Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 5 – The Chapter about Al-Afʿaal [the Verbs]

بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬الافْعَالِ

5 – (The Chapter about Al-Afʿaal [the Verbs])

 ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬اَلأَفْعَالُ‏‮ ‬‬ثَلاَثَةٌ‏‮ ‬‬مَاضٍ‏‮ ‬‬وَمُضَارِعٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَمْرٌ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬‏‮ ‬‬وَيَضْرِبُ‏‮  ‬‬وَإِضْرِبْ‏‮  ‬‬فَالـْمَاضِي‏‮ ‬‬مَفْتُوحُ‏‮ ‬‬الآخِرِ‏‮ ‬‬أَبَدًا وَالأَمْرُ‏‮ ‬‬مَجْزُومٌ‏‮ ‬‬أَبَدًا‏‮ ‬‬وَالـْمُضَارِعُ‏‮ ‬‬مَا كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬أَوَّلِهِ‏‮ ‬‬إِحْدَى الزَّوَائِدِ‏‮ ‬‬الأَرْبَعِ‏‮ ‬‬يَجْمَعُهَا قَوْلُك أَنَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬وَهُوَ‏‮ ‬‬مَرْفُوعٌ‏‮ ‬‬أَبَدًا حَتَّى‏‮ ‬‬يَدْخُلَ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَيْه‏‮ ‬‬ِ‏‮ ‬‬نَاصِبٌ‏‮ ‬‬أَوْ‏‮ ‬‬جَازِمٌ‏‮)‏

English Translation:

الأفْعَالُ (the verbs) ثَلاَثَةٌ (are three kinds) : مَاضٍ (past tense) وَمُضَارِعٌ (and present tense) وَأَمْرٌ‏  (and command tense) نَحْوُ (like): ضَرَبَ ( He beat…) وَيَضْرِبُ  and (He beats…) إِضْرِبْ and (beat…). فَالـْمَاضِي‏  (And so the  past tense verb) مَفْتُوحُ‏  الآخِرِِِ (bears fat-ḥah on the end) أَبَدًا (always);وَالأَمْرِِ (and command tense verb) مَجْزُومٌ  (is in the case of jazm) أَبَدًا (always);. وَالـْمُضَارِعُ(and the present tense verb) – مَا كَانَ‏  فِي‏  أَوَّلِهِ (what is found at the beginning of it) إِحْدَى اَلزَّوَائِدِ‏  الأربَعِ (is one of the four affixed prefixes) يَجْمَعُهَـــا (which when joined together) قَوْلُكَ (you say): أَنَيْتُ (anaytu). ‏  وَهُو (It [the present tense verb])مَرْفُوعٌ (is in the case of rafʿ) أَبَدًا (always), حَتَّى‏  يَدْخُلَ‏  عَلَيْه (unless precedes it),نَاصِبٌ (a particle of the naṣb case) أَوْ (or) جَازِمٌ (a particle of the case of jazm).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

الأفعال ثلاثة ماضٍ‏‮ ‬‬مثل ضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬مضارعٌ‏‮ ‬‬مثل‏‮ ‬‬يَضْرِبُ‏‮ ‬‬أمرٌ‏‮ ‬‬مثل‏‮ ‬‬إِضْرِبْ‏‮ ‬‬فالـماضي‏‮ ‬‬مفتوح الآخر أبداً‏‮ ‬‬مثل ضَرَبََ‏‮ ‬‬ما لم‏‮ ‬‬يتّصل به ضميرٌ‏‮ ‬‬رفعٍ‏‮ ‬‬متحرّك فَيُسَكِّنُ‏‮ ‬‬آخره كقولك ضَرَبـْـتُ‏‮ ‬‬أو ضميرٌ‏‮ ‬‬جمعٍ‏‮ ‬‬مذكَّر فَيُضَمُّ‏‮ ‬‬كقولك ضَرَبُوا والـمضارع الذي‏‮ ‬‬يعرف بما وُجِد في‏‮ ‬‬أوّله إحدى الزوائد الأربع‏‮ ‬‬يجمعها قولك أَنَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬نحو أَضْرِبُ‏‮ ‬‬ونـَضْرِبُ‏‮ ‬‬ويـَضْرِبُ‏‮ ‬‬وتـَضْرِبُ‏‮ ‬‬فهو مرفوع أبدًا كقولك‏‮ ‬‬يَضْرِبَانِ‏‮ ‬‬ويَضْرِبُون‏‮ ‬‬َُ‏‮ ‬‬وتَضْرِبِينَ‏‮ ‬‬حتى‏‮ ‬‬يدخلا عليه ناصبٌ‏‮ ‬‬فينصبه كقولك لَنْ‏‮ ‬‬يَضْرِبَ‏‮  ‬‬ولَنْ‏‮ ‬‬يَضْرِبَا ولَنْ‏‮ ‬‬يَضْرِبُوا ولَنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَضْرِبِِي‏‮ ‬‬أو جازم فيجزمه كقولك لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَضْرِبْ‏‮ ‬‬ولَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَضْرِبَا وهَـلُمَّ‏‮ ‬‬جرًّا وأمّا الأمر فمجزوم الآخر أبدًا كقولك إِضْرِبْ‏‮ ‬‬وإِخْـشَ‏‮ ‬‬وإِغْـزُ‏‮ ‬‬وإِرْمِ‏‮ ‬‬وإِضْرِبَا وإِضْرِبُوا‏‮   ‬‬

 Explanation of Text in English:

الأفـعالِ (the verbs) are of three kinds: مَاضٍ (past tense) – like: ضَرَبَ ( He beat…) and مُضَارِعٌ (present tense) – like:  يَضْرِبُ (He beats…) and أمْرٌ (the command tense) – like:  إِضْرِبْ ([you] beat…).  And so الـْمَاضِي (the past tense verb) always bears الْفَتْحَة (fat-˙ah) = ــَـ  on the end – like: ضَرَبَ.  ضَمِيرٌ‏‮ ‬‬رَفْعٌ‏‮ ‬‬مُتَحَرِّك (A vowelized pronoun in the case of rafʿ) is never affixed to (the end of) it.  However, it (الـْمَاضِي) does bear السُّكُون (sukuun) = ــْـ  at its end when you say:‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبْتُ .   It (الـْمَاضِي) is caused to have‏‮ ‬‬الضّمّة‏‮ ‬‬(∂ammah) = ــُـ  (as a final vowel when‏‮ ‬‬ضَمِيـــرُ‏‮ ‬‬جَمْعٍ‏‮ ‬‬مُذَكَّرٍ  (a pronoun of the masculine plural) [is affixed to the end of it] – like when you say:‏‮ ‬‬ضَرَبُواْ.

الْـمُضَارِعُ (The present tense verb) is know by what is found in the front of it from one of اَلزَّوَائِد الأرْبَعِ (the four prefixes) – like when you say:  أَنَيْـــتُ – that is to say: أَضْرِبُ‏‮ ‬‬ونَضْرِبُ‏‮ ‬‬ويَضْرِبُ‏‮ ‬‬وتَضْـرِبُ.  الْـمُضَارِعُ is also in the case of rafʿ – like when  you  say:‏‮ ‬‬يَضْرِبَانِ‏‮ ‬‬يَضْرِبُونَ‏‮ ‬‬‏‮ ‬‬ تَضْرِبِينَ.  It (الْـمُضَارِعُ) is always in the case of rafʿ, unless نَاصِبٌ (a particle of the naṣb case) is preceding it.  It (نَاصِبٌ [a particle of the naṣb case]) causes it (الْـمُضَارِع) to  be  in  the  case   of   naṣb   –   like  when  you  say: لَنْ‏‮ ‬‬يَضْرِبْ ‏‮ ‬‬ولَنْ‏‮ ‬‬يَضْـرِبَا ولَنْ‏‮ ‬‬يَضْرِبُوا ولَنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَضْـــرِبِيor if they are preceded by جَازِم (a particle of the jazm case), then they are caused to be in the case of jazm – like when you say:: لَمْ يَضْرِبْ‏‮ ‬‬and so forth.  As for الأَمْر (the command tense verb), its end is always inflected with the jazm case ending – like when you say:إِضْرِبْ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِِخْشَ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِغْزُ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِرْمَِ  وَإِضْرِبَا وَإِضْرِبُوا.

