the morning). The word يَوْمَ in the first example is in the case of naṣb because it is the object of the verb and the word الصَّبَاحِ in the second example in the case of khafḍ because it is the object of the preposition.

Published in: on October 30, 2011 at 23:56  Comments (1)  

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 17 – (The Chapter About Al-Maṣdar [The Verbal Noun])

    بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَصْدَرِ

17 – (The Chapter About Al-Maṣdar [The Verbal Noun])

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬الـْمَصْدَرُ‏‮ ‬‬هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَنْصُوبُ‏‮ ‬‬الذِي‏‮ ‬‬يَجِىءُ‏‮ ‬‬ثَالِثًا فِي‏‮ ‬‬تَصْرِيفِ‏‮ ‬‬الْفِعْلِ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬يَضْرِبُ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرْبًا وَهُوَ‏‮ ‬‬قِسْمَانِ‏‮ ‬‬لَفْظِيٌّ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَعْنَوِيٌّ‏‮ ‬‬فَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَافَقَ‏‮ ‬‬لَفْظُهُ‏‮ ‬‬لَفْظَ‏‮ ‬‬فِعْلِهِ‏‮ ‬‬فََهُوَ‏‮ ‬‬لَفْظِيٌّ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَتَلَهُ‏‮ ‬‬قَتْلاً‏‮ ‬‬وَإَنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَافَقَ‏‮ ‬‬مَعْنَى فِعْلِهِ‏‮ ‬‬دُونَ‏‮ ‬‬لَفْظِهِ‏‮ ‬‬فَهُوَ‏‮ ‬‬مَعْنَوِيٌّ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬جَلَسْتُ‏‮ ‬‬قُعُودًا وَقُمْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَقُوفًا وَمَا أَشَْبَهَ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِكَ‏‮)‬‬

 English Translation:

الْـمَصْدَرُ (The verbal noun) هُـوَ (is) الإِسْـمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْـمَنْصُوبُ (the noun in the case of naṣb) الذِي‏‮ ‬‬يَـجِىءُ (which occurs as) ثَـالِـثًا (the third form) فِي‏‮ ‬‬تَـصْرِيفِ (in the conjugation of) الْـفِعْـــلِِ (the verb)  – نَـحْـــوُ (like when you say):  ضَـرَبَ (He beat…), يَضْرِبُ (He is beating…), ضَرْبًا (a beating).  وَهُـو (And it is) قِسْمَانِ (of two  kinds): لَـفْظِيّ (a noun that has a pronunciation that is similar [to the verb]) وَمَـعْنَوِيّ (and a noun that has a similar meaning [to the verb]). فَـإِنْ (If) وَافَقَ‏‮ ‬‬لَفْظُهُ (its pronunciation corresponds) لَفْظَ‏‮ ‬‬فِعْلِهِ (to the pronunciation of its verb), فََـهُوُ (then it is) لَـفْظِيٌّ (a noun that sounds like the verb in its pronunciation)  – نَـحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬ (like when you say):  قَتَلَهُ‏‮ ‬‬قَـتْلاً (I killed him a killing)1 فَـإِنْ (but if), وَافَـقَ (it [the maṣdar’s meaning] corresponds) مَعْنَى فِعْلِهِ (with the meaning of its verb) دُونَ‏‮ ‬‬لَـفْظِهِ (but not its pronunciation), فَـهُوَ (then it is) معنـــويّ (a noun possessing a similar meaning [to the verb]) – نَـحْوُ (like when you say): جَلَسْتُ‏‮ ‬‬قُعُودًا (I sat a sitting)2  وَقُمْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وُقُوفًا and (I stood a standing)3 وَمَا أَشَْبَهَ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِكَ (and what is similar to these).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إن الـمصدر هو الذي‏‮ ‬‬يقع ثالثًا فِي‏‮ ‬‬تصريف فعله وهو منصوب لأنَّه الـمفعول الـمطلق وهو الإسم الـمُسَـلِّط عليه عاملٌ‏‮ ‬‬وهو فعل مذكور معه والـمصدر قسمان لفظيّ‏‮ ‬‬ومعنويّ‏‮ ‬‬فالـمصدر اللّفظي‏‮ ‬‬نحو ضَرَبْتُهُ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرْبًا فضربًا مصدر منصوب وضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬هو عامله وهو موافق له في‏‮ ‬‬لفظه ومعناه وأمّا الـمصدر الـمعنويّ‏‮ ‬‬هو من ذات معنى عامله فقط نحو قَعَدْتُ‏‮ ‬‬جُلُوسًا فجلوسًا مصدر منصوب ومسّلط عليه عامله من معناه ولا من لفظه وهو قَعَدَ‏‮ ‬‬فإن جلوسًا موافق معنى‏‮ ((‬‬قعد‏‮)) ‬‬دون لفظه،‏‮ ‬‬

