Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 15 – (The Chapter About Al-Manṣuubaatu-l-Asmaa’i [The Nouns In The Case Of Naṣb])

   بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬مَنْصوُبَاتِ‏‮ ‬‬الأَسْمَاءِ  

15 – (The Chapter About Al-Manṣuubaatu-l-Asmaa’i [The Nouns In The Case Of Naṣb])

ʿArabic Text: 

‏‮(‬‬الْـمَنْصُوبَاتُ‏‮ ‬‬خَمْسَةَ‏‮ ‬‬عَشَرَ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬بِهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالـْمَصْدَرُ‏‮ ‬‬وَظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّمَانِ‏‮ ‬‬وَظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَانِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْحَالُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالتَّمْيِيزُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْـمُسْتَثْنَى وَاسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬وَالـْمُـنَادَى وَالْـمَـفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬أَجْلِهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْـمَفْعُول مَعَهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَخََبَرُ‏‮ ‬‬كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاتِهَا وَاسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬إِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬أخْوَاتِها وَالتَّابِعُ‏‮ ‬‬لِلْمَنْصُوبِ‏‮ ‬‬وَهُوَ‏‮ ‬‬أَرْبَعَةُ‏‮ ‬‬أَشْيَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬النَّعْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْعَطْفُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالتَّوْكِيدُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْبَدَلُ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

الْـمَنْصُوبَاتُ (The nouns in the case of naṣb) خَمْسَةَ‏‮ ‬‬عَشَرَ‏‮ ‬‬ (are fifteen).  وَهِيَ (They are): الْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬بِهِ (the direct object) وَالْـمَصْدَرُ (and the verbal  noun), وَظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الزّمَانِ (and the adverb time) وَظَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَكَانِ (and the adverb of place) وَالْـحَالُ (and the circumstantial noun) وَالتَّمْيِيزُ (and the accusative of specification) وَالْـمُسْتَـثْـنَى‏‮‬‬ (and the excluded noun) وَاسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ (and the noun of the laa [of negation for generic nouns]) وَالْـمُنَادَى (and the one who is addressed), وَالْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬أَجْلِهِ  (and the causative object)  وَالْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬مَعَهُ  (and the  object  that  accompanies the subject in the execution of an action) وَخَبْرُ‏‮ ‬‬كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاِتهَا (and the predicate of kaana and its sisters) وَاسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬إِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاتِهَا (the noun of inna and  its  sisters) وَالتَّابِعُ‏‮ ‬‬لِلْمَنْصُوبِ (and the  appositive for the nouns in the case of naṣb) وَهِي (and they are) أَرْبَعَةُ‏‮ ‬‬أَشْيَاءَ (four  things): النَّعْتُ (the adjective) الْعَطْفُ (the noun linked by the conjunction) التَّْوكِيدُ (the noun use for  emphasis) ‏‮ ‬‬الْبَدَلُ (and the noun used as the substitute).


Published in: on September 24, 2011 at 18:08  Leave a Comment  

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 14 – (The Chapter About Al-Badal [The Substitute])

   بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬الْبَدَلِ 

14 – (The Chapter About Al-Badal [The Substitute])

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮ (‬‬إِذَا أُبْدِلَ‏‮ ‬‬اسْمٌ‏‮ ‬‬مِنِ‏‮ ‬‬اسْمٍ‏‮ ‬‬أَوْ‏‮ ‬‬فِعْلٌٌ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬فِعْلٍ‏‮ ‬‬تَبِعَهُ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬جَمِيعِ‏‮ ‬‬إِعَرَابِهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَهُوَ‏‮ ‬‬أَرْبَعَةُ‏‮ ‬‬أَقْسَامٍ‏‮ ‬‬بَدَلُ‏‮ ‬‬الشَّيءِ‏‮ ‬‬مِنَ‏‮ ‬‬الشَّيءِ‏‮ ‬‬وَبَدَلُ‏‮ ‬‬البَعَضِ‏‮ ‬‬مِنَ‏‮ ‬‬الْكُلِّ‏‮ ‬‬وَبَدَلُ‏‮ ‬‬الاِشْتِمَالِ‏‮ ‬‬وَبَدَلُ‏‮ ‬‬الْغَلَطِ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬أَخُوكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَكَلْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الرَّغِيفَ‏‮ ‬‬ثُلُثَهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَنَفَعَنِي‏‮ ‬‬زَيُدٌ‏‮ ‬‬عِلْمُهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَرَأَيْتَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا الْفَرَسَ‏‮ ‬‬أَرَدْتَّ‏‮ ‬‬أَنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَقُولَ‏‮ ‬‬رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَرَسَ‏‮ ‬‬فَغَلَطْتَ‏‮ ‬‬فَاَبْدَلْتَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا مِنْهُ‏‮)‏‮

English Translation:

إِذَا أُبْدِلَ‏‮ ‬‬اسْم (When a noun is substituted) مِنِ‏‮ ‬‬اسْمٍ‏ (for a noun) أَوْ (or) ‏‮ ‬‬فِعْل (a verb [is substituted]) مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬فِعْلٍ‏ (for a verb), تَبِعَهِ (it agrees with it [the word for which it has been substituted])  فِي‏  جَمِيعِ‏ (in all [aspects] of) إِعَرَابِهِ‏ (its inflection)وَهُوَ (And  it  [الْبَدَلُ – the substitute]  is) ‏أَرْبَعَةُ‏  أَقْسَامٍ (four kinds): بَدَلُ‏‮ ‬‬الشَّيءِ (the substitute of something) مِنَ‏‮ ‬‬الشَّيءِ ([for its equivalent] from something) وَبَدَلُ‏‮ ‬‬البَعَض (and the  substitute for  some) مِنَ‏‮ ‬‬الْكُلِّ (from all) وَبَدَلُ‏‮ ‬‬الاِشْتِمَالِ (and the substitute for containment – [that is to say, the substitute of a thing for what it contains]) وَبَدَلُ‏‮ ‬‬الْغَلَطِ (and the substitute for the mistake)  – ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلــِكَ‏‮ ‬‬(like when you say): ‏ قَامَ‏  زَيْدٌ‏  أَخُــــوكَ(Zayd  your  brother  stood)  and  وَأَكَلْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الرَّغِيفَ‏‮ ‬‬ثُلُثَهُ (I ate the bread a third of it) وَنَفْعَنِي‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬عِلْمُهُ and (Zayd, his knowledge was beneficial for me)  رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا الْفَرَسَ  (I saw Zayd the mare)  and أَرَدْتَّ‏‮ ‬‬أَنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَقُــولَ (you  wanted to say): رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الفَرَسَ I saw the mare),‏‮ ‬‬فَغَلَطْت (but you made a mistake)فَاَبْدَلْتَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا (and substituted زَيْدًا (Zayd) مِنْهُ (for it).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

 إن البدل هو التابع الـمقصود بالواسطة نحو جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬أَخُوكَ‏‮ ‬‬فأخوك بدل من زيد وهو الـمقصود في‏‮ ‬‬الْـمَجِيءِ‏‮ ‬‬والبدل‏‮ ‬‬يتبع الـمُبْدَل منه في‏‮ ‬‬جميع إعرابه وأقسامُهُ‏‮ ‬‬أربعة الأول بدلُ‏‮ ‬‬كلٍ‏‮ ‬‬من كلٍ‏‮ ‬‬أي‏‮ ‬‬مساوٍ‏‮ ‬‬من مساوٍ‏‮ ‬‬له كما في‏‮ ‬‬المثال الـمتقدم الثاني‏‮ ‬‬بدل بعض من كل أي‏‮ ‬‬بدل شيء بعض الْـمُبدَل منه نحو أَكَلْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الرَّغِيف ثُلُثَهُ‏‮ ‬‬الثالث بدل الاشتمال أي‏‮ ‬‬بدل شيء مما هو مشتمل عليه نحو‏‮ ‬‬ نَفَعَنِي‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬عِلْمُهُ  الرّابع بدل الغَلَط أي‏‮ ‬‬بدل من الذي‏‮ ‬‬ذُكِرَ‏‮ ‬‬غلطًا نحو‏‮ ‬‬رَكبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا الْفَرَسَ‏‮ ‬‬أردت أن تقول ركبْت الفَرَسَ فغلطت

Explanation in  English:

الْبَدَلُ (the substitute) is a تَابِعٌ‏‮ ‬‬مَقْصُودٌ (noun for whom the statement is indirectly (intended – [that is to say an intended noun which is mentioned as a substitute for the noun which precedes it)] – like when you say: جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬أخُوكَ‏ (Zayd your brother has come). And so أَخُوكَ (your brother) is a substitute for ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْد(Zayd) and is the noun for which the verb ‏‮ ‬‬جَاء(he came) was intended.

الْبَدَلٌ (The substitute) agrees with it الْـمُبْدَلُ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْهُ (the noun for which it has been substituted) in all (aspects) of إِعْرَابِــــهِ (its  i’raab).   It (الْبَدَلٌ [The substitute]) is of four kinds.   The first is: بَدَلُ‏‮ ‬‬كُلٍ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬كُلٍّ (a substitution of each for each) – that is to say: ‏مُسَاوٍ‏  مِنْ‏  مُسَاوٍ‏  لَهُ (a substitution of one thing for its equivalent) – like what occurred in the above mentioned example.  The second is بَدَلٌ‏‮ ‬‬بَعْضٍ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬كُلٍ (a substitution for some a whole amount) – that is to say: بَدَلٌ‏  شَيْءٍ‏  بَعْضِ‏  الـْمُبْدَلِ‏  مِنْهُ (a substitution of a thing which is part of what it was exchanged for)  –  like when you say:  أَكَلْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الرَّغِيفَ ثُلُثَهُ ( I ate the bread a third of it).  The third is بَدَلُ‏‮ ‬‬الاِشْتِمَالِ (the substitute for containment) that is to say: بَدَلُ‏‮ ‬‬شَيْءٍ‏‮ ‬‬مِمَا هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬مُشْتَمَلٌ‏‮ ‬‬عليه (the substitution of a thing  for  what  it  contains)  –  like when you say:    نَفَعَنِي‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬عِلْمُهُ (Zayd – his knowledge has been beneficial to me). The fourth is بدل الغَلَط (the substitution of a mistake) – that is to say:بدل من الذي‏‮ ‬‬ذُُكِرَ‏‮ ‬‬غلطًا (the substitution of the expression which was mentioned by mistake) – like when you say: ركبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا الْفَرَسَ (I rode Zayd the mare) and you wanted to say: ركبْتُ الفَرَسَ (I rode the mare), but you made a mistake (and substituted زيد for الفرس).

Published in: on June 15, 2011 at 18:19  Leave a Comment  

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 13 – (The Chapter About At-Tawkiid [The Emphasizing of the Noun])

 بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬التَّوْكِيدِ 

13 – (The Chapter About At-Tawkiid [The Emphasizing of  the Noun])

ʿArabic Text: 

(‬‬التَّوْكِيدُ‏‮ ‬‬تَابِعٌ‏‮ ‬‬لِلْمُؤَكَّدِ‏‮ ‬‬وَنَصْبِهِِ‏‮ ‬‬وَخَفْضِهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَتَعْرِيفِهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَيَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬بِاَلْفَاظٍ‏‮ ‬‬مَعْلُومَََةٍ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬النَّفْسُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْعَيْنُ‏‮ ‬‬وَكُلٌّ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَجْمَعُ‏‮ ‬‬وَتَوَابِعُ‏‮ ‬‬أَجْمَعَ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬أَكْتَعُ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَبْتَعُ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَبْصَعُ‏‮ ‬‬تَقُولُ‏‮ ‬‬قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬نَفْسُهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَرَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬كُلَّهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْقَوْمِ‏‮ ‬‬أَجْمَعِينَ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

التَّوْكِيدُ (The emphasis placed on a noun is) تَابِِعُ (a noun which comes after [and agrees with]) الـْمُؤَكِّدِ (the noun being emphasized) فِي‏‮ ‬‬رَفْعِهِ in (its rafʿ case) وَنَصْبِهِِ, (its naṣb case), وَخَفْضِهِ (its khafḍ case) وَتَعْرِيفِهِ and (its definiteness). وَيَكُونُ‏ (And it [التَّوْكِيدُ the  emphasizing of nouns]) is [done] بِاَلْفَاظٍ‏‮ ‬‬مَعْلُومَََةٍ (with well known expressions). وَهِي (And they are): النّفْسُ (self), وَاْلعَيْنُ, (self),‮ ‬‬وَكُلّ (each / all)  وَأَجْمَـــعُ and (all) وَتَوَابِعُ‏‮ ‬‬أَجمع (and the equivalent nouns for Ajmaʿu). وَهِي (And they are): أَكْتَعُ (altogether) وَأَبْتَعُ and (altogether) وَأََبْصَعُ and (altogether). تَقُولُ‏  (You say):  قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬نَفْسُهُ (Zayd stood himself) وَرَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬كُلَّهُمْ and (I saw the kinfolks – all of them) وَمَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْقَوْمِ‏‮ ‬‬أَجْمَعِينَ and (I passed by the kinfolks – all of them).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