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬فَالنَّوَاصِبُ‏‮ ‬‬عَشَرَةٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬أَنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِذَنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَكَيْ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬كَيْ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْجُحُودِ‏‮ ‬‬وَحَتَّى وَجَوَابُ‏‮ ‬‬بالْفَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬وََالْوَاوُ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَوْ‏‮) ‬‬

 English Translation:

فـَالنَّوَاصِبُ (And so the particles of naṣb). وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬عَشَرَةٌ (They are ten):

أَنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِذَنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَكَيْ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـجُحُودِ‏‮ ‬‬وَحَتَّى وَالْـجَوَابُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْـفَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْـوَاوُ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَوْ‏‮              ‬‬

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic

النّواصب عشرة وهي‏‮ ‬‬أن ولن وإذن وكي‏‮ ‬‬ولامُ‏‮ ‬‬كي‏‮ ‬‬ولام الجحود وحتّى والجواب بالفاء والواو وأو وهي‏‮ ‬‬بذالك على قسمين قسم‏‮ ‬‬ينصب بذاته وهي‏‮ ‬‬الأربعة الـمتقدِّمات وقسم‏‮ ‬‬ينصب بواسطة أَنْ‏‮ ‬‬مضمرةً‏‮ ‬‬وهي‏‮ ‬‬الستة الـمتأخرة‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال أن‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬أُرِيدُ‏‮ ‬‬أَنْ‏‮ ‬‬أعْلَمَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال لن‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬لَنْ‏‮ ‬‬أَرْجِــعَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلَى الْـخَطِيئَةِ‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال إذن‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬إِذَنْ‏‮ ‬‬أُدْخُــلَ‏‮ ‬‬الْـجَـنَّةَ‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال كي‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬عَلَّمَهُ‏‮ ‬‬كَيْ‏‮ ‬‬يََعْلَم‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال لام كي‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬تُبْ‏‮ ‬‬لـِـيَغْفِــرَ‏‮ ‬‬لَكَ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّهُ‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال لام الجحود‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬مَا كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّهُ‏‮ ‬‬لِـيَغْفِــرَ‏‮ ‬‬لِـلْمُصِرِّينَ‏‮ ‬‬عَـلَى خَطَايَاهُمْ‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال حتّى‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬سِرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬حَتَّى أُدْخُــلَ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمَدِينَةَ‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال الجواب بالفاء والواو‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬زُرْنِي‏‮ ‬‬فَــأَكْرِمَــكَ‏‮ ‬‬أَو وَأَكْرِمَــكَ‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال الجواب بأو‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬َلأَمْنَعَنَّكُمْ‏‮ ‬‬أَوْ‏‮ ‬‬تَتُوبُوا‏‮ – ‬‬أي‏‮ ‬‬إلى أَنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَتُوبُوا

Explanation of Text in English:

النَّوَاصِبُ (the particles of naṣb) are ten.  They are:

أَنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِذَنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَكَيْ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَامُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـجُحُودِ‏‮ ‬‬وَحَتَّى وَالْـجَوَابُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْفَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْوَاوُ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَوْ

They in turn are of two kinds.  The first kind causes the verb to be in the case of naṣb due to the nature of the verb. They are the first four above mentioned particles.  The other kind causes the verbs to be in the case of naṣb by means of the particle أَنْ which is concealed (مُضْمَرَةً). They are the last six particles.

These are their examples:

[أنْ] – أُرِيدُ‏‮ ‬‬أَنْ‏‮ ‬‬أُعَلِّمَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا (I want to teach Zayd)

[لَنْ] – لَنْ‏‮ ‬‬أَرْجِعَ‏‮ ‬‬إِلي‏‮ ‬‬الـْخَطِيئَةِ  – (I will never return to sin)

[إذنْ] – إِذَنْ‏‮ ‬‬أَدْخُلَ‏‮ ‬‬الـْجَـنَّـةَ  – (Therefore, I will enter the garden)

[كَيْ] – عَلَّمَهُ‏‮ ‬‬كَيْ‏‮ ‬‬يََعْلَمَ  – (I taught him so that he would know)

[لاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬كَيْْْ]تُبْ‏‮ ‬‬لِيَغْفِرَ‏‮ ‬‬لَكَ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّهُ  –  (Repent so that Allah may forgive you)

[لاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬الْجُحُودِ] – مَا كَانَ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّهُ‏‮ ‬‬ لِيَغْفِرَ‏‮ ‬‬لِلمُصِرِّين عَـلَى خَطَايَاهُمَ  – (Allah does not forgive those who persist in their sins)

[حَـتَّى] – سِرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬حَتَّى أَدْخُلَ الــْمَدِينَةَ  – (I traveled until I entered the city)

[الجواب بِالْفاء و الْوَاوُ] –  زُرْنِي‏‮ ‬‬فَأَكْرِمَكَ or زُرْنِي‏‮ ‬‬وَأَكْرِمَكَ (Visit me and I will honor you)

[اَلْجَوَابُ‏‮ ‬‬بِأَوْ] -لأَمْنَعَنَّكُمْ‏‮ ‬‬أَوْ‏‮ ‬‬تَتُوبُواْ (I shall certainly prevent you from entering unless you repent)

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَالـْجَوَازِمُ‏‮ ‬‬ثَمَانِيَةَ‏‮ ‬‬عَشَرَ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَلـَمَّا وَأَلَمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَلـَمَّا وَلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬الأَمْرِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالدُّعَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬النَّهْيِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالدُّعَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا وَمَنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَهْمَا وَإذْمَا وَأَيٌّ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَتَى وَأَيَّانَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَيْنَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَنَّى وَحَيْثُمَا وَكَيْفَمَا وَإِذَا فِي‏‮ ‬‬الشِّعْرِ‏‮ ‬‬خَاصَّةً‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

And الجَوَازِمُ (the particles of jazm) are eighteen and they are:

لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَلـَمَّا وَأَلَمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَلـَمَّا وَلاَمُ لأَمْرِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالدُّعَاءِ وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬النَّهْي‏‮ ‬‬وَالدُّعَاء وَإِنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا وَمَنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَهْمَا وَإِذْمَا وَأَيٌّ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَتَى وَأَيَّانَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَيْنَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَنَّىَ‏‮ ‬‬وَحَيْثُمَا‏‮  ‬‬وَكَـيْـفَمَا وَإِذَا‏‮ ((‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الشِّعْرِ‏‮ ‬‬خَاصَّةً‏‮))‬‬