Explanation of Text in English:

الْـمَصْدَرُ (The verbal noun) is the noun which occurs as the third form in the conjugation of its verb.  It is in the case  of  naṣb, because  it  is  الْـمَفْعُول الْـمُطْـلَق (the unrestricted object) which is influenced by  عَـامِــــــلٌ (a governor).   Its governor is  فِعْــلٌ مَذْكُورٌ‏‮ ‬‬مَعَهُ (a verb that is mentioned with it).

الـمَصْدَر (The verbal noun) is of two kinds: لَـفْظِيُّ (a noun that has a similar pronunciation to the pronunciation verb) and مَـعْنَوِيٌّ (a noun having a similar meaning to the meaning of the verb).  الْـمَصْدَرُ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّفْظِيُّ (the noun having a similar pronunciation to the verb) is like when you say: ضَـرَبْـتُهُ‏‮ ‬‬ضَـرْبًـا (I beat him a beating – that is to say: I beat him intensely).   And so ضَرْبًـا is a مَصْدَرٌ (a verbal noun) in the case of naṣb and the verb ضَـرَبَ is عَـامِـلُهُ (its governor) and that which agrees with it in its pronunciation and its meaning.

As for الْـمَصْدَرُ‏‮ ‬‬الـمَعْنَوِيُّ (a noun having a similar meaning to the verb), it is from the essence of the meaning of عَـامِـلُهُ (its governing verb).  It is like when you  say: قَـعَدْتُ‏‮ ‬‬جُـلُوسًـا (I sat a sitting [that is to say: I sat for a long time]).  And so, جُـلُوسًـا (sitting) is a مَـصْدَرٌ in the case of naṣb and عَـامّـلُهُ (its governor) has influenced its meaning but not its pronunciation.  It (الْـعَامِـلُ [the governor]) is قَـعَدَ (sat).  And so جُـلُوسًـا agrees in meaning with قَـعَدَ without having its pronunciation.

(*note in ʿArabic)

الـمصدر ما‏‮ ‬‬يؤكد عامله كضَرْبَتُهُ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرْبًا أو ما‏‮ ‬‬يبيّن نوعه كنَظَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلَيْهِ‏‮ ‬‬نَظَرًا أو ما‏‮ ‬‬يبيّن عدده كضَرَبْتُهُ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرْبَتَيْنِ‏‮ ‬‬

يسمّى الـمصدر مفعولاً‏‮ ‬‬مطلقًا أيضًا فسمّى مطلقًا لأنّه مفعولاً‏‮ ‬‬بدون قَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬إذْ‏‮ ‬‬تقول‏‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬‬ضَرَبْتُهُ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرْبًا فيكن ضَرْبًا نفس الفعل الذي‏‮ ‬‬فعلته وتقول‏‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬‬ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬خَالِدًا فإنّ‏‮ ‬‬خَالِدًا ليس نفس الفعل الذي‏‮ ‬‬فعلته بل فَعَلْتَ‏‮ ‬‬بِخَالِدٍ‏‮ ‬‬فِعْلا وهو ضرْبًا ولذلك‏‮ ‬‬يسمّى خالِدًا مفعولاً‏‮ ‬‬به وإنّ‏‮ ‬‬الـمفعول الـْمُطْلَق فهو نفس ما فعله الفاعل‏‮ ‬‬