‏التوكيد تابع‏‮ ‬‬يُذكَرَ‏‮ ‬‬توكيدًا لـما قبله ويكون تابعًا له في‏‮ ‬‬رفعه إن كان مرفوعًا وفي‏‮ ‬‬نصبه إن كان منصوبًا وفي‏‮ ‬‬خفضه إن كان مخفوضًا وفي‏‮ ‬‬تعريفه إن كان مَعْرِفَةً‏‮ ‬‬نحو جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬نَفْسُهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْقَوْمُ‏‮ ‬‬كُلُّهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬ورَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا نَفْسَهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْقَوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬كُلَّهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِزَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬نَفْسِهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَبِالْقَوْمِ‏‮ ‬‬كُلِّهِمْ‏‮ ‬‬فإن نَفْسُهُ‏‮ ‬‬وكُـلُّهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬تبعان لزيد والقوم في‏‮ ‬‬إعرابهما وفي‏‮ ‬‬تعريفهما وزيدًا والقوم معرفتان بالعلمية وال ونفسه وكلّهم معرفتان بإضافتهما إلى الضمير ومثله جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٌو عَيْنُهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالـْمُومِنُونَ‏‮ ‬‬اَجْمَعُونَ‏‮ ‬‬ورَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬عُمْرًا عَيْنَهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالـْمُومِنِينَ‏‮ ‬‬أَجْمَعِينَ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِعَمْرٍو وَالـْمُومِنِينَ‏‮ ‬‬أَجْمَعِينَ‏‮ ‬‬

Explanation of Text in English:

التَّوْكِيــدُ (the emphasis placed on a noun) is تَابِـــعٌ (s a noun expressed as emphasis for what is coming before it and it agrees with it (the noun) in رَفْعِهِ (its rafʿcase), نَصْبِـــهِ (its naṣb case) and خَفْضِهِ (its khafḍ case) and (تَعْرِيفِهِ) its definiteness – like when you say: جَاءَ‏  زَيْدٌ‏  نَفْسُهُ‏  وَالْقَوْمُ‏  كُلُّهُمْ‏  ([Zayd stood himself] and [the people – all of them]) and  رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا نَفْسَهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْقَوْمَ‏‮ ‬‬كُـلَّهُمْ ([I saw Zayd himself] and [the kinfolks – all of them]) and مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِزَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬نَفْسِهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْقَومِ‏‮ ‬‬كُلِّهِمْ ([I passed by Zayd himself] and [the kinfolks – all of them]). The words نَفْسُهُ and كُـلُّهُمْ agree with the words زَيْد and الْقَوْم in إِعْرَابِهمَاِ (their inflection) and تَغْرِيفِهِمَا (their definiteness). زَيْدٌ and الْقَوْمُ have been made definite by the fact that زَيْدٌ is عَـلَمِيَّة (a proper noun) and الْقَوْمُ has been made definite by  ‬اَلْ, while نَفْسُهُ and كُـلُّهُمْ are both definite, بِإِضَافِتهِمَا (because they have been placed in construct) with the pronoun – like when you say: جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٌو عَيْنُهُ‏‮  ‬‬وَالـْمُومِنونَ‏‮ ‬‬أَجْمَعُون ([ʿAmr came himself] and [all of the believers]), رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرًا عَيْنََهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالـْمُومِنِينَ‏‮ ‬‬أَجْمَعِينَ (I saw ʿAmr himself and all of the believers), and  مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِعَمْرٍ‏‮ ‬‬عَيْنِِهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالـْمُومِنِينَ أَجْمَعِينَ ([I pass by ʿAmr himself] and [all of the believers]).

(*note in ʿArabic)

‏‬فأمّا أَكْتَعُ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَبْتَعُ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَبْصَعُ‏‮ ‬‬فمعناها أجمع وتتبع بناءه وتجيء بعده نحو جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمُ أَجْمَعُونَ‏‮ ‬‬أَكْتَعُونَ‏‮ ‬‬أو أَبْتَعُونَ‏‮ ‬‬أَو أَبْصَعُون‏‮ ‬‬

(*note in English)

As for أَكْتَعُ and أَبْتَعُ and أَبْصَعُ, they all mean أَجْمَعُ, they resemble أَجْمَعُ in their construction and they follow أجمع – like when  you say: جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَوْمُ  أَجْمَعُونَ‏‮ ‬‬أَكْتَعُونَ‏‮ ‬‬أو أَبْتَعُونَ‏‮ ‬‬أو أَبْصَعُونَ (The kinfolks came, all of them).

Published in: on April 15, 2011 at 13:35  Leave a Comment  

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 12 – (The Chapter About Al-ʿAṭf [The Conjoining Of Words])

بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَطْفِ

12 – (The Chapter About Al-ʿAṭf  [The Conjoining Of Words])

ʿArabic Text:

( وَحُرُوُفُ‏  الْعَطْفِ‏  عَشَرَةٌ‏  وَهِيَ‏ الْوَاوُ‏  وَالْفَاءُ‏  وَثُمَّ‏  وَأََوْ‏  وَأََمْ‏  وَإِِمَّا وَبَلْ‏  وَلاَ‏ وَلَــكِنْ‏  وَحَتَّى فِي‏ بَعْضِ‏ الـْمَوَاضِعِ‏  فَإِنْ‏  عَطَفْتَ‏  بِهَا عَلَى مَرْفُوعٍ‏  رَفَعْتَ‏  أَوْ‏  عَلَى مَنْصُوبٍ‏  نَصَبْتَ‏  أَوْ‏  عَلَى مَخْفُوضٍ‏  خَفَضْتَ‏  اَوْ‏  عَلَى مَجْزُومٍ‏  جَزَمْتَ‏  تَقُولُ‏  قَامَ‏  زَيْدٌ‏  وَعَمْرٌو وَرَأَيْتُ‏  زَيْدًا وَعَمْرًا وَمَرَرْتُ‏  بِزيْدٍ‏  وَعَمْرٍو وَزَيْدٌ‏  لَمْ‏  يَقُمْ‏  وَلَمْ‏  يَقْعُدْ‏ )‏

English Translation:

وَحُرُوُفُ‏ ‬الْعَطْــفِ‏ ‬(And the conjoining particles are) عَشَرَةٌ (ten): وَهِيَ (They are): الْوَاوُ (and), وَالْفَاءُ (and so), وَثُمَّ (then), وَأَوْ (or), وَأَمْ (or), وَإِمَّا (or), وَبَلْ (but rather / on the contrary), وَلاَ (nor), وَلَـــكِنْ (but), وَحتَّى (until), فِي‏ ‬بَعْضِ‏ ‬الـْمَوَاضِعِ‏ ‬(in some places).  ‏ ‬فَإِنْ‏ ‬عَطَفْتَ‏ ‬بِهَا (And so, when you conjoin [words] with them), عَلَى مَرْفُوعٍ‏ ‬رَفَعْتَ‏ ‬(you apply the rafʿ case to a word that has been [conjoined to] a word in the case of rafʿ) أَوْ (or) عَلَى مَنْصُوبٍ‏ ‬نَصَبْتَ (you apply the naṣb case to a word that has been [conjoined to] a word in the case of naṣb) أَوْ (or) عَلَى مَخْفُوضٍ‏ ‬خَفَضْتَ (you apply the khafḍ case to a word that has been [conjoined to] a word in the case of khafḍ أَوْ (or) عَلَى مَجْزُومٍ‏ ‬جَزَمْتَ (you apply the jazm case to a word that has been [conjoined to] a word in the case of jazm.

تَقُولُ (You say): قَامَ‏ ‬زَيْدٌ‏ ‬وَ‏ ‬عَمْرٌو (Zayd and ʿAmr stood) وَرَاَيْتُ‏ ‬زَيْدًا وَ‏ ‬عَمْرًا  and (I saw Zayd and ʿAmr) وَ‏ ‬مَرَرْتُ‏ ‬بِزيْدٍ‏ ‬وَ‏عَمْرٍو and (I passed by Zayd and ʿAmr) زَيْدٌ‏ ‬لَمْ‏ ‬يَقُمْ‏ ‬وَ‏ ‬لَمْ‏ ‬يَقْعُدْ and (Zayd did not stand and he did not sit).

Explanation in ʿArabic:

 

االعطف اتباع الثاني‏‮ ‬‬للاول بواسطة حرف من حروف العطف ان حروف العطف عشرة و هي‏‮ ‬‬الْوَاوُ‏‮  ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬ثُمَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬أَوْ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬أَمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬إِمَّا وَ‏‮ ‬‬بَلْ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬لَكِنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬حَتَّى في‏‮ ‬‬بعض المواضع فان عطِفت بها على مرفوع او على منصوب او على مخفوض رفعت المعطوف او نصبته او خفضته فتقول‏‮  ‬‬في‏‮ ‬‬العطف على المرفوع جَاَء زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٌو على المنصوب رَأيْتَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا وَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرًا و على المخفوض مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِزَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٍو و كذلك ان عطفت بها على المجزوم جزمت نحو لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَقُمْ‏‮ ‬‬و‏‮ ‬‬يَقْعُدْ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬وهكذا احكامها كلها‏‮  ‬‬

 

Explanation of Text in English:

الْـعَطْفُ (The conjoining of words) is the joining of the second word to the first word (which immediately precedes it) by means of حَرْفٌ (a particle) from حُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَطْفِ (the conjoining particles).  حُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَطْفِ (The conjoining particles) are ten. They  are: الْـوَاوُ (and),  الْفَـــــاءُ (and so),  ثُـمَّ (then), ‏‮ ‬‬أَو(or),  أَمْ (or), إِمَّا (or), بَـلْ (but rather / on the contrary), لاَ (nor), لَــكِنْ (but) and حَـتَّى (until) in some places.  And so if you conjoin by them what is in the case of rafʿ, naṣb and khafḍ you put the conjoined word also in the case of rafʿ or naṣb or khafḍ. And so, you say في‏ العطف when (conjoining words) that  are in the case of rafʿ: جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَعَمْرُو (Zayd and ʿAmr came) and for what is in the case naṣb رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا وَعَمْرًا (I saw Zayd and ʿAmr) and for what is in the case of khafḍ مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِزَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْروٍ (I passed by Zayd and).  And it is like that if you conjoin by them (حُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَطْفِ [the conjoining particles]) words in the case of jazm.  You put them in the case of jazm like when you say: زَيْـدٌ‏‮ ‬‬لَـمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَقُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَـمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَـقْعُدْ (Zayd didn’t stand and he didn’t sit) and similar are the rules for each of them.

 

(*note in ʿArabic)

إن حَتَّى لاَ‏‮ ‬‬تكون عاطفة إلاّ‏‮ ‬‬إذا أدخلت ما بعدها في‏‮ ‬‬حكم ما قبلها نحو أَكَـلْتُ‏‮ ‬‬السَّمَكَةَ‏‮ ‬‬حَتَّى رَأَسَهَا أي‏‮ ‬‬إن رَأَسَهَا ما كول أيضًا ونحو مَاتَ‏‮ ‬‬النَّاسُ‏‮ ‬‬حَتَّى الأَنْبِيَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬أي‏‮ ‬‬إن الأَنْبِيَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الذين قد مَاتوا أيضًا وقد تكون‏‮ ‬‬غير عاطفة إذا لم تكن كذلك كما اذا خفضت الرّأس أو الأَنْبِيَاء بعدها و تكون حينئذ حرف جرّ‏‮ ‬‬بمعنى‏‮ “‬‬إِلى‏‮” ‬‬ويكون ما بعدها‏‮ ‬‬غير داخل في‏‮ ‬‬الحكم ما قبلها أي‏‮ ‬‬إن رأسها‏‮ ‬‬غير مأكول والأَنْبِيَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬غير مِمَّنْ‏‮ ‬‬مات

(*note in English)

حتّى ([hattaa] – until) is not عَاطِف (a conjoining particle) unless it includes what comes after it in الْحُكْم (the decree) for what comes before it, (that is to say what has been decreed for the word preceding حَـتَّى [hattaa] must have also been decreed for the word that follows it) – like when you say: أَكِلْتُ‏‮ ‬‬السَّمَكَةَ‏‮ ‬‬حَـتَّى رَأَسَـهَآ –  (I ate the fish even its head – that is to say that its head was eaten also) and  مَــاتَ‏‮ ‬‬النَّاسُ‏‮ ‬‬حَتَّى الأَنْبِيَاءُ (The people died even the prophets – that is to say: the prophets died also). It is not a conjoining particle if it is not being used like this.  For example, if the word الرَّأْس which came after حَـتَّى was caused to be in the case of  khafḍ, in that case حَـتَّى will be a preposition with its meaning being إِلَـى (up to the time; until) and what comes after it is not included in the decree for what is coming before it – that is to say, that the head was not eaten and the prophets were not among those who died.