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إنّ‏‮ ‬‬الجوازم ثمانية عشر وهي‏‮ ‬‬بذالك على قسمين‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬قسم‏‮ ‬‬يجزم فعلا واحدًا وهي‏‮ ‬‬ستّة أحرف لم ولـمّا وألم والـمّا ولام الأمر والدّعاء ولا في‏‮ ‬‬النّهي‏‮ ‬‬والدّعاء‏‭:‬‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال لم‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬أَذْهَبْ‏‮ ‬‬بِعَمْرٍو‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال لـمّا‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬لـَمَّا‏‮ ‬‬يَأْتِِِِ‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال ألم‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬أَلَمْ‏‮ ‬‬أَقُلْ‏‮ ‬‬لَكَ‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال الـمّا‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬أَلـَمَّآ أُحْسِنْ‏‮ ‬‬إِلَيْك‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال لام الأمر لِيَضْرِبْ‏‮ ❊ ‬‬والدّعاء‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬لِيَرْحَمْنَااللَّهُ‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال لا في‏‮ ‬‬النّهي‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬تَشْهَدْ‏‮ ‬‬بِالزُّورِ‏‮ ❊ ‬‬والدّعاء‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬تُعَامِلْنَا بِعَدْلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬يَا رَبَ

Explanation of Text in English:

الْـجَوَازِمُ (the particles of jazm) are eighteen and they are divided into two kind.  The first kind causes only one verb to be in the  case  of  jazm.  and  they are the first six أَحْرُف (particles):

لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬لـَمَّا وَ‏‮ ‬‬أَلَمْ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬أَلـَمَّا وَلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬الأَمْرِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالدُّعَاءِ وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬النَّهْي‏‮ ‬‬وَالدُّعَاءِ

They are used as follows:

[لَمْ]لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬أَذْهَبْ‏‮ ‬‬بِعَمْرٍو  – (I did not go with ʿAmr)

[لَمَّا]‏‮ ‬‬لـَمَّا‏‮ ‬‬يَأْتِ (He has not come yet)

[ أَلَمْ] ‏‮ ‬‬أَلَمْ‏‮ ‬‬أَقُلْ‏‮ ‬‬لَكَ (…Did I not say to you)

[أَلَمَّا]أَلَـمَّآ أُحْسِنْ‏‮ ‬‬إِلَيْكَ (I have not yet given you charity)

[لامَ‏‮ ‬‬الأَمْرِ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬الدُّعَاءِ] لِيَضْرِبْ  (let him beat)  ‏

‮ ‬‬لِـيَرْحَـمْنَااللَّهُ‏‮  ‬‬‮ ‬(May Allah have mercy on us)‏

[لاَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬النّهْيِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالدُّعَاءِ]  – لاَ‏‮ ‬‬تَشْهَدْ‏‮ ‬‬بِالزُّورِ (Do not testify with lies)

(Used when commanding the human being to refrain from an action)

اَ‏‮ ‬‬تُعَامِلْنَا بِعَدْلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬يَا رَبُّ (Do not apply your justice to us Oh Lord)

(Used when asking for Allah’s mercy, not to punish us)

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic

وقسم‏‮ ‬‬يجزم فعلين‏‮ ‬‬يسمّى الأوّل فعل الشرط والثاني‏‮ ‬‬جوابه وهي‏‮ ‬‬إِنْ‏‮ ‬‬ومَا ومَنْ‏‮ ‬‬ومَهْما وإِذْمَا وأَيٌّ‏‮ ‬‬ومَتَى وأَيَّانَ‏‮ ‬‬وأَيْنَ‏‮ ‬‬وأَنَّى وحَيْثُمَا وكَيْفَمَا وإِذَا في‏‮ ‬‬الشّعر خاصّة‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال إِنْ‏‭:‬‬ إِنْ‏‮ ‬‬تََكْسَلْ‏‮ ‬‬تَخْسَرْ ‏‮❊ ‬‬مثال‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬مَنْ‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬مَنْ‏‮ ‬‬يَطْلُبْ‏‮ ‬‬يَجِذْ‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال ما‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬مَا تَفْعَلْ‏‮ ‬‬تَلْقَ‏‮ ‬‬عِنْدَ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّهِ‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال مهْما‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬مَهْمَا تَفْعَلْهُ‏‮ ‬‬تُجَازَ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَيْهِ‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال إذما‏‭:‬‬ إِذْمَا تَجْضُرْ‏‮ ‬‬أَكْرِمْكَ‏‮ ❊ ‬‬

مثال أيّ‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬أَيّــًا تُصَاحِبْ‏‮ ‬‬أُصَاحِبْ‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال متى‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬مَتَى اَضْعِ‏‮ ‬‬الْعِمَامَة تَعْرِفْنِي‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال أيّان‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬أَيَّانَ‏‮ ‬‬تَنْزِلْ‏‮ ‬‬اَنْزِلْ ‏‮❊ ‬‬مثال أين‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬أَيْنَ‏‮ ‬‬تَذْهَبْ‏‮ ‬‬أَذْهَبْ‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال أَنَّى‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬أَنَّى تَجْلِسْ‏‮ ‬‬أَجلِسْ‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال حيثما‏‭:‬‮  ‬‬حَيْثُمَا تَسْقُطْ‏‮ ‬‬تَثْبِثْ‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال كيفما‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬كَيْفَ‏‮ ‬‬تَتَوَجَّهْ‏‮ ‬‬تُصَادِفْ‏‮ ‬‬خَيْرًَا‏‮ ❊ ‬‬مثال إذا‏‭:‬‬ إذَا تُصِبْكَ‏‮ ‬‬خُصَاصَةٌ‏‮ ‬‬فَتَحَمَّلْ

Explanation of Text in English:

The other kind of [particle of jazm] causes two verbs (in the same sentence) to be in the case of jazm. The first verb is called فِـعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬الشَّرْط (the verb of the conditional situation)  and  the second verb is called  فِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬الْجَوَاب (the verb of the answer to the conditional situation).  These particles are:

إِنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا وَمَهْمَا وَإِذْمَا وَأَيٌّ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَتَّى وَأَيَّانَ‏‮ ‬‬وأَنَّى وَأَيْنَ‏‮  ‬‬وَحَيْثُمَا وَكَيْفَمَا وَإِذا في‏‮ ‬‬الشّعر خاصّة‏‮   ‬‬

They are used in the following way:

[إِنْ]إِنْ‏‮ ‬‬تََكْسَلْ‏‮ ‬‬تَخْسَرْ (If you are lazy, you will suffer a loss.)

[مَنْ]مَنْ‏‮ ‬‬يَطْلُبْ‏‮ ‬‬يَجِدْ (He who seeks will find)

[مَا]مَا تَفْعَلْ‏‮ ‬‬تَلْقَ‏‮ ‬‬عِنْدَ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّهِ (Whatever you do will meet with Allah)

[مَهْمَا]مَهْمَا تَفْعَلْهُ‏‮ ‬‬تُجَازَ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَيْهِ (Whatever you do you will be compensated for it)

[ إِذْمَا] – ‏‮ ‬‬إِذْمَا تََََـحْضُرْ‏‮ ‬‬أَكْرِمْكَ (Whenever you arrive, I will honor you)

[أَيٌّ]أَيّــًا تُصَاحِبْ‏‮ ‬‬أُصَاحِبْ (Whomever you befriend I will befriend)

[مَتَى]مَتَى أَضْعِ‏‮ ‬‬الْعِمَامَة تَعْرِفْنِي (When I put on the turban you will know me)

[أَيَّانَ]أَيَّانَ‏‮ ‬‬تَنْزِلْ‏‮ ‬‬أَنْزِلْ(When you dismount I will dismount.)