وقيل أيضًا‏‮ ‬‬يسمّى الـمصدر مطلقًا لانّه الـمفعول الذي‏‮ ‬‬لم‏‮ ‬‬يتقيد بحرف جرّ‏‮ ‬‬نحو الـمفعول‏‮ (( ‬‬به‏‮)) ‬‬والـمفعول‏‮ (( ‬‬معه‏‮ )) ‬‬والـمفعول‏‮ (( ‬‬فيه‏‮ )) ‬‬وقِسْ‏‮ ‬‬علي‏‮ ‬‬مُقَيِّدِ‏‮ ‬‬الـمفعول‏‮ ‬‬

(*note in English)

الَـمَصْدَرَُ (The verbal noun) can emphasizes عَامِله (its governing verb) like: ضَرَبْتُهُ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرْبًا (I beat him a beating – that is to say: “I beat him intensely”) or clarify (the kind of action) – like: نَـظَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلَـيْهِ‏‮ ‬‬نَـظَرًا‏‮ ‬‬(I look at him a looking – that is to say: “I stared at him”) or show the number of times the action occurred like: ضَـرَبْـتُهُ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرْبَتَيْنِ (I beat him two beatings – that is to say: “I beat him twice”).

الْـمَصْدَرُ (The verbal noun) is also called الْـمَفْعُول الْـمُطْـلَق (the unrestricted object).  It is said to be مُـطْلَقًا (unrestricted), because it is an object without restriction.  When you say, ضَرَبْتُهُ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرْبًا (I beat him a beating), it is ضَرْبًا which is the essence of the action which you did.  Whereas if you say: ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬خَالِدًا (I beat Khaalid), خَالِدًا (Khaalidan) is not the essence of the action you did.  On the contrary, فَعَلْتَ‏‮ ‬‬بِخَالِدٍ‏‮ ‬‬فِعْلاً (you did an action to خَالِدًا [Khaalid])  –  and that action is ضَرْبًا (a beating).  Therefore, it is for this reason Khaalid is called مَفْعُول بِهِ (a receiver of it) or an object.  الْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُظْلَقُ (the unrestricted object), it is the essence of the action done to him by the doer.

It has also been said, that الْـمَصْدَرُ (The verbal noun) is called مُـطْلَقًا (unrestricted), because it is the object that is not restricted by حَـرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬جَرٍّ (a preposition) like when you say:الْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬‏‮ ‬‬بِـهِ‏‮ ‬‬ِ‏‬  and  الـْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬مَـعْهُ‏‮ ‬ and ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬فِيهِ‏‬ and so forth which restricts the objects.

Footnotes:

1  قَتَلَهُ‏‮ ‬‬قَتْلاً I killed him a killing – meaning: I slaughtered him. 
2  جَلَسْتُ‏‮‬‬ قُعُودًا I sat a sitting – meaning: I sat for a very long time. 
3  قُمْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وُقُوفًا I stood a standing – meaning: I stood for a long time.