 

Published in: on March 22, 2011 at 19:18  Leave a Comment  

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 11 – (The Chapter About An-Naʿt [The Adjective])

بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬النَّعْتِ

11 – (The Chapter About An-Naʿt [The Adjective])

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬النَّعْتُ‏‮ ‬‬تَابِعٌ‏‮ ‬‬لِلْمَنْعُوتِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬رَفْعِهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَنَصْبِهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَخَفْضِهِ‏‮  ‬‬وَتَعْرِيفِهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَتَنْكِيرِهِ‏‮ ‬‬تَقُولُ‏‮ ‬‬قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬العَاقِلُ‏‮ ‬‬وَرَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا الْعَاقِلَ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِزَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَاقِلِ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

النّعت  تَابِعٌ‏‮ ‬‬لـِ (The adjective agrees with) الـْمَنْعُوت (the noun being described) فِي‏‮ ‬‬رَفْعِهِ (in its rafʿ case) وَنَصْبِهِ (and in its naṣb case) خَفْضِهِ (and in its khafḍ case) وَتَعْرِيفهِ (and in its definiteness) وَتَنْكِِـرهِ (and in its indefiniteness). ‏‮ ‬‬تَقُولُ(You say): قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَاقِلُ (The intelligent Zayd stood) وَرَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا الْعَاقِلَ (and I saw the intelligent Zayd) وَمَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِزَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَاقِلِ (and I passed by the intelligent Zayd).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

النعت تابع‏‮ ‬‬يدلّ‏‮ ‬‬على صفة من صفات منعوته وهو‏‮ ‬‬يتبع الـمنعوت في‏‮ ‬‬رفعه إن كان‏‮  ‬‬مرفوعًا وفي‏‮ ‬‬نصبه إن كان منصوبًا وفي‏‮ ‬‬خفضه إن كان مخفوضًا وفي‏‮ ‬‬تعريفه إن كان مَعْرِفَةً‏‮  ‬‬وفي‏‮ ‬‬تنكيره إن كان نكرة مثال ذلك في‏‮ ‬‬الرفع جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَاقِلُ‏‮ ‬‬وفي‏‮ ‬‬النّصب رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا الْعَاقِلَ‏‮  ‬‬وفي‏‮ ‬‬الخفض مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِزَيدٍ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَاقِلِ‏‮ ‬‬ومثل ذلك جَاءَنِي‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلٌ‏‮ ‬‬مَومِنٌ‏‮ ‬‬وفي‏‮ ‬‬النّصب أَكْرَمْتُ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلاً‏‮ ‬‬مُومِنًا ومَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬ِ‏‮ ‬‬بِرَجُلٍ‏‮ ‬‬مُومِنٍ‏‮  ‬‬فالعاقل ومومن نعت لزيد ورجل‏‮ ‬‬يتبعانهما في‏‮ ‬‬إعرابهما رفعًا ونصبًا وخفضًا والعاقل تابع لزيد في‏‮ ‬‬تعريفه ومومن تابع لرجل في‏‮ ‬‬تنكيره وقس على ذلك‏‮ ‬

Explanation of Text in English:

النَّعْتُ (the adjective) تَابِعٌ (is an appositive) which demonstrates صِفَــةٌ (a characteristic) from the صِفَاتٌ (characteristics) of مَنْعُوتِهِ (the noun it characterizes).  It follows the الْـمَنْعُوت (the characterized noun) in its  rafʿ case, if it is in the case of rafʿ, and in its naṣb case if it is in the case of naṣb, and in its khafḍ if it is in the case of khafḍ, and in its definiteness if it is definite,  and in its indefiniteness if it is  indefinite.   The example of this in the case of raf’ is: جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَاقِلُ (The intelligent Zayd has come);‏‮ ‬‬and in the case of naṣb: رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا الْعَاقِلَ (I saw the intelligent  Zayd);  `and  in  the  case  of   khafḍ:    مَـــرَرْتُ بِزَيــــــدٍ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَــــاقِلِ (I passed by the intelligent Zayd).  And similar to these you say:  جَاءَنِي‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلٌ‏‮ ‬‬مَومِنٌ (a believing man came to me) in the case of rafʿ, and in the case of naṣb: أَكْرَمْتُ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلاً‏‮ ‬‬مُومِنًا (I honored a believing man) and in the case of khafḍ: مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِرَجُلٍ‏‮ ‬‬مُومِنٍ (I passed by a believing man) and so الْعَاقِل and مُومِن are attributes of زَيْدٍ and رَجُلٌ which agree with them in their iʿraab, in the case of rafʿ, naṣb and khafḍ and الْعَاقِل agrees with زَيْد  in its definiteness  and  مُومِـن  agrees  with رَجُل  in  its  indefiniteness and so forth.

(*note in ʿArabic)

التّوابع هي‏‮ ‬‬كل ثان تبع ما قبله في‏‮ ‬‬إعرابه وهي‏‮ ‬‬أربعة النّعت والعطف والتوكيد والبدل

(*note in English)

التَّوَابِعُ (The appositives) are every second noun which agrees with what comes before it in its iʿraab.  They are four (kinds): النَّعْتُ (the descriptive word),‏‮ ‬‬الْعَطْفُ (the conjoining word , التَّوْكِيدُ (the emphasizing word), and الْبدَلُ (the substitute word).

ʿArabic Text:

‮(‬‬وَالـْمَعْرِفَةُ‏‮ ‬‬خَمْسَةُ‏‮ ‬‬أَشَيَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُضْمَرُ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬أَنَا وَأَنْتَ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَلَمُ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَكَّةَ‏‮ ‬‬وَالإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُبْهَمُ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬هَذَا وَهَذِهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَهَؤُلاَءِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الِذي‏‮ ‬‬فِيهِ‏‮ ‬‬الأَلِفُ‏‮ ‬‬وَاللاَّمُ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬الرَّجُلُ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬الْغُلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا أُضِيفَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلَى وَاحِدٍ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬هَذِهِ‏‮ ‬‬الأَرْبَعَةِ‏‮)‬

English Translation:

وَالْـمُعْرِفَةُ (And the definite noun is) خَمْسَةُ‏‮ ‬‬أَشَيَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬(five things): الْـمُضْمَرُ (the pronoun) – نَحْوُ (like) أَنَا (I) وَأَنْتَ and (you)‏‮ ‬‬وَالإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَلَمُ (and the proper noun) – نَحْوُ (like): زَيْدٌ (Zayd) وَمَكَّة and (Makkah) وَالإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُبْهَمُ (and the demonstrative pronoun) – نَحْوُ  (like): هَذَا (this – masc.), وَهَذِهِ and (this – fem.) وَهَؤُلاَءِ and (these – masc. & fem. pl.) وَالإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الِذي‏‮ ‬‬فِيهِ‏‮ ‬‬الأَلِفُ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَمُ (and the definite noun to which اَلْ has been prefixed) – نَحْوُ (like): الرَّجُلُ (the man) وَالْغُلاَمُ and (the servant)وَمَا أُضِيفَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلَى (and that which has been constructed to) وَاحِدٍ‏‮ ‬‬(one) مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬هَذِهِ‏‮ ‬‬الأَرْبَعَةِ (of these four [above mentioned kinds]).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إن الـمَعْرِفَة هي‏‮ ‬‬ما وُضِعَ‏‮ ‬‬لِيدلّ‏‮ ‬‬علي‏‮ ‬‬شيء بعينه وأنواعها خمسة الأوّل‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬الإسم الـمضمر مثل أَنَا وأَنْتَ‏‮ ‬‬وهُوَ‏‮  ‬‬الثّاني‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬الإسم العلَم مثل زَْيد و فَاطِمَة ومَكَّة الثّالث‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬إسم الإشارة مثل هذا وهذه وهؤلآء الرّابع‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬الإسم الـمعرَّف بأَلْ‏‮ ‬‬مثل الفرس والفارس الخامس‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬ما أُضِيف الى كلٍ‏‮ ‬‬من هذه الأنواع الأربعة مثل‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬غُلاَمِي‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬وغُلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬هذا وغُلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬الرَْجُلِ‏‮ ‬‬وهكذا النّكرة الـمضافة الى ما أُضِيف إلى أحد هذه الأنواع الأربعة نحو اِبْنُ‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمِي‏‮ ‬‬وابْنُ‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمِ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬وإلى آخره

Explanation of Text in English:

الْـمَعْرِفَةُ (the definite noun) is that word which has been constructed to indicate the individuality of a thing.  Its kind is five.  The first is  الْـمُضْمَــــرُ  (the pronoun) – like:  أَنَا وَأَنْتَ‏‮ ‬‬وَهُوَ.  The second is الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬اْلعَلَمُ (the proper noun) – like زَيْد (Zayd) and فَاطِمَةُ (Faatimah) and  مَكَّةُ (Makkah).  The third is إِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الإِشَارَةِ (the demonstrative pronoun) – like: هَذَا وَهَذِهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَهَؤُلاَءِ.  The fourth is الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُعَرَّفُ‏‮ ‬‬بِال  (the definite noun prefixed with ال) like: الْفَرَسُ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَارِسُ.  The fifth is the noun which is joined to any of the other above mentioned four kinds  like: غُلاَمِي  (my servant)  and   غُلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ (the servant of Zayd) and غُلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬هَذَا (the servant of this [one]) and غُلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬الرَّجُلِ‏‮ ‬‬(the servant of the man). Thus the case is similar with the indefinite noun that has been constructed to a noun which has been joined to one of the four above mentioned  kinds: like اِبْنُ‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمِي ( The son of my servant) and اِبْنُ‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمِ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٍ (The son of the servant of Zayd) and so forth.

(*note in ʿArabic)

ن كل نكرة أُضِيفَت إلى أحد هذه الأنواع الأربعة تصير مَعْرِفَةً‏‮ ‬‬بإِضافتها إليها فغلام مثلاً‏‮ ‬‬نكِرة فإن أضفته إلى الضّمير فقلت‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمِي‏‮ ‬‬صار معرفة و كذا إن اضفته إلى العَلَم الباقي‏‮

(*note in English)

Every indefinite noun that is constructed to one of the four kinds of definite nouns (mentioned above) becomes definite as a result of its construction to it (the definite noun).  And so غُلاَمٌ for example is indefinite, however if you construct it to the pronoun and say غُلاَمِي it becomes definite.  And similarly, if you construct it to the rest of the definite words (mentioned above it becomes definite).

ʿArabic Text:

‮(‬‬وَالنَّكِرَةُ‏‮ ‬‬كُلُّ‏‮ ‬‬اسْمٍ‏‮ ‬‬شَائِعٍ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬جِنْسِهِ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَخْتَصُّ‏‮  ‬‬بِهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَاحِدٌ‏‮ ‬‬دُونَ‏‮ ‬‬ءَاخَرَ‏‮ ‬‬وَتَقْرِيبُهُ‏‮ ‬‬كُلُّ‏‮ ‬‬مَا صَلُحَ‏‮ ‬‬دُخُولُ‏‮ ‬‬الأَلِفِ‏‮ ‬‬وَاللاَّمِ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَيْهِ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬الرَّجُلُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْفَرَسُ‏‮)‬

English Translation:

وَالنَّكِرَةُ (And the indefinite noun is) كُلُّ‏‮ ‬‬اسْمٍ‏‮ ‬‬شَائِعٍ (every common  noun) [wherein] ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬جِنْسِــهِ (in  its  class), ‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَخْتَصّ‏‮ ‬‬بِهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَاحِدٌ (one noun is not distinguishable) دُونَ‏‮ ‬‬آخَرَ (from another). وَتَقْرِيبُهُ (One of its characteristics is) [that]‏‮ ‬‬كُلُّ‏‮ ‬‬مَا صَلُحَ‏‮ ‬‬دُخُولُ‏‮ ‬‬الأَلِفِ‏‮ ‬‬وَاللاَّمِ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَيْهِ‏‮ ‬‬ (it is every noun for which the prefixing of اَلْ is allowed) – نَحْوُ (like when you say): الرَّجُلُ (the man) وَالْفَرَسُ (and t he mare).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إن النّكرة هي‏‮ ‬‬كل اسم شائع في‏‮ ‬‬جنسه لا‏‮ ‬‬يختص به واحد دون‏‮ ‬‬غيره مثل رَجُلٌ‏‮ ‬‬فإنه إسم شائع في‏‮ ‬‬جنس الرّجال لأنّه‏‮ ‬‬يطلق على كل فرد منهم و لا‏‮ ‬‬يختص به واحد دون‏‮ ‬‬غيره و علامة النكرة أن‏‮ ‬‬يصلح دخول أَلْ‏‮ ‬‬عليها نحو‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمٌ‏‮ ‬‬و فَرَسٌ‏‮ ‬‬فإنّهما‏‮ ‬‬يصلح دخول أَلْ‏‮ ‬‬عليهما فتقول الْغُلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬و الْفَرَسُ‏‮ ‬

Explanation of Text in English:

النَّكِرَةِ (the indefinite noun) is every common noun among its kind.  One thing is not distinguished by it from another like رُجُلٌ.  And so it (رُجُلٌ) is a noun common to the species of men, because it applies to everyone of them while one is not distinguished from another.  The sign of the indefinite noun is that the prefixing of اَلْ is permissible for it – like (the words) غُلاَمٌ  and فَرَسٌ; the prefixing of اَلْ is permissible for them and so you say: الْغُلاَمُ and اَلْفَرَسُ.

Published in: on March 3, 2011 at 01:01  Leave a Comment  

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 10 – (The Chapter About Al – ʿAwaamil [The Governors] That Enter Upon The Subject And The Predicate

بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَوَامِلِ‏‮ ‬‬الدَّاخِلَةِ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَى الـْمُبْتَدَإِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْـخَبَرِ

10 – (The  Chapter  About  Al – ʿAwaamil [The Governors] That Enter Upon The Subject And The Predicate)

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬ثَلاَثَةُ‏‮ ‬‬أَشْيَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاتُهَا وَإِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاتُهَا وَظَنَنْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاتُهَا‏‮) ‬‬

English Translation:

وَهِيَ‏  ثَلاَثَةُ‏  أَشْيَاءَ‏ (And it is three things): كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬أَخْوَاتُهَا (kaana and its sisters), وَإِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬أَخْوَاتُهَا (and inna and its sisters) وَظَنَنْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬أَخْوَاتُهَا (and hanna and its sisters).