[أَيْنَ]أَيْنَ‏‮ ‬‬تَذْهَبْ‏‮ ‬‬أَذْهَبْ – (Wherever you go I will go.)

[أَنَّى] -أَنَّى تَـجْلِسْ‏‮ ‬‬أَجلِسْ – (Wherever you sit, I will sit.)‏‮

[حَيْثُمَا]حَيْثُمَا تَسْقُطْ‏‮ ‬‬تَثْبِثْ  – (Wherever you arrive you will stay)

[كَيْفَمَا]كَيْفَمَا‏‮ ‬‬تَتَوَجَّهْ‏‮ ‬‬تُصَادِفْ‏‮ ‬‬خَيْرًَا (Wherever you go you will find good)

[إِذَا] إذَا تُصِبْكَ‏‮ ‬‬خُصَاصَةٌ‏‮ ‬‬فَتَحَمَّلْ (If poverty befalls you, be patient)

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 6 – The Chapter About Marfuʿaatu – l – Asmaa’[The Nouns that are Caused to be in the Case of Rafʿ]

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 7 – The Chapter About Al-Faaʿil [the Doer])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 8 – (The Chapter About al-Mafʿuul [The Receiver Of The Action Whose Doer Was Not Mentioned])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 9 – (The Chapter About Al-Mubtada’ [The Subject] And Al-Khabr [The Predicate])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 10 – (The Chapter About Al – ʿAwaamil [The Governors] That Enter Upon The Subject And The Predicate

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 11 – (The Chapter About An-Naʿt [The Adjective])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 12 – (The Chapter About Al-ʿAṭf [The Conjoining Of Words])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 13 – (The Chapter About At-Tawkiid [The Emphasizing of the Noun])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 14 – (The Chapter About Al-Badal [The Substitute])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 15 – (The Chapter About Al-Manṣuubaatu-l-Asmaa’i [The Nouns In The Case Of Naṣb])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 16 – (The Chapter About Al – Mafʿuul Bihi [The Object of the Verb])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 17 – (The Chapter About Al-Maṣdar [The Verbal Noun])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 18 – (The Chapter About Ḍharfu-z-Zamaan [The Adverb Of Time] and Ḍharful-Makaan [The Adverb Of Place])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 19 – (The Chapter About Al-Haal [The Circumstantial Noun])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 20 – (The Chapter About At-Tamyiiz [The Noun Of Specification])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 21 – (The Chapter About (Al-Istath-naa’ [The Exclusion of Nouns])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 22 – (The Chapter About Laa)

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 23 – (The Chapter About Al-Munaadaa [The Noun in Direct Address])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 24 – (The Chapter About Al-Mafʿuul Min-Ajlih [Causative Object])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 25 – The Chapter About Al-Mafʿuul Maʿahu [The Object Which Accompanies The Subject In The Execution Of An Action])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 26 – (The Chapter About Al-Makhfuuḍaat [The Nouns Caused to be in The Case of Khafḍ)

Published in: on December 26, 2010 at 17:17  Leave a Comment  

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 4 – A Section Elaborating About What Has Been Previously Mentioned)

 

فَصْلٌ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬تَفْصِيلِ‏‮ ‬‬مَا تَقَدَمَّ‏‮ ‬‬ذِكْرُهُ

A Section Elaborating About What Has Been Previously Mentioned

 

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬اَلـْمُعْرَبَاتُ‏‮ ‬‬قِسْمَانِ‏‮ ‬‬قِسْمٌ‏‮ ‬‬يُعْرَبُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالـْحَرَكاتِ‏‮ ‬‬وَقِسْمٌ‏‮ ‬‬يُعْرَبُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالـْحُرُوفِ‏‮ ‬‬فَالذِي‏‮ ‬‬يُعْرَبُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالـْحَرَكَاتِ‏‮ ‬‬أَرْبَعةُ‏‮ ‬‬أَنْوَاعٍ‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُفْرَدُ‏‮ ‬‬وَجَمْعُ‏‮ ‬‬التَّكْسِيرِ‏‮ ‬‬وَجَمْعُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُؤَنَّثِ‏‮ ‬‬السَّالِمِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْفِعْلُ الـْمُضَارِعِ‏‮ ‬‬الِذِي‏‮ ‬‬لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَتَّصِلْ‏‮ ‬‬بِآخِرِهِ‏‮ ‬‬شَيْءٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَكُلُّهَا تُرْفَعُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالضَّمَّةِ‏‮ ‬‬وَتُنْصَبُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْفَتْحَةِ‏‮ ‬‬وَتُخْفَضُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْكَسْرَةِ‏‮ ‬‬وَتُجْزَمُ  بِالسُّكُونِ‏‮ ‬‬وَخَرَجَ‏‮ ‬‬عَنْ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِك ثَلاَثَةُ‏‮ ‬‬أَشْيَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬جَمْعُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُؤَنَّثِ‏‮ ‬‬السَّالِمِ‏‮  ‬‬يُنْصَبُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْكَسْرَةِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الِذِي‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَنْصَرِفُ‏‮ ‬‬يَخْفَضُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْفَتْحَةِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُضَارِعُ الـْمُعْتَلُّ‏‮ ‬‬الآخر‏‮ ‬‬يُجْزَمُ‏‮ ‬‬بِحَذْفِ‏‮ ‬‬آخِرِهِ‏‮)‬‬

 English Translation:

اَلـْمُعْرَابَاتُ (Inflected words) قِِسْمَانِ‏‮ ‬‬(are of two kinds).  قِسْمٌ‏‮ ‬‬يُعْرَبُ‏‮ ‬‬(One kind is inflected) بِالْحَرَكَاتِ (with the vowels) وَقِسْمٌ‏‮ ‬‬يُعْرَبُ (and the other kind is inflected) بِالْحَرُوفِ (with the letters).‏‮ ‬‬فَالذِي‏‮ ‬‬يُعْرَبُ (And so that which is inflected) بِالْـحَرَكَاتِ  (with the vowels) أَرْبَعةُ‏‮ ‬‬أَنْوَاعٍ (are four kinds):  الإسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُفْـرَدِ (The singular noun) وَجَمْعُ‏‮ ‬‬التَّّكْسِيرِ (and the broken plural noun) وَجَمْعُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُؤَنِثِ‏‮ ‬‬السَّالِمِ (and the sound feminine plural noun) وَالْفِعْــــلُ‏‮ ‬‬الْــمُضَـــارِعُ (and present tense verb) الِـذِي‏‮ ‬‬لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَتَّصِلْ‏‮ ‬‬بِآخِرِهِ‏‮ ‬‬شَيْءٌ (for which nothing has been affixed to its end). وَكُلُّهَا (And each of them) تُرْفَعُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالضَّمَّةِ (is  caused  to  be in the case of rafʿ by ammah: ‏‮ ‬‬ــُـ ) وَتُنْصَبُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْفَتْحَةِ (and in the case of naṣb by fat-˙ah: ــَـ) وَتُخْفَضُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْكَسْرَةِ (and in the case of khafḍ by kasrah: ــِـ) وَتُجْزَمُ بِالسُّكُونِ (and in the case of jasm by sukuun ــْـ ).