Published in: on October 24, 2011 at 22:13  Leave a Comment  

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 16 – (The Chapter About Al – Mafʿuul Bihi [The Object of the Verb])

     بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَفْعُول بِهِ‏‮ ‬‬

16 – (The Chapter About Al – Mafʿuul Bihi [The Object of the Verb])

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَهُو الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَنْصُوبُ‏‮ ‬‬الذِي‏‮ ‬‬يَقَعُ‏‮ ‬‬بِهِ‏‮ ‬‬الْفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا وَرَكَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَرَسَ‏‮ ‬‬وَهُوَ‏‮ ‬‬قِسْمَانِ‏‮ ‬‬ظَاهِرٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَمُضْمَرٌ‏‮ ‬‬فَالظَّاهِرُ‏‮ ‬‬مَا تَقَدَّمَ‏‮ ‬‬ذِكْرُهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْـمُضْمَرُ‏‮ ‬‬قِسْمانِ‏‮ ‬‬مُتَّصِلٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَمُنْفَصِلٌ‏‮ ‬‬فَالـْمُتَّصِلُ‏‮ ‬‬إِثْنَا عَشَرَ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبَنِي‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَنَا وَضَرَبَكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَكِ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَكمُا وَضَرَبَكُم‏‮ ‬‬ْ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَكُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَهَا وَضَرَبَهُمَا وَضَرَبَهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبَهُنُّ‏‮ ‬‬وَالـْمُنْفِصِلُ‏‮ ‬‬إِثْنَا عَشَرَ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬إِيَّايَ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬إِيَّانَا وَ‏‮ ‬‬إِيَّاكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّاكِ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّاكُمَا وَإِيَّاكُمْ‏‮  ‬‬وَإِيَّاكُنَّ‏‮  ‬‬وَإِيَّاهُ‏‮  ‬‬وَإِيَّاهَا وَإِيَّاهُمَا وَإِيَّاهُمْ‏‮  ‬‬وَإِيَّاهُنَّ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

وَهُـــو (And it [الـْمَفْعُــــولُ‏‮ ‬‬بِـــهِ (the direct object)] is)  الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَنْصُـوبُ (the  noun  in  the  case  of naṣb)  الذِي‏‮ ‬‬يَقَعُ‏‮ ‬‬بِهِ (upon which falls) الْفِعْلُ (the action of the verb) – نَحْو (like  when  you  say): ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـــدًا (I beat Zayd) وَرَكَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَرَسَ and (I mounted the mare).  وَهُو (It is) قِسْمَانِ‏‮ ‬‬ (of two kinds): ظَاهِرٌ (a distinct noun) وَمُضْمَرً (and a pronoun).   فَالظَّاهِرُ (And so the clearly distinct noun), مَا تَقَدَّمَ‏‮ ‬‬ذِكْرُهُ (is that which has already been mentioned previously) وَالْـمُضْمَرُ (and the   pronoun is) قِسْمَانِِِ (of two kind): مُـتَّصِلٌ (attached) and وَمُـنْفَصِلٌ (and detached).   فَالـْمُتَّصِــــلُ (And so the attached pronouns are) إِثْنَا عَشَرَ (twelve kinds): وَهِيَ (They are): ضَرَبَني (he beat me), وَضَرَبَنَا and (he beat us) وَضَرَبَكَ and (he beat you [masc. singular]) وَضَرَبَكِ and (he beat you [fem. singular]), ضَرَبَكُمَا and (he beat the two of you [two males or two females]) وَضَرَبَكُمْ and (he beat you  [three or more males]) وَضَرَبَكُنَّ and (he beat you [three or more females]) وَضَرَبَهُ and (he beat him) وَضَرَبَهَا  and (he beat her) وَضَرَبَهُمَا and (he beat the two of them) وَضَرَبَهُمْ and (he beat them – three or more males) وَضَرَبَهُنَّ and (he beat them [three or more females]).  وَالـْمُنْفِصِلُ (And the detached pronouns are) إِثْنَا عَشَر (twelve).  وَهِيَ (And they are): إِيَّايَ (I) وَإِيَّانَا and (we) وَإِيَّكَ and (you [masc. sing.]) وَإِيَّاكِّ and (you [fem. sing.]) وَإِيَّاكُمَا and (you [two males or two females]) وَإِيَّاكُمْ‏‮ ‬‬and (you [three or more males]) وَإِيَّاكُنَّ and (you [three or more females]) وَإِيَّاهُ and‏‮ ‬‬(he) وَإِيَّاهَا and (she) وَإِيَّاهُمَا and (they [two males or two females]) وَإِيَّاهُمْ and (they [three or more males]) وَإِيَّاهُنَّ and (they three or more females]).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