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬فَأَمَّا كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاتُهَا فَإِنَّهَا تَرْفَعُ‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمَ‏‮  ‬‬وَتَنْصِبُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْخَبَرَ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَمْسَى وَأََصْبَحَ‏‮ ‬‬وََأََضْحَى وَظَلَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَبَاتَ‏‮ ‬‬وَصَارَ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَيْسَ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا زَالَ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا اِنْفَكَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا فَتِئَ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا بَرِحَ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا دَامَ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا تَصَرَّفَ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْهَا نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬كاَنَ‏‮ ‬‬وَيَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬وَكُنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَصْبَحَ‏‮ ‬‬وَيُصْبِحُ‏‮ ‬‬وَأََصْبَحْ‏‮ ‬‬تَقُولُ‏‮ ‬‬كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدُ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمًا وَلَيْسَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٌو شَاخِصًا وَمَاأََشْبَهُ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِكَ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

فَأَمَّا كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاتُهَا (As  for  kaana  and  its  sisters) تَرْفَعُ‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمَ (they cause the noun to be in the case of rafʿ) وَتَـنْصِبُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْخَبَرَ (and they cause the predicate to be in the case of naṣb). ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِي(And they are): كَانَ (he/it was), وَأَمْسَى and (he/it became), وَأَصْبَحَ and (he/it became), وَأَضْـحَى and (he/it became), وَظَلَّ and (he/it became), وَبَاتَ and (he/it became), وَصَارَ and (he/it became), وَلَيْسَ and (he/it is not), وَمَا زَالَ and (he/it has not ceased [he/it continues), وَمَا انْفَكَّ and (he/it did not  stop  doing), وَمَا فَتِئَ  and (he/it did not stop), وَمَا‏ بَرِحَ and (he/it did not stop), وَمَا دَامَ and (he/it continued). وَمَا تَـصَرَّفَ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْهَا (And what is derived from them)  –‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ like when you say: كَانَ (he/it was) وَيَكُونُ and (he/it is) وَكُنْ and (be [the command tense meaning “you (singular masculine) be”] ) وَأَصْبَحَ and (he became) وَيُصْبِحُ and (he becomes) وَأَصْـبِحْ and (become). تَقُولُ‏‮ ‬‬(You say): كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمًا (Zayd was standing) وَلَيْسَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٌو شَاخِصًآ and (ʿAmr is not leaving) وَمَاأََشْبَهُ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِكَ (and what is similar to these examples).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

كان وأخواتها ترفع الـمبتدأ الَّذِي‮ ‬يُسَّمَى إسمها وتنصب الخبر الِّي‮ ‬يسّمى خبرها وهي‏‮ ‬‬ثلاثة عشر فعلاً‏‮ ‬‬كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬وأَمْسَى وأََصْبَحَ‏‮ ‬‬وأََضْحَى وظَلَّ‏‮ ‬‬وبَاتَ‏‮ ‬‬وصَارَ‏‮ ‬‬ولَيْسَ‏‮ ‬‬ومَا زَالَ‏‮ ‬‬ومَا اِنْفَكَّ‏‮ ‬‬ومَا فَتِئَ‏‮ ‬‬ومَا بَرِحَ‏‮ ‬‬ومَا دَامَ‏‮ ‬‬ويُشترَط في‏‮ ‬‬زَالَ‏‮ ‬‬التي‏‮ ‬‬مضارعها‏‮ ‬‬يَزَالُ‏‮ ‬‬واِنْفَكَّ‏‮ ‬‬وفَتِئَ‏‮ ‬‬وبَرِحَ‏‮ ‬‬أن‏‮ ‬‬يتقّدمها نفي‏‮ ‬‬أو شبهه وهو النهي‏‮ ‬‬والاستفهام نحو مَا زَالَ‏‮ ‬‬ولاَ‏‮ ‬‬تَزَلْ‏‮ ‬‬وهَلْ‏‮ ‬‬تَزَالُ‏‮ ‬‬وقِس عليه اِِنفَكَّ‏‮ ‬‬وفَتِئَ‏‮ ‬‬وبَرِحَ‏‮ ‬‬وأمّا دَامَ‏‮ ‬‬فَيُشتَرط فيها أن‏‮ ‬‬يتقدّمها ما الـمـصدرية نحو مَا دَامَ‏‮ ‬‬و اُلـْحِق بكان كُلُّ‏‮ ‬‬فِعْلٍ‏‮ ‬‬لا‏‮ ‬‬يستغني‏‮ ‬‬عن الخبر وهذه أمثلتها كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمًا أَمْسَى بَكْرٌ‏‮ ‬‬سَاهِرًا أصْبَحَ‏‮ ‬‬البَرْدُ‏‮ ‬‬شَدِيدًا أَضْحَى الْفَقِيهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَرِعًا ظَلَّ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٌو نَاسِكًا بَاتَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬سَاهِرًا صَارَ‏‮ ‬‬الطِّينُ‏‮ ‬‬إِبْرِيقًا لَيْسَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٌو زَاهِدًا مَا زَالَ‏‮ ‬‬أَحْمَدُ‏‮ ‬‬فَاضِلاً‏‮ ‬‬مَا اِنْفَكَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬نَاطِقًا مَا فَتِئَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٌو مُحِبّــًا مَا بَرِحَ‏‮ ‬‬الإِثْمُ‏‮ ‬‬مَكْرُوهًا لاَ‏‮ ‬‬أَصْحَبَكَ‏‮ ‬‬مَا دَامَ‏‮ ‬‬اللّهُ‏‮ ‬‬مَوْجُودًا وهكذا ما تصرَّف منها فإنّه‏‮ ‬‬يعمل عمَلَ‏‮ ‬‬مَاضِيها تقول في‏‮ ‬‬ما تصرّف من كان‏‮ ‬‬يَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬مُحْسِنًا وكُنْ‏‮ ‬‬مُحِبّــًا وعَجِبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬كَوْنِ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٍو صَدِيقًا وقِسْ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَيْهَا ما بقي‏‮ ‬‬

Explanation of Text in English:

كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬أَخْوَاتِهَا (kaana and its sisters) causes الْـمُبْتَدَأ (the subject) which is called إِِسْمُهَا (its noun) to be in the case of rafʿ and causes الْـخَبَر (the predicate) which is called خَبْرُهَـا (its predicate) to be in the case of naṣb. They are thirteen verbs: كَـانَ (he/it was), أَمْسَـى (he/it became), أَصْـبَحَ (he/it became), أَضْـحَى (he/it became), ظَـلَّ (he/it became), بَـاتَ (he/it became), صَارَ (he/it became), لَيْسَ (he/it is not), مَـا زَالَ (he/it has not ceased [he/it continues), مَـا إِنْـفَكَّ (he/it did not stop doing), مَـا فَـتِئَ (he/it did not stop), مَـا بَـرِحَ (he/it did not stop), مَـا دَامَ (he/it continued).

It has been made conditional for زَالَ which is conjugated in the present tense as يَزَالُ and فَتِئَ ,إِنْفَكَّ and بَرِحَ to be preceded by حَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬النَّفْي (a particle of negation) or what is similar to it like حَـرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬النَّهْـي (the particle of prohibition) and حَـرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الاِسْـتِفْهَام (the interrogative particle) – and so you say: مَـا زَالَ (he / it continued) and لاَ‏‮ ‬‬تَـزَالْ (do not stop / continue) and هَـلْ‏‮ ‬‬تَـزَالُ (is it still going on / are you [masc.] continuing / is she continuing) and it is like this with إِنْـفَكَّ and بَـرِحَ. As for دَامَ, it has been made conditional for it that مَا الـْمَصْدَرِيَّـة (the maa (مَا) that is used to introduce a clause that is equivalent to the infinitive) precedes it like when you say: مَا دَامَ (he / it did not ceased).

Every verb which is associated with كَـانَ must have a predicate and the example of these are: كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمًا  (Zayd was standing), أَمْسَى بَكْرٌ‏‮ ‬‬سَاهِرًا (Bakr became awake), أَصْـبَحَ‏‮ ‬‬الْبَرْدُ‏‮ ‬‬شَدِيدًا (the coldness became harsh),أَضْـــحَى الْفَقيـِـهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَرِعــــًا (the jurist became pious), ظَــلَّ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْــــرٌو نَـاسِكــــًا  (‘Amr  became  a  pious  man),  بَـــاتَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْــدٌ‏‮ ‬‬سـاهِرًا  (Zayd  stayed  awake  all night), صــــَـارَ‏‮ ‬‬طِـينُ‏‮ ‬‬إِبْـرِيقـًا (the clay became a jug [that  is  to say that it was made into a jug]), لَـيْسَ‏‮ ‬‬عَـمْرٌو زَاهِدًا (ʿAmr is not ascetic),

مَـا زَالَ‏‮ ‬‬أَحْمَدُ‏‮ ‬‬فَـاضِلاً (Ahmad continues to be kind), مَـا إِنْفَكَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدٌ‏‮ ‬‬نَـاطِـقًا (Zayd continues to be / is still eloquent), مَا فَـتِئَ‏‮ ‬‬عَـمْرٌو مُـحِِِـّبًا (‘Amr continues to be / is still a friend), مَـا بَرِحَ‏‮ ‬‬الإِثْـمُ‏‮ ‬‬مَـكْرُوهًـا (sin continues to be / is still detestable), لاَ‏‮ ‬‬أَصْـحَبُـكَ‏‮ ‬‬مَـا دَامَ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّهُ‏‮ ‬‬مَـوْجُـودًا (I do not need you as a companion while Allah is present). And so it is like this with what has been derived from them and it functions like its past tense. You say for what has been derived from كــــَـانَ: يَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيدٌ‏‮ ‬‬مُحْسِــنًا (Zayd is benevolent) and كُــنْ‏‮ ‬‬مُحِبّــًا (Be beloved) and عَجِبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬مِن كَوْنِ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٍو صَدِيقًا ( I was amazed by the friendship of ‘Amr) and so forth with the rest of them.

ʿArabic Text:‏‮

‏‮(‬‬وَأَمَّا إِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخَوَاتُهَا فَإِنَّهَا تَنْصِبُ‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمَ‏‮ ‬‬وَتَرْفَعَ‏‮ ‬‬الـْخَبَرَ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬إِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَكِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَكَأَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَيْتَ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَعَلَّ‏‮ ‬‬تَقُولُ‏‮ ‬‬إِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا قَائِمٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬لَيْتَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرًا شَاخِصٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا أَشْبَهُ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَعَنَى إِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وأَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬لِلتَّوْكِيدِ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَكِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬لِلاِسْتِدْرَاكِ‏‮  ‬‬وَكَأَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬لِلتَّشْبِيهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَيْتَ‏‮ ‬‬لِلتَّمَنِّي‏‮ ‬‬وَلَعَلَّ‏‮ ‬‬لِلتَّرَجِّي‏‮ ‬‬وَالتَّوَقُّعِ‏‮) ‬‬

English Translation:

إِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاتِهَا (And inna and its sisters) فَإِنَّهَا تَنْصِبُ‏  الإِسْمَ (they cause the noun to be in the case of naṣb) وَتَرْفَعُ‏  الـْخَبَرَ (and they cause the predicate to be in the case of rafʿ) وَهِـيَ‏‮ ‬‬(and they are): إِنَّ (verily, that), وَأَنَّ and (that), وَلَكِنَّ and (but), وَكَأَنَّ and (as if), وَلَيْتَ and (if only…) وَلَعَلَّ and (perhaps). تَقُولُ‏ (You say): إِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا قَائِمٌ (verily Zayd is standing),  وَلَيْتَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرًا شَاخِصٌ and (if only ʿAmr was leaving) وَمَا أَشْبَهُ (and what is similar to these examples). وَمَعَنَى (and the purpose of) إنَّ‏‮ ‬‬and أَنَّ is) لِـلتَّوْكِيدِِ‏‮ ‬‬(for emphasis); وَلَكِنَّ (and lakinna is) لِلاِسْتِدْرَاكِ‏‮ ‬‬(for correction) وَكَأَنَّ (and ka-anna is) لِلتَّشْبِيهِ‏‮ ‬‬(for comparison) وَلَيْتَ (and layta)‏‮ ‬‬لِلتَّمَنِّي (is used to express a desire). وَلَعَلَّ (and laʿlla) لِلتَّرَجِّي‏‮ ‬‬وَالتَّوَقُّعِ (is used to express hope and anticipation).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وإخواتها تعمل عكس عمل كان لأنها تنصب الـمبتدأ وترفع الخبر ويُسمَّيان إسمها وخبرها وهي‏‮ ‬‬ستـة أحرف إِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَكِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَكَأَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَيْتَ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَعَلَّ‏‮ ‬‬وهذه أمثلتها إِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا قَائِمٌ‏‮ . ‬‬بَلَغَنِي‏‮ ‬‬أَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬اَحْمَدَ‏‮ ‬‬نَاسِكٌ‏‮ . ‬‬عَمْرٌو حَكِيمٌ‏‮ ‬‬لاَكِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬ابْنَهُ‏‮ ‬‬جَاهِلٌ‏‮ . ‬‬كَأَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا أَسَدٌ‏‮. ‬‬لَيْتَ‏‮ ‬‬جَهُولاً‏‮ ‬‬حَكِيمٌ‏‮ . ‬‬لَعَلَّ‏‮ ‬‬اللََّهَ‏‮ ‬‬غَافِرٌ‏‮ ‬‬وهكذا عملها في‏‮ ‬‬قولك إِنَّكَ‏‮ ‬‬فَاضِلٌ‏‮ ‬‬ولَيْتَكَ‏‮ ‬‬مُحْسِنٌ‏‮ ‬‬ولَعَلَّكَ‏‮ ‬‬قَادِمٌ‏‮ ‬‬وما أشبه ذلك‏‮  ‬‬