‏‮ ‬‬ثَلاَثَةُ‏‮ ‬‬أَشْيَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬(Three things) خَرَجَ‏‮ ‬‬عَنْ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِك (depart from these [rules]): جَمْعُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُؤَنِّثِ‏‮ ‬‬السَّّالِمِ (the sound feminine plural noun) يُنْصَبُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْكَسْرَةِِ‏‮ ‬‬(is caused to be in the case of naṣb by kasrah [instead of fat-˙ah]) وَالإسْــمُ‏‮ ‬‬الــــذي (and the noun which)‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَنْصَرِفُ (is not fully declinable) يَخْفَضُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْفَتْحَةِ (is caused to be in the case of khafḍ by fat-˙ah [instead of kasrah]) الْفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُضَارِعُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُعْتَلُّ‏‮ ‬‬آخِرِهِ (and the  present tense verb weak at the end) يُجْزَمُ (is caused to be in the case of jazm)‏‮ ‬‬بِحَذْفِ‏‮ ‬‬آخِرِهِ (by the dropping of its last letter).

 Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إنّ الـمعربات قسمان قسم‏‮ ‬‬يعرب بالحركات وقسم‏‮ ‬‬يعرب بالحروف فالذي‏‮ ‬‬يعرب بالحركات أربعة أنواع أوّلها الإسم الـمفرد كقولك جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْــدٌ‏‮ ‬‬ورَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْــدًا ومَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِــزَيْــدٍ‏‮ ‬‬ثانيها جمع التكسير كقولك جَاءَتِ‏‮ ‬‬الرِّجَالُ‏‮ ‬‬ورَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الرِّجَالَ‏‮ ‬‬ومَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالرِّجَالِ‏‮ ‬‬ثالثها جمع الـمؤنّث السالم كقولك جَاءَتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُومِنَــاتُ‏‮ ‬‬ورَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُومِنَــاتِ‏‮ ‬‬ومَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْـمُومِنَــاتِ‏‮ ‬‬رابعها الفعل الـمضارع الذي‏‮ ‬‬لم‏‮ ‬‬يتصل بآخره شيء‏‮ ‬‬يجب بناءه كقولك‏‮ ‬‬يَضْرِبُ‏‮ ‬‬فهذه جميعها تُرفع بالضمّة وتُنصب بالفتحة وتُخفض بالكسرة وتُجزم بالسكون إلاَّ‏‮ ‬‬الـمومنات في‏‮ ‬‬رَأَيْتَ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُومِنَاتِ‏‮ ‬‬وقد خرج عن هذا الأصل ثلاثة أشياء أوّلها‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬إنّ‏‮ ‬‬الأصل في‏‮ ‬‬إعراب الإسم الـمنصوب أن‏‮ ‬‬يُنصَب بفتحة فجمع الـمؤنث السالم خرج عن هذا الأصل لانّه‏‮ ‬‬يُنصَب بكسرة فتقول رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُومِنَــاتِ‏‮ ‬‬بكسْـر التاء لا بفتحها وثانيها‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬الأصل في‏‮ ‬‬إعراب الإسم الـمخفوض أن‏‮ ‬‬يُخفَضَ‏‮ ‬‬بكسرة فالإسم الذي‏‮ ‬‬لاينصرف خرج عن هذا الأصل لانّه‏‮ ‬‬يُخفَض بفتحة فتقول مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِأَحْمَــدَ‏‮ ‬‬ويُوسُــفَ‏‮ ‬‬بفتح الدال والفاء فيهما لا بكسرهما ثالثها‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬الأصل في‏‮ ‬‬جزم الفعل الـمضارع أن‮ ‬‬يُجزَم بالسكون فالفعل الـمضارع الـمعتلّ‏‮ ‬‬الآخر خرج عن هذا الأصل لانّه‏‮ ‬‬يٌجزَم بحذف آخره فتقول لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَغْــزُ‏‮ ‬‬ولَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَخْـشَ‏‮ ‬‬ولَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَرْمِ‏‮ ‬‬كما تقدّم بيانه

 Explanation of Text in English:

اَلـْـمُعْرَابَاتُ (Inflected words) are of two kinds.  One kind is inflected بِالـْحَرَكَاتِِ (with the vowels) and another kind is inflected بـالْـحُرُوفِ (with letters).   And so that which is inflected by الـحَرَكَات are four kinds.  The first of them is الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُفْــــرَد (the singular noun) – like when you say:

جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ and رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا and مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِزَيدٍ.  The second of them is جَمْعُ‏‮ ‬‬التَّكْسِيرِ (the broken plural noun)  – like when you say: جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الرِّجَالُ and رَأَيتُ‏‮ ‬‬الرِّجَالَ‏‮ ‬‬and مَرَرتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالرِّجَالِ.  The third of them is جَمْعُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُؤَنِثِ‏‮ ‬‬السَّالِمِ (the sound feminine plural noun) – as you would say: جَاءَتِ‏‮ ‬‬الـمـُومِناتُ and رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُومِنَاتِ and مَرَرتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْمُومِنَاتِ.  The fourth is الْـفِعْل الْـمُضَارِع (the present tense verb) for which nothing has been affixed to its end – like when you say: يَـضْرِبُ.  And so all of the above mentioned are in the case of rafʿ by ‏‮  ‬‬ــُـ ‏‮= ‬‬الضَّمَّة  and in the case of naṣb  by ــَـ‏‮ ‬‬‏‮=‬‬‏‮ ‬‬الْـفَتْحَة‏‮ ‬‬and in the case of khafḍ by  ــِـ ‏‮=‬‬‏‮ ‬‬الْكَسْـرَة‏‮ ‬‬ and in the case of jazm by ــْـ ‏‮=‬‬‏‮ ‬‬السُّكُون‏‮ ‬‬with the exception of the word.الـْمُومِنَاتِ in the sentence رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُومِنَات.  This is because three things depart from the rule of inflection of words with اَلْـحَرَكَـات (vowels).  First, the rule for إِعْرَاب الِإسْـم الْـمَـنْصُوبِ (the inflection of the noun in case of naṣb) is that it should be inflected with الْـفَتْحَة (fat˙ah),  however جَمْعُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُؤَنثِ‏‮ ‬‬السَّالِـمِ (the sound feminine plural) departs from this rule, because it is caused to be in the case of naṣb by a  الْكَسْـرَة  (kasrah)- like when you say: رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْمُومِنَاتِ with الْكَسْرَة [ــِـ] on the (letter) taa instead of  الْفَتْحَة [ــَـ].

Secondly, the rule for إِعْرَب الإِسْـمِ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمَخْفُوضِ (the inflection of the noun in the case of khafḍ) is that it should be inflected with الْكَسْـرَة (kasrah), however الِإسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الذِي‏‮ ‬‬لَا‏‮ ‬‬يَنْصَرِفُ, (the partially declinable noun or diptote) departs  from this rule, because it is caused to be in the case of الْـخَفُض (khafḍ) by الْفَتَحَة (fat˙ah)- like when you say: مَـرَرتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِأَحْمَدَ‏‮ ‬‬وَيُوسُفَ‏‮ ‬‬with الفتحة [ــَـ] on الدَّال and الْفَاءْ (instead of الْكَسْـرَة[ــِـ]).

Thirdly, the rule concerning the inflection of الفِعْل الْـمُضَارِع in the case of jazm is that it should be inflected with السُّكُون, however الْفِعْل الْـمُضَارِع الْـمُعْتَلّ‏‮ ‬‬الآخِر (the present tense verb that is weak  at  its  end)  departs  from  this rule, because  it  is  caused  to  be  in the case  of  jazm  by حَذْفُ‏‮ ‬‬آخِرِهِ (dropping its last letter) – like when you say: لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَغْزُ and لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَخْشَ and لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَرْمِ  – similar to what has been mentioned before in their explanation.

 ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَالذِي‏‮ ‬‬يُعْرَبُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالـْحُرُوفِ‏‮ ‬‬أَرْبَعَةُ‏‮ ‬‬أَنْوَاعٍ‏‮ ‬‬التَّثْنِيَةُ‏‮ ‬‬وَجَمْعُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُذَكَّرِ‏‮ ‬‬السَّالِمِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالأَسْمَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْخَمْسَةُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالأَفْعَالُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْخَمْسَةُ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬يَفْعَلاَنِ‏‮ ‬‬وَتَفْعَلاَنِ‏‮ ‬‬وَيَفْعَلُونَ‏‮ ‬‬وَتَفْعَلُونُ‏‮ ‬‬وَتَفْعَلِين فَأَمَّا التَّثْنِيَةُ‏‮ ‬‬فَتُرْفَعُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالأَلِفِ‏‮ ‬‬وَتُنْصَبُ‏‮ ‬‬وَتُخْفَضُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْيَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَمَّا جَمْعُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُذَكَّرِالسَّالِم فَيُرْفَعُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْوَاوِ‏‮ ‬‬وَيُنْصَبُ‏‮ ‬‬وَيُخْفَضُ‏‮ ‬‬بالْيَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَمَّاالأَسْمَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْخَمْسَةُ‏‮ ‬‬فَتُرْفَعُ‏‮ ‬‬بالْوَاوِ‏‮ ‬‬وَتُنْصَبَ‏‮ ‬‬بِالأَلِفِ‏‮ ‬‬وَتُخْفَضُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْيَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَمَّاالأَفْعَالُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْخََمْسَةُ‏‮ ‬‬فَتُرَفَعُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالنُّونِ‏‮ ‬‬وَتُنْصَبُ‏‮ ‬‬وَتُجْزَمُ‏‮ ‬‬بِحَذْفِهَا‏‮)‬‬

 English Translation:

وَالـــذِي‏‮ ‬‬يُعْرَبُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالـْحُرُوفِِِ (And (the words) which are inflected with letters) أَرْبَعَةُ‏‮ ‬‬أَنْوَاعٍ (are  four kinds): التّثنيةُ (the dual noun) وَجَمْعُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُذَكَّرِ‏‮ ‬‬السَّالِـمِ (and the  sound masculine plural noun)‏‮ ‬‬وَالأَسْمَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْخَمْسَةِِ (and the five nouns)‏‮ ‬‬وَالأَفْعَالُ‏‮ ‬‬الْخَمْسَـةُ (and the five verbs) وَهِيَ (and they are): يَـفْعَلاَنِ ,‏‮ ‬‬تَـفْعَلاَنِ‏‮ ‬‬, يَـفْعَلُونَ‏‮ ‬‬,‏‮ ‬‬تَـفْعَلُونَ‏‮ ‬‬, تَـفْعَلِينَ.

فَأَمَّا التَّـثْـنِيَةُ (As for the dual noun), فَتُرْفَعُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالأَلِفِ (it is  caused  to  be in  the  case  of   rafʿ by  alif =ا) وَتُنْصَبُ‏‮ ‬‬وَتُخْفَضُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْيَاءِ (and it is caused to be in the cases of naṣb and khafḍ by yaa = ي).  وَأَمَّا جَمْعُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُذَكَّرِ‏‮ ‬‬السَّالِـمِ (As for the sound masculine plural noun), فَيُرْفَعُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْوَاوِ (it is caused to be in the case of rafʿ by waaw = و) وَيُنْصَبُ‏‮ ‬‬وَيُخْفَضُ‏‮ ‬‬بالْيَاءِ (and it is caused to be in the cases of naṣb and khafḍ by yaa = ي).

وَأَمَّاالأَسْمَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْخَمْسَةُ (As for the five nouns), فَتُرْفَعُ‏‮ ‬‬بالْوَاوِ‏‮ ‬‬(they are caused to be in the case of  rafʿ by  waaw = و ) and وَتُنْصَبَ‏‮ ‬‬بِالأَلِفِ (and they are caused to be in the case of naṣb by alif = ا) وَيُخْفَضُ‏‮ ‬‬بالْيَاءِ (and they are cause to be in the case of khafḍ by yaa = ي). وَأَمَّاالأَفْعَالُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْخََمْسَةُ (As for the five verbs), فَتُرَفَعُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالنُّونِ (they are caused to be in the case of rafʿ by nuun = ن) وَتُنْصَبُ‏‮ ‬‬وَتُجْزَمُ‏‮ ‬‬بِحَذْفِهَا (and they are caused to be in the cases of naṣb and jazm by the dropping of nuun [from the end of the verb]).

 Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إنّ‏‮ ‬‬ما‏‮ ‬‬يعرب بالحروف أربعة أنواعٍ‏‮ ‬‬أيضًا أوّلها التّثنية ثانيها جمع الـمذكّر السّالم ثالثها الأسماء الخمسة رابعها الأفعال الخمسة فالتّثنية تُرفَع بالألف كقولك جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الرُّّجُــلاََنِ‏‮ ‬‬وتُنصَب وتُخفَض بالياء كقولك رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الرَّجُلَـيْـنِ‏‮ ‬‬ومَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بالرَّجُلَــيْـنِ‏‮ ‬‬وجمع الـمذكّر السّالم‏‮ ‬‬يرفع بالواو كقولك جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُومِنُـونَ‏‮ ‬‬وينصب ويخفض بالياء كقولك رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُومِنِــيـنَ‏‮ ‬‬ومَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْـمُومِنِــيــنَ‏‮ ‬‬والأسماء الخمسة ترفع بالواو فتقول جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬أَبُوكَ‏‮ ‬‬وأَخُوكَ‏‮ ‬‬وحَمُوكَ‏‮ ‬‬وفُوكَ‏‮  ‬‬وذُو مَالٍ‏‮ ‬‬وتنصب بالألف فتقول رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬أَبَـاكَ‏‮ ‬‬وأَخَاكَ‏‮ ‬‬وحَمَاكَ‏‮ ‬‬وفَاكَ‏‮  ‬‬وذَا مَالٍ‏‮ ‬‬وتخفض‏‮  ‬‬بالياء‏‮  ‬‬فتقول مَرَرتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِأَبِـيكَ‏‮  ‬‬وأَخِيكَ‏‮  ‬‬وحَمِيكَ‏‮ ‬‬وفِيكَ‏‮ ‬‬وذِي‏‮ ‬‬مَالٍ‏‮ ‬‬والافعال الخمسة ترفع بالنّون فتقول‏‮ ‬‬يَفْعَلاَنِ‏‮ ‬‬وتَفْعَلاَنِ‏‮ ‬‬ويَفْعَلُونَ‏‮ ‬‬وتَفْعَلُونَ‏‮ ‬‬وتَفْعَلِيـنَ‏‮ ‬‬وتنضب وتجزم بحذفها فتقول في‏‮ ‬‬النصب لَنْ‏‮ ‬‬يَفْعَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬ولَنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَفْعَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬ولَنْ‏‮ ‬‬يَفْعَلُوا ولَنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَفْعَـلُـوا ولَنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَفْعَلِــي‏‮ ‬‬وتقول في‏‮ ‬‬الجزم لَنْ‏‮ ‬‬يَفْعَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬ولَنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَفْعَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬ولَنْ‏‮ ‬‬يَفْعَلُوا ولَنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَفْعَـلُـوا ولَنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَفْعَلِــي‏‮ ‬‬

 Explanation of Text in English:

The words which are inflected with letters are four kinds.  The first of them is التَّثْـنِِيَةُ (the dual noun), the second of them‏‮ ‬‬وَجمع‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُذَكِِّرِالسَّالِمِ‏‮ ‬‬(the sound masculine plural), the third is‏‮ ‬‬الأَسْمَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬الـخَمْسَةُ (the five nouns), the fourth is الاَفْعَالُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـخَمْسَةُ (the five verbs).