الـمفعول به هو الإسم الذي‏‮ ‬‬يقع عليه فعل الفاعل كقولك ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا ورَكَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَرَسَ‏‮ ‬‬فزيدًا والْفَرَسَ‏‮ ‬‬مفعولان بهما لأنّ‏‮ ‬‬قد وقع عليهما فعل الفاعل وهو الضَرْبُ‏‮ ‬‬والرُّكُوبُ‏‮ ‬‬فالـمفعول به قسمان ظاهر كزيد والفرس في‏‮ ‬‬الـمثالين الـمتقدمين ومضمر وهو‏‮ ‬‬ينقسم إلى متّصل ومنفصل وفالـمتّصل هو الياء ونا والكافات الخمسة وهي‏‮ ‬‬كَ‏‮ ‬‬،‏‮ ‬‬كِ‏‮ ‬‬،‏‮ ‬‬كُمَا‏‮ ‬‬،‏‮ ‬‬كُمْ‏‮ ‬‬،‏‮ ‬‬كُن و الْهَاءاتُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْخَمْسَة وهي‏‮ ‬‬هُ‏‮ ‬‬،‏‮ ‬‬هَا‏‮ ‬‬،‏‮ ‬‬هُمَا‏‮ ‬‬،‏‮ ‬‬هُمْ‏‮ ‬‬،‏‮ ‬‬هُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬نحو قولك ضَرَبَنِي‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَنَا وَضَرَبَكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَكِ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَكُمَا وَضَرَبَكُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَكُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَهَا وَضَرَبَهُمَا وَضَرَبَهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَهُنُّ‏‮ ‬‬فأما الضَّمِيرُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُنْفَصِل‏‮ ‬‬يدخله إِيَّا كقولك إِيَّايَ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّانَا وَإِيَّاكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّاكِ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّاكُمَا وَإِيَّاكُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّاكُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّاهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّاهَا وَإِيَّاهُمَا وَإِيَّاهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّاهُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬

فالياء ونا في‏‮ ‬‬إياى وإيانا حرفان دالاّن على الـمتكلِّم في‏‮ ‬‬الاول وعلى الـمتكلمين في‏‮ ‬‬الثّانى والكاف في‏‮ ‬‬ما بعد حرف خطاب والهاء في‏‮ ‬‬الخمسة الأخيرة حرف‏‮ ‬‬غيبة‏‮ ‬‬

وأمّا الأحرف اللاحقة للضمير متصلاً‏‮ ‬‬ومنفصلاً‏‮ ‬‬فهي‏‮ ‬‬للدلالة على معان مثلاً‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬الالف في‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبَها وإِيَّاهَا للدلالة على الثّانيث في‏‮ ‬‬الـمفرد واالـميم والالف‏‮  ‬‬في‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبكُمَا وإِيَّاكُمَا وضَرَبَهُمَا وإِيَّاهُمَا للدلالة على التثنية مطلقًا في‏‮ ‬‬الـمذكّر والـمؤنّث والـميم في‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبَكم وإِيَّاكُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وضَرَبَهُمْ‏‮  ‬‬وإِيَّاهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬للدلالة على جمع‏‮     ‬‬الـمـذّكر والنّون الـمشدّدة في‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبَكُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وإِيَّاكُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وضَرَبَهُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وإِيَّاهُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬لدلالة على جمع الإناث

Explanation of Text in English:

الْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬بِهِ (The direct object) is the noun upon which the action of الْفَاعِـــل (the doer) falls – like when you say: ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا (I beat Zayd) and  رَكَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَرَسَ (I rode the mare). زَيْــدًا (Zayd) and الْفَـــرَسَ (the mare) are the الْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬به of ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬ ‬(I beat) and رَكَبْتُ (I rode) because فِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَاعِلِ (the action of the doer) has fallen upon them, and it is the ‏‮ ‬‬الضَرْبُ (the beating) and‏‮ ‬‬الرُّكُوبُ (the riding).‏‮ ‬‬

الْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬بِهِ (The direct object) is of two kinds: ظَاهِرٌ (a clearly distinct noun) – like زَيْدٌ and الْفَرَسُ in the two previous examples and مُضْمَرٌ ( a pronoun) which is (also) divided between two kinds: مُتَّصِلٌ (attached) and مُنْفَصِلٌ (detached).  الـمُتَّصِلُ (The attached pronouns) are: الْيَاء = يَ and نَا and الْكَافَاتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْخَمَسَة (the five kaafs of the person being spoken to) and they are: كَ،‏‮ ‬‬كِِ،‏‮ ‬‬كُمَا،‏‮ ‬‬كُمْ،‏‮ ‬‬كُنَّ  and الْهَاءَاتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْخَمْسَة (the five haas of the person being spoken about) and they are: هُ،‏‮ ‬‬هَا،‏‮ ‬‬هَمَا،‏‮ ‬‬هُمْ،‏‮ ‬‬هُنَّ،. – like when you say:

 ضَرَبَنِي‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَنَا وَضَرَبَكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَكِ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَكُمَا وَضَرَبَكُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَكُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَهَا وَضَرَبَهُمَا وَضَرَبَهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَهُنُّ‏‮     ‬‬

As for الضَّمِيرُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُنْفَصِلُ (the detached pronouns), they are prefixed with إِيَّ  – like when you say:

إِيَّايَ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّانَا وَإِيَّاكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّاكِ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّاكُمَا وَإِيَّاكُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّاكُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّاهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّاهَا وَإِيَّاهُمَا وَإِيَّاهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِيَّاهُنَّ.

The yaa ( يَ ) and naa ( نَا ) in إيَّايَ and إِيَّانَا are two letters which are signs of الـْمُتَكَلِّم (the first person singular – the person speaking) in the first case and الـْمُتَكَلِّمُونَ (the first person plural) in the second..  الْكَافُ (The kaaf) in the next five (detached pronouns) is  حَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬اـْخِطَابِ (the letter for addressing the second person – the person being spoken to) and الْهَاءُ (the haa) in the last five is حَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الْغَيْبَة (the letter for addressing the third person – the person absent from the conversation).

As for the affixed letters which belong to الْـمُتَّصِل (the attached pronouns) and الْـمُنْفَصِلُ (detached pronouns),   they are signs with meaning also.  For example, الأَلِفُ (the alif) in ضَرَبَهَا and إِيَّاهَا belongs to the signs of التَّأْنِيث (the feminine) in الْـمُفْرَد (the singular) pronoun; and الـْمِيم(the miim) and الأَلِفُ (alif) in ضَرَبكُمَا and إِيَّاكُمَا and ضَرَبَهُمَا and إيّاهما are all signs for التَّثْنِيَة (the dual) unrestricted in both الْـمُذَكِّر (the male) and الْـمُؤَنِّث (the female) pronoun; and  الْـمِيمُ in ضَرَبَكُمْ and إِيَّاكُــمْ and ضَرَبَهُــــمْ and إِيَّاهُــــمْ belong to the signs of  جَمْعُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُذَكِّر (the masculine plural); and النُّونُ (the nuun bearing shaddah نّ) in ضَرَبَكُنَّ and إِيَّاكُنَّ and ضَرَبَهُنَّ and إِيَّاهُنَّ belong to the signs of جَمْع الإِنُاث (the feminine plural).

Published in: on September 24, 2011 at 18:26  Leave a Comment  
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