Explanation of Text in English:

إِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاتِهَا  (Inna and its sisters) perform an opposite function to that of كَـانَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأخْوَاتِهَا (Kaana and its sisters), because it causes its subject to be in the case of naṣb and its predicate to be in the case of rafʿ. Both of them [the subject and the predicate] are called إِسْمُهَا وَخَبْرُهَا (its noun and its predicate [that is to say: the noun and predicate of Inna and sisters]).  إِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاتِهَا (Inna and its sisters) are comprised of six particles. إِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَكِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَكَأَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَيْتَ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَعَلَّ. Their examples (in  usage  are like when you say):    بَلَغَـــنِي‏‮ ‬‬أَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬أَحْمَدَ‏‮ ‬‬نَاسِكٌ (It has reached me that Ahmad is a pious man), عَمْرٌو حَكِيِمٌ‏‮ ‬‬لاَكِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬ابْنَهُ‏‮ ‬‬جَاهِلٌ (ʿAmr is wise but his son is ignorant), كَأَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا أَسَدٌ (It is as if Zayd was lion), ‏‮ ‬‬لَيْـتَ‏‮ ‬‬جَهُولاً‏‮ ‬‬حَكِيــمٌ  (If  only the ignorant  were  wise),  لَعَـــلَّ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّهَ‏‮ ‬‬غَافِرٌ (Perhaps Allah will forgive…) and like this, their  function is also like when you say: إِنَْكَ‏‮ ‬‬فَاضِلٌ (Surely you are kind), لَيْتَكَ‏‮ ‬‬مُحْسِنٌ (If only you were charitable) and لَعَلَّكَ‏‮ ‬‬قَادِمٌ (Perhaps you will arrive) and what is similar to these.

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَأَمَّا ظَنَنْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاتُهَا فَإِنَّهَا تَنْصِبُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُبْتَدَأَ‏‮ ‬‬وَالـْخَبَرَ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَى أَنَّهُمَا مَفْعُولاَنِ‏‮ ‬‬لَهَا وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬ظَنَنْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَحَسِبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَخِلْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَزَعَمْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَرََأَيْتُ‏‮  ‬‬وَعَلِمْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَوَجَدْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَاتَّخَذْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬جَعَلْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَسَمِعْتُ‏‮ ‬‬تَقُولُ‏‮ ‬‬ظَنَنْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا مُنْطَلِقًا وَخِلْتُ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرًا شَاخِصًا وَمَا أَشْبَهَ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِكَ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

وَأَمَّا ظَنَنْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاتِهَا (And as for hanantu [ḍhanna] and its sisters), فَإِنَّهَا تَنْصِبُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُبْتَدَأَ‏‮ ‬‬وَالـْخَبَر (they cause the subject and the predicate to be in the case of naṣb) عَلَى أَنَّهُمَا (due to the fact that both of them [the subject and the predicate]) مَفْعُولاَنِ‏‮ ‬‬لَهَا (are objects for them [ḍhanna and its sisters]). ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬(They are): ظَنَنْتُ (I thought) وَحَسِبْتُ and (I thought)‏‮ ‬‬وَخِلْتُ  and (I thought) وَزَعَمْتُ and (I believed) وَرَأَيْتُ and (I believed) وَعَلِمْتُ and (I knew) وَجَدْتُ and (I found) وَاِتَّخَذْتُ and (I took) وَجَعَلْتُ and (I made) سَمِعْتُ and (I listened). You say: ظَنَنْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا مُنْطَلِقًا (I thought Zayd was leaving) وَحَسَبْتُ‏  عَمْرًا ذَاهِبًا and (I thought ʿAmr was going) وَخِلْتُ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرًا شَاخِصًا and (I thought ʿAmr was leaving) and it is similar with what resembles these examples.

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إنّ‏‮ ‬‬ظَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وأخواتها تنصب الـمبتدأ والخبر على أنهما مفعولان لها وهي‏‮ ‬‬عشرة أفعال ظَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وحَسَبَ‏‮ ‬‬وخَالَ‏‮ ‬‬وزَعَمَ‏‮ ‬‬ورَأَى وعَلِمَ‏‮ ‬‬ووَجَدَ‏‮ ‬‬واتَّخَذَ‏‮ ‬‬وجَعَلَ‏‮ ‬‬وسَمِعَ‏‮ ‬‬وما في‏‮ ‬‬معناها وهذه أمثلتها ظَنَنْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيدًا قَائِمًا‏‮ . ‬‬حَسِبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرًا ذَاهِبًا‏‮ . ‬‬خِلْتُ‏‮ ‬‬اَجْمَدَ‏‮ ‬‬صَدِيقًا‏‮ . ‬‬زَعَمْتُ‏‮ ‬‬صِدْقَكَ‏‮ ‬‬رَاجِحًا‏‮ . ‬‬رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا مَاشِِيًا‏‮ . ‬‬عَلِمْتُ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّهَ‏‮ ‬‬رَاحِمًا  ‏‮. ‬‬وَجَدْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا مُحْسِنًا‏‮ . ‬‬اِتَّخَذْتُ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّهَ‏‮ ‬‬مُعيِنًا‏‮ . ‬‬جَعَلْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الطِينَ‏‮ ‬‬اِبْرِيقًا‏‮ . ‬‬سَمِعْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الشَّاعِرَ‏‮ ‬‬مُنْشِدًا وهكذا ما تصرَّف منها فإنَّه‏‮ ‬‬يعمل عمل ماضِيها تقول في‏‮ ‬‬ما تصرّف من ظَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬أَظُنُّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا صَادِقًا وَظُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬الأَمْرَصَالِحًآ وأَنَا ظَانُّ‏‮ ‬‬بَكْرًا ذَاهِبًا وعَجِبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬ظَنِّكَ‏‮ ‬‬زيْدًا قَائِمًا وعََمْرٌو مَظْنُونٌ‏‮ ‬‬أَبُوهُ‏‮ ‬‬نَائِمًا وقس على ذلك ما اَشْبَهَهُ

Explanation of Text in English:

ظَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاتِهَا (ḍhanantu [ḍhanna] and its sisters) cause the subject and the predicate to be in the case of naṣb due to the fact that they (the subject and the predicate) are direct and indirect objects of them (ظَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاتِهَا)  (that is to say: in the same sentence the subject and  the predicate  are  objects  of  ظَنَنْــتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬أَخْوَاتِــهَا.  ظَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاتِهَا include ten verbs: ظَنَّ (He thought), حَسِبَ (He thought), خَالَ (He thought), زَعَمَ (He believed), رَأَى (He believed), عَلِمَ (He knew), وَجَدَ (He found), اِتَّخَذَ (He took), جَعَلَ (He made), سَمِع (He listened) and those verbs which have similar meaning.  These are their examples: ظَنَنْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيدًا قَائِمًا (I thought Zayd was standing), حَسِبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرًا ذَاهِبًا (I thought ‘Amr was going), خِلْتُ‏‮ ‬‬أَحْمَدَ‏‮ ‬‬صَدِيقًا (I considered Ahmad a friend), زَعَمْت صِدْقَكَ‏‮ ‬‬رَاجِحًا (I believed your truthfulness is more acceptable), رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا مَاشِيًا (I saw Zayd walking), عَلِمْتُ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّهَ‏‮ ‬‬رَاحِمًا (I know Allah is Merciful), وَجَدْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا مُحْسِنًا (I found Zayd to be benevolent), اتَّخَذْتُ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّهَ‏‮ ‬‬مُعِينًا (I took Allah as a helper),جَعَلْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الطِّينَ‏‮ ‬‬إِبْرِيقًا (I made the clay into a jug) and سَمِعْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الشَّاعِرَ‏‮ ‬‬مُنْشِدًا (I heard that the poet is a singer) and it is similar to this for what is derived from them.  They function in accord with their past tense.  And so you say in what has been derived from dhanna: أَظُنُّ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا صَادِقًا (I believe Zayd is truthful), ظُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬الأَمْرَ‏‮ ‬‬صَالـِحًا  (deem the affair sound) أَنَا‏‮ ‬‬ظَانٌّ‏‮ ‬‬بَكْرًا ذَاهِبًا (I think Bakr is going)  عَجِبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬ظَنِّكَ‏‮ ‬‬زيْدًا قَائِمًا  (I am surprised you thought Zayd was standing) and عََمْرٌو مَظْنُونٌ‏‮ ‬‬أَبُوهُ‏‮ ‬‬نَائِمًا (‘Amr thought his father was sleeping) and it is similar with what resembles these.

Published in: on February 13, 2011 at 16:17  Leave a Comment  

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 9 – (The Chapter About Al-Mubtada’ [The Subject] And Al-Khabr [The Predicate])

بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُبْتَدَإِ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‬الْخَبَرِ

9 – (The Chapter About Al-Mubtada’ [The Subject] And Al-Khabr [The Predicate])

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬الـْمُبْتَدَأُ‏‮ ‬‬هَوَ‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَرْفُوعُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَارِي‏‮ ‬‬عَنِ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَوَامِلِ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّفْظِيَّةِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْخَبَرُ‏‮ ‬‬هُـوَ‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْـمَرْفُوعُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُسْنَدُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلَيْهِ‏‮ ‬‬نَـحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَالزَّيْـدَانِ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمَانِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالزَّيْدُونَ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمُونَ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

الـْمُبْتَدَأُ (the subject) هَوَ (is) الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَرْفُوعُ (the noun in the case of rafʿ) الْعَارِي‏‮ ‬‬عَـنِ (which is void of) الْعَوَامِلُ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّفْطِيَّة (expressed governors)وَالْخَـبَر (while the predicate) هَـوَ (is) الإِسْـمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْـمَرْفُـوعُ (the noun in the case of rafʿ) الـْمُسْنَدُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلَـيْهِ (which  is  traced back to it [الْـمُبْتَدَأ])

–  نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ (as  you would say): زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمٌ (Zayd is standing)  وَالزَّيْدَانِ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمَانِ and (the two Zayds are  standing وَالزَّيْدُونَ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمُونَ and (the Zayds [three or more] are standing).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

الـمبتدأ هو الإسم الـمرفوع العاري‏‮ ‬‬عن العوامل اللفظيّة والخبر هو الإسم الـمرفوع الـمسند إلى الـمبتدإ أي‏‮ ‬‬الـمنسوب إليه كقولك‏‮  ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمٌ‏‮ ‬‬والزَّيْدَانِ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمَانِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالزَّيْدُونَ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمُونَ‏‮ ‬‬وَما أشبه ذلك فَالإسم الـمنسوب إليه هو الـمبتدأ والـمنسوب هو الخبر

Explanation of Text in English:

الـْـمُبْتَدَأ (the subject) is the noun in the case of rafʿ which is ‏  العاري‏  عن الْعَوَامِـلُ‏  اللَّفْطِيَّة void of (expressed governors) and الـْخَبَر (the predicate) is the noun in the case of rafʿ which is traced back to  الْـمُبْتَدَأ (the subject) –  as you would say: زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬قَـائِـمٌ (Zayd is standing) and الزَّيْـدَانِ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِـمَان (The two Zayds are standing) and الزَّيْـدُونَ‏‮ ‬‬قَـائِـمُون (The three or more Zayds are standing) and what is similar to these examples As for الإِسْـمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْـمنْسُوبُ‏‮ ‬‬إِلَـيْهِ (the noun to which something is ascribed), it is الْـمُبْتَدَأ and الـْمَنْسُوبُ (the noun which has been ascribed), it is الْـخَبْر.

Arabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَالــْمُبْتَدَأُ‏‮ ‬‬قِسْمَانِ‏‮ ‬‬ظَاهِرٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَمُضْمَرٌ‏‮ ‬‬فَالظَّاهِرُ‏‮ ‬‬مَا تَقَدَّمَ‏‮ ‬‬ذِكْرُهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْـمُضْمَرُ‏‮ ‬‬إثْنَا عَشَرَ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬أَنَا وَنَحْنُ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَنْتَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَنْتِ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَنْتُمَا وَأَنْتُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَنْتُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَهُوَ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬وَهُمَا‏‮  ‬‬وَهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَهُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬أَنَا قَائِمٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَنَحْنُ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمُونَ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا أَشْبَهَ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِكَ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

وَالــْـمُبْتَدَأُ (And the subject) قِـسْمَانِ (is of two kinds) ظَـاهِرٌ (a clearly distinct noun) مُضْمَرٌ (a pronoun). فـَالظَّاهِرُ (And so the clearly distinct noun) مَا تَقَدَّمَ‏‮ ‬‬ذِكْـرُهُ (is that which has been mentioned previously) وَالْـمُضْمَرُ (and the pronouns) إثْنَا عَشَر (are twelve) – ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬(and they  are):

أَنَا وَنَحْنُ‏‮ ‬‬وَأنْتَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَنْتِ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَنْتُمَا وَأَتنْتُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَنْتُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَهُو وَهِِِيَ‏‮ ‬‬وَهُمَا وَهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَهُنَّ

نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ‏ (like when you say): أَنَا قَائِمٌ (I am standing) وَنَحْنُ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمُونَ (and We are standing) and what is similar to that.