As for التَّـثْـنِيَةُ (the dual noun), it is caused to be in the case of rafʿ by  الأِلفُ (alif) – like when you say: جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الرَّجُلانِ (the two men came) and it is caused to be in the cases of naṣb and khafḍ by  الْيَـــاءُ (yaa) – like when you say:‏‮ ‬‬ رَأَيْـــتُ‏‮ ‬‬الرَّجُلَيْنِ and  مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالرَّجُلَيْنِ.

جمع الْـمُذَكَّرُ‏‮ ‬‬السَّالِمُ (the sound masculine plural, is caused to be in the case of rafʿ by‏‮ ‬‬الوَاوُ  (waaw) –  like when  you  say:‏‮ ‬‬ جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُومِنُونَ  and  it  is  caused  to be in the cases of naṣb and khafḍ by الْيَاءُ (yaa)- like when you say: رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُومِنِينَ and مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِِالـْمُومِنِينَ.

الأسْمَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـخَمْسَةُ (The five nouns) are caused to be in the case of raf’ by الْوَاوُ (waaw) – like when you say: جَاء أَبُوكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأخُوك وَحَمُوكَ وَفُوكَ وَذُو مَالٍ and they are caused to be in the case of naṣb by الألف (alif)- like when you say: رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬أَبَاكَ وَأَخَاكَ وَحَمَاكَ وَ فَاكَ وَذا مَالٍ and in the case of khafḍ by الياء – like when you say:   مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِأبِيك وَأخِيكَ وَحَمِيكَ وَفِيكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَذِ‏‮ ‬‬مَالٍ.

الاَفْعَالُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـخَمْسَة (the five verbs) are caused to be in the case of rafʿ by النّون (nuun) – like when you say:  يَفْعَلاَنِ‏‮ ‬‬وَتَفْعَلاَنِ‏‮ ‬‬وَيَفْعَلُونَ وَتَفْعَلُونَ‏‮ ‬‬وَتَفْعَلينَ‏‮ ‬‬and they are to be in the cases of naṣb and jazm by حَذْفُ‏‮ ‬‬النُّون. – like when you say:لَنْ‏‮ ‬‬يَفْعَـلاَ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَفْعـَلاَ وَلَنْ‏‮ ‬‬يَفْعَـلُـوا‏‮  ‬‬وَلَن‏‮ ‬‬ْتَفْعَلُوا وَلَنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَفْعَلِي in the case of naṣb and لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَفْعَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬وَ لَمْ تَفْعَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَفْعَلُوا وَلَمْ‏‮ ‬‬تَفْعَلُوا وَلَمْ‏‮ ‬‬تَفْعَلِي  in the case of jazm.

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 5 – The Chapter about Al-Afʿaal [the Verbs]

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 6 – The Chapter About Marfuʿaatu – l – Asmaa’[The Nouns that are Caused to be in the Case of Rafʿ]

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 7 – The Chapter About Al-Faaʿil [the Doer])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 8 – (The Chapter About al-Mafʿuul [The Receiver Of The Action Whose Doer Was Not Mentioned])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 9 – (The Chapter About Al-Mubtada’ [The Subject] And Al-Khabr [The Predicate])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 10 – (The Chapter About Al – ʿAwaamil [The Governors] That Enter Upon The Subject And The Predicate

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 11 – (The Chapter About An-Naʿt [The Adjective])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 12 – (The Chapter About Al-ʿAṭf [The Conjoining Of Words])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 13 – (The Chapter About At-Tawkiid [The Emphasizing of the Noun])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 14 – (The Chapter About Al-Badal [The Substitute])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 15 – (The Chapter About Al-Manṣuubaatu-l-Asmaa’i [The Nouns In The Case Of Naṣb])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 16 – (The Chapter About Al – Mafʿuul Bihi [The Object of the Verb])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 17 – (The Chapter About Al-Maṣdar [The Verbal Noun])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 18 – (The Chapter About Ḍharfu-z-Zamaan [The Adverb Of Time] and Ḍharful-Makaan [The Adverb Of Place])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 19 – (The Chapter About Al-Haal [The Circumstantial Noun])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 20 – (The Chapter About At-Tamyiiz [The Noun Of Specification])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 21 – (The Chapter About (Al-Istath-naa’ [The Exclusion of Nouns])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 22 – (The Chapter About Laa)

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 23 – (The Chapter About Al-Munaadaa [The Noun in Direct Address])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 24 – (The Chapter About Al-Mafʿuul Min-Ajlih [Causative Object])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 25 – The Chapter About Al-Mafʿuul Maʿahu [The Object Which Accompanies The Subject In The Execution Of An Action])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 26 – (The Chapter About Al-Makhfuuḍaat [The Nouns Caused to be in The Case of Khafḍ)


Published in: on December 21, 2010 at 01:31  Leave a Comment  

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 3 – (The Chapter Concerning The Knowledge of ʿAlaamaatu-l-Iʿraab [The Signs Of Iʿraab])

بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬مَعْرِفَةِ‏‮ ‬‬عَلامَاتِ‏‮ ‬‬الإِعْرَاب

3 – (The Chapter Concerning The Knowledge of ʿAlaamaatu-l-Iʿraab [The Signs Of Iʿraab])

 

ʿArabic Text:

 

‏‮(‬‬لِلرَّفْعِ‏‮ ‬‬أَرْبَعُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَاتٍ‏‮ ‬‬الضَّمَّةُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْوَاوُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالأَلِفُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالنُّونُ‏‮)  ‬‬

 

English Translation:

لِلرَّفْـعِِ (The case of rafʿ has) أَرْبَعُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَاتٍ (four signs): الضَّمّــــَةُ (ammah) وَالْوَاوُ (and waaw), وَالأَلِفُ (and alif) والنّونُ (and nuun). ‬‬

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬فَأَمَّا الضَّمَّةُ‏‮ ‬‬فَتَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَةً‏‮ ‬‬لِلرَّفْعِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬أرْبَعَةِ‏‮ ‬‬مَوَاضِعَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُفْرَدِ‏‮ ‬‬وَجَمَْعِ‏‮ ‬‬التَّكْسِيرِ‏‮ ‬‬وَجَمْعِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُؤَنَّثِ‏‮ ‬‬السَّالِمِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْفِعْلِ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُضَارِعِ‏‮ ‬‬الذِى لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَتَّصِلْ‏‮ ‬‬بِآخِرهِ‏‮ ‬‬شَيءٌ‏‮)‬‬

 

English Translation:

 

فَأَمَّا‏‮ ‬‬الضَّمَة (As for ḍammah), فَتَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَةً (it is a sign) لِلرَّفْعِ (for the case of rafʿ)‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬أرْبَعَةِ (in four) مَوَاضِعَ (places): فِي‏‮ ‬‬اَلإِسْم الـْمُفْــــرَدِ (in the singular noun)‏‮ ‬‬وَجَمْــــعِ‏‮ ‬‬التَّكْسِيــــرِ (and the broken plural noun) وَجَمْـــعِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُؤَنَّثِ‏‮ ‬‬السَّالِم (and the sound feminine plural noun) َواَلْفِعْـلُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُضـَارِعِ (and the present tense verb) الذِى لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَتَّصِل (which does not have attached) بِآخِرهِ (to its end), شَيء (anything) [which is necessary for its construction].