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إن الـمبتدأ قسمان قسم ظاهر كقولك زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَالزَّيدَانِ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمَانِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالزَّيدُونَ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمُونَ‏‮ ‬‬وقسم مضمر وهو أربعة عشرضميرًا كقولك هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬وهُمَا وهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬وهُمَا وهُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وأَنْتَ‏‮  ‬‬وَأَنْتُمَا وأَنْتُم وأَنْتِ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَنْتُمَا وأَنْتُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَنَا وَنَحْنُ‏‮ ‬‬وَمثال وقوعها مبتدأ قولك هَوَ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمٌ‏‮ ‬‬هُمَا قَائِمََانِ‏‮ ‬‬هُمْ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمُونَ‏‮ ‬‬وقِسْ‏‮ ‬‬على هذا مَا بقي‏‮ ‬‬منها مذكَّرًا ومؤنثًا‏‮    ‬‬

الــمُـبْتَدَأُ (The subject) is of two kinds.  ظاهِـرُ (a clearly distinct noun)  – like when you say:  زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمُ and الزَيْدَانِ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمَان and الزَيْدُونَ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمُونَ.  Another kind is a pronoun of which there are fourteen – like when you say:

هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬وهُمَا وهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬وهُمَا وهُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وأَنْتَ‏‮  ‬‬وَأَنْتُمَا وأَنْتُم‏‮ ‬وأَنْتِ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَنْتُمَا وأَنْتُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَنَا وَنَحْنُ‏‮ ‬‬

– like when you say: هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمٌ (He stood), ‏‮ ‬‬هُـمَا قَـائِمَانَ (They [The two of them] stood),  هُـمْ‏‮ ‬‬قَـائِـمُونَ (They stood [three or more males] and it is the same for the rest of the male and female forms of these pronouns .

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَالـْخَبْرُ‏‮ ‬‬قِسْمَانِ‏‮ ‬‬مُفْرَدٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَغَيْرُ‏‮ ‬‬مُفرَدٍ‏‮ ‬‬فَالـْمُفْرَدُ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬قَائِمٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَغَيْرُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُفْرَدِ‏‮ ‬‬أَرْبَعَةُ‏‮ ‬‬أَشْيَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الْـجَارُّ‏‮ ‬‬وَالـْمَجَرُورُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالظَّرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬مَعَ‏‮ ‬‬فَاعِلِهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالـْمُبْتَدَأُ‏‮ ‬‬مَعَ‏‮ ‬‬خَبَرِهِ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬وَزَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬عِنْدَكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَزَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬أَبُوهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَزَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬جَارِيَتُهُ‏‮ ‬‬ذَاهِبَةٌ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

وَالـْخَبْرُ (The predicate is) قِسْمَانِ‏ (of two kinds): مُفْرَدٌ (singular) ؤَغَـيْرُ‏  مُـفْردِ (and other than singular). ‏  فَالـْـمُـفْرَدُ (As for the singular), it is like when you say: زَيْدٌ‏ قَائِمٌ (Zayd is standing) غَـيْرُ‏  الْـمُفْرَدِ (and other than singular) أَرْبَـعَةُ‏  أَشْـيَاءَ (is four things): الـْـجَّارُ‏ وَ‏الـْمَجْـرُورُ  (the preposition and the object of the preposition), وَالظَّرْفُ (and the adverb),وَالْفِعْلُ‏  مَعَ‏  فَاعلِهِ (and the verb with its doer) and وَالـْـمُبْتَدَأ مَـعَ‏  خَبَرِهِ (and the subject with its predicate) like when you say: زَيْدٌ‏  فِي‏  الدَّارِ (Zayd is in the house) وَزَيْدٌ‏ عِنْدَكَ and (Zayd is with you) وَزَيْـدٌ‏  قَـامَ‏  أَبُوهُ and (Zayd’s [his] father stood) زَيْـدٌ‏ جَـارِيَـتُهُ‏  ذَاهِـبَةٌ and (Zayd [his] servant is going / Zayd’s servant is going).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إن الخبر قسمان أيضًا قسم مفرد كقولك زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬مُقْبِلٌ‏‮ ‬‬والزَيْدَانِ‏‮ ‬‬مُقْبِلاَنِ‏‮ ‬‬والزَيْدُونَ‏‮ ‬‬مُقْبِلُونَ‏‮  ‬‬وقسم‏‮ ‬‬غير مفرد وهو أربعة أشياء أوّلها الجرّ‏‮ ‬‬والـمجرور كقولك زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ‏‮ ‬‬ثانيها الظّرف كقولك زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬عِنْدَكَ‏‮ ‬‬ثالثها الفعل مع فاعله كقولك زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬أَبُوه رابعها الـمبتدأ مع خبره كقولك زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬جَارِيَتُهُ‏‮ ‬‬ذَاهِبَة

Explanation  in English:

الخبر (the predicate) is of two kinds‏‮ ‬‬also.  One kind consists of one word – like when you say: زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬مُقْبِلٌ (Zayd is coming) and الزَيْدَانِ‏‮ ‬‬مُقْبِلاَنِ (The two Zayds are coming) and الزَيْـدُونَ‏‮ ‬‬مُـقْبِلُونَ  (The Zayds [three or more] are coming) and another kind consists of more than one word and it is of four types.  The first of them is الـْجَـرُّ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَجْـرُورُ (the preposition and the object of the preposition) – as you would say: زَيْـدٌ‏‮ ‬‬فِـي‏‮ ‬‬الدَّارِ (Zayd is in the house).  The second of them is الظَّرْف (the adverb) like when you say: زَيْـدٌ‏‮ ‬‬عِـنْدَكَ (Zayd is with you).  The third of them is الْفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬مَعَ‏‮ ‬‬فَاعِلِهِ (the verb along with its doer) like when you say: زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬أَبُوهُ (Zayd – his father stood, [that is to say: Zayd’s father stood]).   The fourth of them is الـْمُبْتَدَأ مَعَ‏‮ ‬‬خَبَرِه (the subject with its predicate) like when you say:   زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬جَارِيَتُهُ‏‮ ‬‬ذَاهِبَةٌ (Zayd – his servant is going [that is to say: Zayd’s servant is going]).

Published in: on January 29, 2011 at 16:49  Leave a Comment  

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 8 – (The Chapter About al-Mafʿuul [The Receiver Of The Action Whose Doer Was Not Mentioned])

بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَفْعُولِ‏‮ ‬‬الَّذِي‏‮ ‬‬لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يُسَمَّ‏‮ ‬‬فَاعِلُهُ

The Chapter About al-Mafʿuul [The Receiver Of The Action Whose Doer Was Not Mentioned])

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَهُوَ‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَرْفُوعُ‏‮ ‬‬الذِي‏‮ ‬‬لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يُذْكَرْ‏‮ ‬‬مَـعَهُ‏‮ ‬‬فَاعِلُهُ‏‮ ‬‬فَـإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬كَـانَ‏‮ ‬‬الْـفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬مَاضِيًا ضُمَّ‏‮ ‬‬أَوَّلُهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَكُسِرَ‏‮ ‬‬مَا قَبْلَ‏‮ ‬‬آخِرِهِ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬مُضَارِعًا ضُمَّ‏‮ ‬‬أَوَّلُهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَفُتِحَ‏‮ ‬‬مَا قَبْلَ‏‮ ‬‬آخِرِهِ‏‮  ‬‬وَهُوَ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَى قِسْمَيْنِ‏‮ ‬‬ظَاهِرٍ‏‮ ‬‬وَمُضْمَرٍ‏‮ ‬‬فَالظَّاهِرُ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬ضُرِبَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَيُضْرَبُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَأُكْرِمَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٌو وَيُكْرَمُ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٌو وَالـْمُضْمَرُ‏‮ ‬‬إِثْنَا عَشَرَ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬ضُرِبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَضُرِبْنَا وَضُرِبْتَ‏‮ ‬‬وَضُرِبْتِ‏‮ ‬‬وَضُرِبْتُمَا وَضُرِبْتُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَضُرِبْتُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَضُرِبَ‏‮ ‬‬وَضُرِبَتْ‏‮ ‬‬وَضُرِبَا وَضُرِبُواْ‏‮ ‬‬وَضُرِبْنَ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

وَهُوَ ‏‮ ‬‬(And it [الـْمَفْعُولِ‏‮ ‬‬الِذِي‏‮ ‬‬لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يُسَمَّ‏‮ ‬‬فَاعِلُه – (the receiver of the action whose doer is not mentioned] is) الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَرْفُوعُ (the noun in the case of rafʿ) الذِي‏‮ ‬‬لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يُذْكَرْ‏‮ ‬‬مَعَهُ (which does not have mentioned with it) ‏‮ ‬‬فَـاعِـلُه(its doer). فَـإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬كَـانَ‏‮ ‬‬الْـفِعْلُ (And therefore,‏‮ ‬‬if the verb is) مَـاضِـيًا (in the past), ضُـمَّ‏‮ ‬‬أَوَّلُـهُ (ḍammah is placed on its first (letter) وَكُسِرَ‏‮ ‬‬مَا قَبْلَ‏‮ ‬‬آخِرِهِ (and kasrah is placed on its next to last letter). وَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬كَـانَ (and if it is) مُـضَارِعًـا (a present tense verb), ضُـمَّ‏‮ ‬‬أَوَّلُـهُ (ammah is placed on its first letter) وَفُـتِحَ‏‮ ‬‬مَا قَـبْلَ‏‮ ‬‬آخِـرِهِ (and fat-ḥah is placed on its next to last letter). ‏‮ ‬‬وَهُـوَ‏‮ ‬‬(And it [الـْمَفْعُولِ‏‮ ‬‬الِذِي‏‮ ‬‬لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يُـسَمَّ‏‮ ‬‬فَاعِلُه (the receiver of the action whose doer is not mentioned)] is) عَـلَى قِـسْمَيْنِ (of two kinds): ظَـاهِـر (a clearly distinct noun) and مُـضْمَر (an object pronoun). فَالظَّاهِرُ (And so the clearly distinct noun) نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ (is like when you say): ضُـرِبَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدٌ (Zayd was beaten…) وَيُضْرَبُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ and (Zayd is beaten…) وَأُكْـرِمُ‏ عَـمْرٌو and (ʿAmr was treated kindly) and وَيُـكْرَمُ‏‮ ‬‬ عَمْرٌو and (ʿAmr is treated kindly). الْـمُضْمَرُ (the object pronouns are) إِثْـنَا عَشَـرَ (twelve [in number]).

They are:

ضُرِبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَضُرِبْنَا وَضُرِبْتَ‏‮ ‬‬وَضُرِبْتِ‏‮ ‬‬وَضُرِبْتُمَا وَضُرِبْتُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَضُرِبْتُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَضُرِبَ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏ضُرِبَتْ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬ضُرِبَا وَ‏ضُرِبُواْ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏ضُرِبْنَّ

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إن الـمفعول الذي‏‮ ‬‬لم‏‮ ‬‬يُسمّ‏‮ ‬‬فاعله هو الإسم الـمرفوع الذي‏‮ ‬‬لم‏‮ ‬‬يذكر معه فاعله إمّا للجهل به وإمّا لغرَضٍ‏‮ ‬‬من الأغراض مثاله ضُرِبَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٌو إمّا أن كنت جاهلاً‏‮ ‬‬بمن ضربه أو لم ترد أن تذكره وأمّا إذا حُذِفَ‏‮ ‬‬الفاعل وأقيم الـمفعول مقامَه وكان الفعل ماضيًا ضُمَّ‏‮ ‬‬أوّلُه وكُسر ما قبل آخره فقلنا في‏‮ ‬‬َضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬زيدٌ‏‮ ‬‬عمرًو ضُرِبَ‏‮ ‬‬عمرٌو وإن كان مضارعًا ضُمَّ‏‮ ‬‬أوّله وفُتح ما قبل آخره فقلنا في‏‮ ‬‬يَضْرِبُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيدٌ‏‮ ‬‬عمرًو‏‮ ‬‬يُضْرَبُ‏‮ ‬‬عمرٌو ونائب الفاعل كالفاعل وهو على قسمين قسمٍ‏‮ ‬‬ظاهر كقولك ضُرِبَ‏‮ ‬‬عمرًو‏‮ ‬‬يَضْرَبُ‏‮ ‬‬عمرًا وقسمٍ‏‮ ‬‬مضمر متصل كقولك ضُرِبَ‏‮ ‬‬ضُرِبَا ضُرِبُوا ضُرِبَتْ‏‮ ‬‬ضُرِبَتَا ضُرِبْنَ‏‮ ‬‬ضُرِبْتَ‏‮ ‬‬ضُرِبْتُمَا ضُرِبْتُمْ‏‮ ‬‬ضُرِبْتِ‏‮ ‬‬ضُرِبْتُمَا ضُرِبْتُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬ضُرِبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬ضُرِبْنَا ومنفصل كقولك مَا ضُرِبَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا ضُرِبَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬هِيَ‏‮ ‬‬و مَا ضُرِبَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬أَنْتَ‏‮     ‬‬

Explanation of Text in English:

الـْـمَفْعُولِ‏‮ ‬‬الِـذِي‏‮ ‬‬لَـمْ‏‮ ‬‬يُـسَمَّ‏‮ ‬‬فَـاعِـلُه (The receiver of the action whose doer is not mentioned) is the noun in the case of rafʿ which does not have its doer mentioned with it, either because the doer is unknown or the doer is not mentioned intentionally. An example of this is when you say  ضُرِبَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٌو (ʿAmr was beaten) if you do not know who beat him or you do not wish to mention him (the doer of the beating).  When the doer is left unmentioned and the receiver of the action is mentioned in its place and the verb is‏‮ ‬‬مَـاضِـيًا (a past tense verb), ḍammah ــُـ is placed above its first letter and kasrah‮ ‬‬ــِـ is placed below whatever letter precedes the final letter.  And so we say in the place of ضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرًو (Zayd beat ʿAmr) ضُرِبَ‏‮ ‬‬عَمْرٌو (ʿAmr was beaten)  and if the verb  is مُـضَارعًـا  (a present tense verb), we place ḍammah ــُـ above its first letter and we place fat-ḥah  ــَـ above the letter which precedes the final letter.   We say in the place of يَـضْرِبُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدٌ‏‮ ‬‬عَـمْرًو (Zayd is beating ʿAmr) يُـضْرَبُ‏‮ ‬‬عمْرٌو (ʿAmr is beaten).

نَائِبُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَاعِل (the substitute for the doer)  like الْفَاعِل (the doer)  is  of  two  kinds.  One  kind  is  إِسْـمٌ‏‮ ‬‬ظَـاهِرٌ (a clearly distinct noun) like when you say: ضُرِبَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدٌ (Zayd was beaten) and another kind is‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُضْمَرٌ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُتَّصِل(the attached  pronoun) – like when you say: ضُـرِبَ (He was beaten), ضُـرِبَـا‏ (The two of them were beaten), ضُـرِبُـوا (They were beaten [three or more males]), ضُـرِبَـتْ‏ (She was beaten), ضُـرِبَـتَا (They were beaten [two females]), ضُـرِبْـنَ (They were beaten [three or more females]), ضُرِبْـتَ‏‮ ‬‬ (You were beaten [masc. sing.]), ضُرِبْتُمَا (You two were beaten [masc. dual]), ضُـرِبْـتُم (You were beaten [three or more males]) ,ضُرِبْـتِ (You were beaten [fem. sing.]), ضُـرِبْـتُمَا (You two were beaten [fem. dual]), ضُـرِبْـتُنَّ (You were beaten [three or more females]),‏‮ ‬‬ضُرِبْـتُ (I was beaten), ضُرِبْنَا (We were beaten).

الْـُمضْمَرُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُنْفَصِــلُ (The detached pronoun) `is like when you say:` مَـــــا ضُــــرِبَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬هُـــوَ (Non was beaten except him) and مَــــا‏‮ ‬‬ضُـرِبَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬هِـي (Non was beaten except for her) and مَــا ضُرِبَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬أَنْت (Non was beaten except for you).‏‮ ‬‬


Published in: on January 8, 2011 at 23:23  Leave a Comment  

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 7 – The Chapter About Al-Faaʿil [the Doer])

بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬الفَاعِل

The Chapter About Al-Faaʿil [the Doer

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬الْفَاعِلُ‏‮ ‬‬هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَرْفُوعُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَذْكُورُ‏‮ ‬‬قَبْلَهُ‏‮ ‬‬فِعْلُهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَهُوَ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَى قِسْمَينِ‏‮ ‬‬ظَاهِرٍ‏‮ ‬‬ومُضْمَرٍ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

الْفَاعِلُ (the doer) هُوَ (is) الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَرْفُوعُ (the noun in the case of rafʿ) الـْمَذْكُورُ‏‮ ‬‬قَبْلَهُ‏‮ ‬‬فِعْلُهُ (which has its verb (action) mentioned‏‮ ‬‬prior to it being mentioned). وَهُـوَ (And it is) عَـلَى قِـسْمَينِ‏ (of two kinds): ظَـاهِـرٍ (a clearly distinct noun) وَمُضْمَرٍ (and a pronoun).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إن الفاعل هو الإسم الـمرفوع الـمذكور قبله فعله‏‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬‬أي‏‮ ‬‬أن الفاعل‏‮ ‬‬يلـزمه أن‏‮ ‬‬يكون إسمًا وأن‏‮ ‬‬يكون مرفوعًا وأن‏‮ ‬‬يكون فعله مذكورًا قبله لأن إِن كان فعله مذكورًا بعده لم‏‮ ‬‬يكن فاعلاً‏‮ ‬‬بل مبتدًا وخبرًا ولِذَا قلنا وأن‏‮ ‬‬يكون فعله مذكورًا قبله مثاله قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬فـزَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إسم مرفوع وفعله مذكور قبله فالفاعل قسمان ظاهر ومضمر

Explanation of Text in English:

الْـفَاعِِِِـلُ (the doer) is the noun in the case of rafʿ which has its verb being mentioned‏‮ ‬‬prior to it being mentioned – that is to say, that الْفَاعِلٌ (the doer) must be a noun and in the case of rafʿ and its verb is mentioned before it, because if its verb is mentioned after it, then that noun is not فَـاعِـلاً (a doer), but rather, it is مُـبْتُدَأٌ (a subject noun) and خَـبْرٌ (a predicate).   It is for this reason we have said, “if the verb has been mentioned prior to the mentioning of the noun” – like when you say: قَـامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدٌ (Zayd stood).  And so, Zayd is a noun in the case  of rafʿ and its verb has been mentioned prior to its being mentioned.  الْفَاعِـلُ (The doer) is of two kinds: ظَـاهِـرٌ (a clearly distinct noun)  and مُـضْمَرٌ  (a pronoun).

Arabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬فَالظَّاهِرُ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَيَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَقَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّيْدَانِ وَيَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّيْدَانِ‏‮ ‬‬وَقَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّيْدُونَ‏‮ ‬‬وَيَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّيْدُونَ‏‮ ‬‬وَقَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الرِّجَالُ‏‮ ‬‬وَيَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬الرِّجَالُ‏‮ ‬‬وَقَامَتْ‏‮ ‬‬هِنْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَتَقُومُ‏‮  ‬‬هِنْدٌ‏‮  ‬‬وَقَامَتِ‏‮ ‬‬الْهِنْدَانِ‏‮  ‬‬وَتَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬الْهِنْدَانِ‏‮  ‬‬وَقَامَتِ‏‮ ‬‬الْهِنْدَاتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَتَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬الْهِنْدَاتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَقَامَتِ‏‮ ‬‬الْهُنُودُ‏‮ ‬‬وَتَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬الْهُنُودُ‏‮ ‬‬وَقَامَ‏‮ ‬‬أَخُوكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَيَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬أَخُوكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَقَامَ‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمِي‏‮ ‬‬وَيَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمِي‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا أَشْبَهَ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِكَ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

فـَالظَّاهِرُ (And so the clearly distinct noun) نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ (is like when you say): قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬

زَيدٌ‏ (Zayd stood) وَيَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيدٌ and (Zayd is standing) وَقَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّيْدَانِ and (the two Zayds  stood) وَيَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّيْدَانِ and (the two Zayds are standing) وَقَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّيْدُونَ and‏‮ ‬‬(the Zayds [three or more stood]) وَقَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الرِّجَالُ and (the men [three or more] stood) وَيَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬الرِّجَالُ and (the men [three or more] are standing) وَقَامَتْ‏‮ ‬‬هِنْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬and (Hind stood) وَتَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬هِنْدٌ and (Hind is standing)

وَقَامَتِ‏  الْهِنْدَانِ‏  ‬‬and (the two Hinds stood) وَتَقُومُ‏  الْهِنْدَانِ‏ and (the two Hinds are standing) وَقَامَتِِ‏‮ ‬‬الْهِنْدَاتُ and (the Hinds [three or more] stood) وَتَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬الْهِنْدَاتُ‏‮ ‬‬and (the Hinds [three or more] are standing) وَقَامَتِ‏‮ ‬‬الهُنُودُ and (the Hinds [three or more] stood)‏‮ ‬‬وَتَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـهُنُودُ‏‮ ‬‬and (the Hinds [three or more stood) وَقَامَ‏‮ ‬‬أَخُوكَ‏‮ ‬‬and (Your ʿbrother stood)‏‮ ‬‬وَيَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬أَخُوك and (your  brother is standing) وَقَام‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمِي‏‮ ‬‬and (my servant stood) وَيَـقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬غُلاَمِِـي and‏‮ ‬‬(my servant is standing) وَمَـا أَشْـبَهَ‮ ‬‬ذَلِـكَ (and what resembles that). ‏‮        ‬‬

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

‏‮ ‬‬إن الْفاعل الظاهر هو أسم ظاهر مثل زيد في‏‮ ‬‬قولك قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬ويَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬ومثله قَام الزَّيْدَانِ‏‮ ‬‬وقَامَ‏‮ ‬‬الزَّيْدُونَ‏‮ ‬‬وأَخُوكَ‏‮ ‬‬وقسْ‏‮ ‬‬على ذلك‏‮  ‬‬

Explanation of Text in English:

الْفَاعِل الظَّاهِر (the clearly distinct doer noun) is a clearly distinguishable noun, [that is to say: that الْفَاعِلُ is a noun rather than a pronoun] – like:‏‮ ‬‬قَـامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدٌ (Zayd stood) and يَـقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيدٌ (Zayd is standing) similar to these are قَـامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدَانِ (the two Zayds) and الزَّيْدُونَ‮ ‬وَأَخُـوكَ (the Zayds – [three or more] and your brother stood) and so forth.

 ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَالـْمُضْمَرُ‏‮ ‬‬إِثْنَا عَشَرَ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وضَرَبْنا‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبْتَ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبْتِ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبْتُمَا وَضَرَبْـتُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبْتُنَّ‏‮  ‬‬وَضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَـرَبَتْ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَـرَبَا وَضَـرَبَتَا وَضَرَبُواْ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبْنَ‏‮)  ‬‬

 English Translation:

الـمُضْمَرُ (The pronoun) إِثْـنَا عَشَـرَ (is [of] twelve‏‮ ‬‬[kinds]) نَـحْوُ (like when you say): ضَرَبْتُ (I beat…) وَضَرَبْنَا and (we beat…) وَضَرَبْتَ and (you [masc. sing.] beat…) وَضَرَبْتِ and (you [fem. sing.] beat…) وَضَرَبْْتُمَا and (the two of you [male or female] beat…) وَضَرَبْتُمْ and (you [three or more males] beat…) وَضَرَبْتُنَّ and (you [three or more females] beat) وَضَرَبَ and (he beat…) وَضَرَبَتْ and (she beat…) وَضَرَبَا and (they [two males] beat…) وَضَرَبَتَا and (they [two females] beat…) وَضَرَبُواْ and (they [three or males] beat) وَضَرَبْنَ and (they [three or more] females beat…).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

وقسم مضمرأي‏‮ ‬‬فاعل ليس هو إسمًا ظاهرًا بل ضميرٌ‏‮ ‬‬وهو أربعة عشر وهو أيضًا على قسمين متصل ومنفصل وكل منهما ضمير فالضمائر الـمتصلة هي‏‮ ‬‬التي‏‮ ‬‬يبتدأ الكلام بها و لا تفع بعد إلاّ‏‮ ‬‬وهي‏‮ ‬‬بذلك علي‏‮ ‬‬ثلاثة أقسام ستة للغائب ثلاثة منها للمذكر كقولك ضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَاَ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبُواْ‏‮ ‬‬وثلاثة للمؤنث كقولك‏‮ ‬‬ ضَرَبَتْ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبَتَا وَضَرَبْنَ‏‮ ‬‬وستة للمخاطَب ثلاثة منها للمذكر نحو ضَرَبْتَ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبْتُمَا وَضَرَبْتُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وثلاثة للمؤنث نحو ضَرَبْتِ‏‮ ‬‬وضَرَبْتُمَا وَضَرَبْتُنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وإثنان للمتكلّم نحو ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَضَرَبْنَا والضمائر الـمنفصلة هي‏‮ ‬‬التي‏‮ ‬‬يبتدأ الكلام بها وتقع بعد إلاّ‏‮ ‬‬وأقسامها كما مرّ‏‮ ‬‬تقول هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬وهُمَا ضَرَبَا وَهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبُوا وَمَا ضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬إلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا ضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬هُمَا وَمَا ضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬هُمْ  وَهكذا هِيَ ضَرَبَتْ‏‮ ‬‬وَهُمَا ضَرَبَتَا وَهُنَّّ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبْنَ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا ضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬هِيَ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَاضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬هُمَا وَمَا ضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬هُنَّ وقِسْ‏‮ ‬‬عليه

Explanation of Text in English:

Another kind of (فَـاعِِـل [doer noun]) is مُـضْمَرٌ (a doer pronoun), that is to say فَـاعِِِـلٌ (a doer) which is not إسمًا ظاهرًا (a clearly distinct noun), but rather, a pronoun.  It is of fourteen kinds and also of two types: مُـتَّصِلٌ (attached) and مُنْفَصِلٌ (detached) each of which is a pronoun.

As for الضَّمَائِرُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُتَّصِلَة ( the attached pronouns), they are those pronouns which occur at the beginning of the statement and which do not or occur after إِلاَّ (except).  They are of three kinds.  (The first kind is الْـغَائِـب‏ (the person being spoken about or what is known grammatically as the third person). It has six attached pronouns.‏‮ ‬‬Three belong to مُـذَكَّر (the masculine gender) – like when you say:‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبُواْ .‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبَاَ . ضَرَبَ and three of them belong to مُؤَنَّث (the feminine gender) – like when you say: ضَرَبْنَ . ضَرَبَتَا . ضَرَبَتْ .

(The second kind is) الـْـمُخَاطِـب (the person being addressed or what is known  grammatically as the second person.) It has six attached  pronounsThree belong to الـمُذَكَّر (the masculine gender) – like when you say: ضَـرَبْـتُمْ . ضَـرَبْـتُمَا . ضَـرَبْـتَ and  three belong to  الْـمُؤَنِّـــــث  (the  feminine gender)  –  like:  ضَـرَبْـتُــــنَّ . ضَـرَبْـتُمـَا . ضَرَبْـتِ

(The third kind) is الـْـمُتَكَلِّم (the person speaking or what is known as the first person.) It has two attached pronouns like when you say:‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبْنَا. . ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬

الضَّماِئرُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْـمُنْفَصِلة (The detached pronouns) are the pronouns which begin a statement and they occur after إَلاَّ. The group of them is similar to what has already been mentioned.  You say:

هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبَ‏،‮ ‬‬هُمَا ضَرَبَا،‮ ‬وَهُمْ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبُوا،‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا ضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬إلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬هُوَ،‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا ضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬هُمَا،‮ ‬وَمَا ضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬هُمْ،  وَهِي ضَرَبَتْ‏،‮ ‬‬وَهُمَا ضَرَبَتَا،‮ ‬وَهُنَّّ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبْنَ،‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا ضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬هِيَ،‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا‏‮ ‬‬َضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬هُمَا،‮ ‬وَمَا ضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬هُنَّ

and so forth.

(*note in ʿArabic)

إن الضمير الفاعل في‏‮ ‬‬مثال الـمفرد الغائب ضمير مستتر جوازًا تقديره هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬وفي‏‮ ‬‬مثال الـمثنّي‏‮ ‬‬الغائب هو الألف وفي‏‮ ‬‬الجمع هو الواو والضمير الفاعل في‏‮ ‬‬الـمثال للمفردة الغائبة هو ضمير مستتر جوازًا تقديره‏‮  ‬‬هِيَ‏‮ ‬‬والتاء علامة التأنث وفي‏‮ ‬‬مثال مثنَّاها هو الألف والتاء أيضًا علامة التأنيث وفي‏‮ ‬‬جمعها هو النون والضمير الفاعل في‏‮ ‬‬أمثلة الـمذكر الـمخاطب هو التاء فقط والأحرف اللاحقة لها هي‏‮ ‬‬للدلالة على التثنية والجمع و كذلك ضمير الفاعل في‏‮ ‬‬الـمثال للمفردة الـمخاطبة ومثناها وجمعها هو التاء لا‏‮ ‬‬غير والنون الـمشددة حرف دالّ‏‮ ‬‬على الإناث وهكذا مثال الـمتكلم فالتاء في‏‮ ‬‬قولك ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬هي‏‮ ‬‬ضمير فاعل الـمفرد ونا في‏‮ ‬‬قولك ضَرَبْنَا هي‏‮ ‬‬ضمير الجمع للمتكلمين وأمّا الضمير الفاعل الـمنفصل فظاهر وهو قولك أَنَا ونحن وأَنْتَ‏‮ ‬‬أَنْتُمَا وأَنْتُمْ‏‮ ‬‬وما أشبه ذلك‏‮   ‬‬

 (*note in English)

الضَّمِيرُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـفَاعِـلِ (The doer pronoun) in the example of الـْـمُفْـرَدُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـغَائِـب (the third person masculine singular [ضَـرَبَ] ) is a permissibly concealed pronoun.  Its implication is هُـوَ (he).   In the example of‏‮ ‬‬مُـثَنَّى‏‮ ‬‬الْـغَائِـب‏‮ ‬‬(the third person masculine dual [ضَرَباَ]), it is الأَلِفُ (the alif), and in جَمْعُ‏‮ ‬‬الْغَائِب (the third person masculine plural [ضَرَبُــــوا]), it is الْوَاوُ.

الضَّمِيرُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَاعِلِ (The doer pronoun) in the example of الـْـمُفْرَدَة الْـغَائِـبَة (the third person feminine singular [ضَـرَبَـتْ]) is a permissibly concealed pronoun. The implication of it is هِـيَ (she).   التَّاءُ (The taa bearing sukuun = تْ) is also a sign of التَّانِـيَث (the feminine doer).‏‮ ‬‬

In the example of مُـثَنّاهَـا (the dual form of الْـغَائِـبَة [third person feminine – ضَـرَبتََا]), the sign of the dual is الأَلِـفُ and التَّاءُ the taa = تََــا) is a sign of التَّانِيَث (the feminine doer).  And in جَـمْعُهَا (the plural form of الَـغَائِـبَة [third person feminine – ضَرَبْنَ), the sign of the doer is النُّون (nuun).

The sign of الضَّمِيرُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـفَاعِـلِ (the doer pronoun) in the example of الْـمُخَاطِب (the second person masculine singular [ضَـرَبْـتَ]) is  التَّاءُ (the taa = تَ) only, while the letters which have affixed to (the taa = تَ) are signs of الـْـمُثَنَى (the dual [ضَـرَبْتُـمَا ]) and الْـجَمْعُ (the plural [ضَرَبْتُـمْ]) and what is similar to that.

The sign of الضَّمِيرُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـفَاعِــــلِ (the doer  pronoun)  in  the example of   الْـمُفْـــرَدَة الْـمُخَاطِبَة (the second person  feminine singular [ضَرَبْـتِ]) as well as مُثنّاهَـا (its dual [ضَرَبْتُـمَا]) and  جَمْعُهَا (its plural form [ضَـرَبْتُـنَّ]) is التّاء (the taa) only.  As for  النُّونُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُشَـدَّدَة (The nuun bearing  shaddah = نَّ), it is a letter which is a sign of femininity.

Similarly, in the example of الـْـمُتَــكَـلِّم (the first person singular), التَّاءُ (the taa) is  the sign of the doer- like when say: ضَـرَبْـتُ‏‮ ‬‬ (I beat) which is ضَـمِيرُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـفَاعِـلِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْـمُفْرَدِ (the singular doer pronoun) and النَّاءُ (the naa) like when you say: ضَرَبْنَا (we beat) which is ضَـمِيرُ‏‮ ‬‬جَـمْعِ‏‮ ‬‬الـمُتَكَـلِّمِينَ. (the doer pronoun of the first person plural).

As for ضَـمِيرُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَاعِلِ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُنْفَصِلِ (the detached pronoun doer), it is clearly distinct.  It is as you would say أنَا (I) نَحنُ (we) ‏‮ ‬‬أَنْـت(you m. singular) أَنْـتُمَا (you m. dual) أَنْتُمْ (you m. plural) and what is similar to that.

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 8 – (The Chapter About al-Mafʿuul [The Receiver Of The Action Whose Doer Was Not Mentioned])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 9 – (The Chapter About Al-Mubtada’ [The Subject] And Al-Khabr [The Predicate])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 10 – (The Chapter About Al – ʿAwaamil [The Governors] That Enter Upon The Subject And The Predicate

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 11 – (The Chapter About An-Naʿt [The Adjective])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 12 – (The Chapter About Al-ʿAṭf [The Conjoining Of Words])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 13 – (The Chapter About At-Tawkiid [The Emphasizing of the Noun])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 14 – (The Chapter About Al-Badal [The Substitute])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 15 – (The Chapter About Al-Manṣuubaatu-l-Asmaa’i [The Nouns In The Case Of Naṣb])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 16 – (The Chapter About Al – Mafʿuul Bihi [The Object of the Verb])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 17 – (The Chapter About Al-Maṣdar [The Verbal Noun])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 18 – (The Chapter About Ḍharfu-z-Zamaan [The Adverb Of Time] and Ḍharful-Makaan [The Adverb Of Place])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 19 – (The Chapter About Al-Haal [The Circumstantial Noun])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 20 – (The Chapter About At-Tamyiiz [The Noun Of Specification])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 21 – (The Chapter About (Al-Istath-naa’ [The Exclusion of Nouns])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 22 – (The Chapter About Laa)

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 23 – (The Chapter About Al-Munaadaa [The Noun in Direct Address])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 24 – (The Chapter About Al-Mafʿuul Min-Ajlih [Causative Object])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 25 – The Chapter About Al-Mafʿuul Maʿahu [The Object Which Accompanies The Subject In The Execution Of An Action])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 26 – (The Chapter About Al-Makhfuuḍaat [The Nouns Caused to be in The Case of Khafḍ)

Published in: on December 31, 2010 at 20:40  Leave a Comment  

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 6 – The Chapter About Marfuʿaatu – l – Asmaa’[The Nouns that are Caused to be in the Case of Rafʿ]

بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬مَرْفوُعَاتِ‏‮ ‬‬الاَسْمَاءِ

The Chapter About Marfuʿaatu – l – Asmaa’[The Nouns that are Caused to be in the Case of Rafʿ]

ʿArabic Text:

‏(‬‬الـْمَرْفُوْعَاتُ‏‮ ‬‬سَبْعَةٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَاعِلُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬الذِي‏‮ ‬‬لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يُسَمَّ‏‮  ‬‬فَاعِلُهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْـمُبْتَدَأُ‏‮ ‬‬وَخَبْرُهُ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاتِهَا وَخَبْرُ‏‮ ‬‬إِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَأََخْوَاتِهَا وَالتَّابِعُ‏‮ ‬‬لِلْمَرْفُوْعِ‏‮ ‬‬وَهُوَ‏‮ ‬‬أَرْبَعَةُ‏‮ ‬‬أَشْيَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬النَّعْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالعَطْفُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالتَّوْكِيدُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْبَدَلُ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

الْـمَرْفُوعَاتُ (the nouns in the case of rafʿ) are seven: وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬(they are): الْـفَاعِلُ (the doer) وَالـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬(and the object of the verb) الذِي‏‮ ‬‬لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يُسَمَّ‏‮  ‬‬فَاعِلُهُ (which did not mention its doer) وَالُـمُبْتَدَأُ (and the subject) وَالْـخَـبْرُ (and the predicate) وَإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاتِـهَا (and the noun of kaana and its sisters) وَخَبْرُ‏‮ ‬‬إِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخْوَاِتهَا (and the predicate of inna and its sisters) وَالتَّابِعُ‏‮ ‬‬لِـلْمَرْفُوْعِ (and what follows the noun in the case of rafʿ) وَهُـوَ (and they are) أَرْبَـعَةُ‏‮ ‬‬أَشْـيَاءَ (four things): النَّعْتُ (the attribute / adjective) وَالْـعَطْفُ (and the conjoined noun) وَالتَّوْكِـيدُ (and the emphasized noun) and وَالْبَدَلُ (the substitute noun).

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 7 – The Chapter About Al-Faaʿil [the Doer])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 8 – (The Chapter About al-Mafʿuul [The Receiver Of The Action Whose Doer Was Not Mentioned])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 9 – (The Chapter About Al-Mubtada’ [The Subject] And Al-Khabr [The Predicate])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 10 – (The Chapter About Al – ʿAwaamil [The Governors] That Enter Upon The Subject And The Predicate

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 11 – (The Chapter About An-Naʿt [The Adjective])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 12 – (The Chapter About Al-ʿAṭf [The Conjoining Of Words])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 13 – (The Chapter About At-Tawkiid [The Emphasizing of the Noun])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 14 – (The Chapter About Al-Badal [The Substitute])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 15 – (The Chapter About Al-Manṣuubaatu-l-Asmaa’i [The Nouns In The Case Of Naṣb])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 16 – (The Chapter About Al – Mafʿuul Bihi [The Object of the Verb])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 17 – (The Chapter About Al-Maṣdar [The Verbal Noun])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 18 – (The Chapter About Ḍharfu-z-Zamaan [The Adverb Of Time] and Ḍharful-Makaan [The Adverb Of Place])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 19 – (The Chapter About Al-Haal [The Circumstantial Noun])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 20 – (The Chapter About At-Tamyiiz [The Noun Of Specification])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 21 – (The Chapter About (Al-Istath-naa’ [The Exclusion of Nouns])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 22 – (The Chapter About Laa)

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 23 – (The Chapter About Al-Munaadaa [The Noun in Direct Address])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 24 – (The Chapter About Al-Mafʿuul Min-Ajlih [Causative Object])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 25 – The Chapter About Al-Mafʿuul Maʿahu [The Object Which Accompanies The Subject In The Execution Of An Action])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 26 – (The Chapter About Al-Makhfuuḍaat [The Nouns Caused to be in The Case of Khafḍ)


Published in: on December 29, 2010 at 14:24  Leave a Comment  
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