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

 

فأمّا‏‮ ‬‬الضّمة‏‮ ‬‬فتكون علامةً‏‮ ‬‬للرفع في‏‮ ‬‬أربعة مواضع في‏‮ ‬‬الإسم الـمفرد‏‮ ‬‬نحو‏‮ ‬‬جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الرَّجُلُ‏‮ ‬‬وجمع التّكسير‏‮ ‬‬مطلقًا في‏‮ ‬‬الـمذكّر والـمؤنث نحو‏‮ ‬‬جَاءَتِ‏‮ ‬‬الرِّجَالُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْكَوَاعِبُ‏‮ ‬‬وجمع الـمؤنث السّالم‏‮ ‬‬نحو‏‮ ‬‬جَاءَتِ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُومِنَاتُ‏‮ ‬‬والفعل الـمضارع الذي‏‮ ‬‬لم‏‮ ‬‬يتّصل بآخره شيء نحو‏‮ ‬‬يَضْرِبُ

 

Explanation of Text in English:

الضَّمَّةُ (ḍammah) is a sign for the case of rafʿ in four places: in اَلإِسْم الـْمُفُرَد (the singular noun) – like when you say: جَاءَ الرَّجُلُ (The man came) and in جَمْع التَّكْسِير (the broken plural noun) unrestricted in both the male and the female – like when you say:  جَاءَتِِ‏‮ ‬‬الرِّجَالُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْكَوَاعِبُ (The men and the girls came) and جَمْع الـْمُؤَنَّث‏‮ ‬‬السَّالِم (the sound feminine plural) noun – like when you say: جَاءَتِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُومِنَاتُ (The believing women came) and الْفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬الْــمُضَارِعُ‏‮ ‬‬الذِي‏‮ ‬‬لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَتَّصِلْ‏‮ ‬‬بِآخِرِهِ‏‮ ‬‬شَيْءٌ (the present tense verb) which does not have anything affixed to the end of it that is necessary for its construction – like when you say: يَضْرِبُ (he beats…).

(*note in ʿArabic):

جمع التكسير هو الجمع الذي‏‮ ‬‬يسلم فيه بنآء مفـرده لكنّه إذا جُمِعَ‏‮ ‬‬كُسِّرَ‏‮ ‬‬بتغيير وضع حروفه كٍقولك رجالٌ‏‮ ‬‬جمع رجل فإنّه لم‏‮ ‬‬يسلم فيه بناء جمعه لأنّ‏‮ ‬‬الألف دخلت بين الجيم واللاّم فكسّرت بناءَه الأصلي‏‮ ‬‬فدُعِي‏‮ ‬‬جمعًا مكسّرًا

جمع الـمذكّر السّالم هو الجمع الذي‏‮ ‬‬سلم فيه بناء مفرده فيجمع بِأنْ‏‮ ‬‬يزاد في‏‮ ‬‬آخره واو ونون في‏‮ ‬‬حال الرّفع أو‏‮ ‬‬ياء ونون في‏‮ ‬‬حالتَى النّصب والخفض كقولك جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُومِنُونَ‏‮ ‬‬ورَأَيتُ‏‮ ‬‬الُـمُومِنِينَ‏‮ ‬‬وَمرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْـمِومِنِينَ‏‮ ‬‬فإنّ‏‮ ‬‬

الـمفرد مومنٌ‏‮ ‬‬وأمّا جمع الـمؤنّث السّالم فيجمع بِأنْ‏‮ ‬‬يزاد في‏‮ ‬‬آخره ألف وتآء‏‮  ‬‬كقولك جَاءَتِ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُومِنَاتِ‏‮ ‬‬فأمّا الفعل الـمضارع‏‮ ‬‬يُرفع بضمّة إلاّ‏‮ ‬‬إذا اتّصلت بآخره إحدى النونين‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬نون النّسوة أو نون التوكيد فمع نون النسوة‏‮ ‬‬يبنَى على السكون كقولك النّساء‏‮ ‬‬يَذْهبْنَ‏‮ ‬‬ومع نون التوكيد‏‮ ‬‬يبنى على فتحة كقولك لاَ‏‮ ‬‬تَضْرِبَنَّ‏‮ ‬‬فمن ثَمَّ‏‮ ‬‬قلنا إذا لم‏‮ ‬‬يتّصل بآخره شيء لانّه إذا اتّصلت به إحدى النُّونَيْنِ‏‮ ‬‬فَيَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬مبنيًّا لا معربًا‏‮ ‬‬

(*note in English):

‏‮ ‬‬جَمْع التَّكْسِيرِ (The broken plural noun) is the plural in which the construction of its singular is sound, but when it is pluralized, it is broken by changing the position of its letters – like when  you say رِجَالٌ which is the plural of رَجُـلٌ .  رَجُلٌ is not sound in the construction of its plural, because اَلأَلِف (alif) has come between اَلْجِيم (jiim) and اَللاَّم (laam) and so the original construction has been broken.  As a result, it is called جَمْعًا مُكَسَّرًا (a broken plural noun).

جَمْعُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُذكَّر السَّالِمِ (The sound masculine plural noun) is the plural which is sound in its singular construction.   It is pluralized by adding وَاوٌ (waaw) and نُونٌ (nuun) to its end‏‮ ‬‬when it is in the case of rafʿ or by adding يَاءٌ (yaa) and نُونٌ (nuun) to its end when it is in the case of naṣb and khafḍ – like when you say: جَـاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُومِنُــونَ (the male believers came [three or‏‮ ‬‬more males]) and رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُومِنيِنَ (I saw the male believers [three or more]) and مَرَرْتُ بِالْمُومِنِينَ (I passed by the male believers [three or more males]).  The singular of  these examples is مُومِنٌ.   As for  جَمْعُ‏‮ ‬‬الْــمُؤَنِِّثِ‏‮ ‬‬السَّّالِمِ (the sound feminine plural noun), it is pluralized by adding ألف (alif) and تاء (taa)  like when you say: جَاءَتِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُومِنَاتِ (The female believers came [three or more females]).

 

As for اَلْفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُضاَرِع (the present tense verb), it is in the case of rafʿ by الضَّمَة  – (that is to say, it carries ضَمَّةٌ as the last vowel), unless إِحْدَى الْنُونَينِ (one of the two nuuns) has been attached to the end of it.  They are نُونُ‏‮ ‬‬النِّسْوَة (the nuun of the female doer) and نُونُ‏‮ ‬‬التَّوْكِيد (the emphatic nuun).  نُون النِسْوَة (The nuun of the female doer) is constructed on‏‮ ‬‬آلسُّكُون – like when you say: النّسَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬يَذْهَبْنَ

(The women are going).  نُونُ‏‮ ‬‬التَّوكِيد is constructed on اَلْفَتْحَة like when you say: لا تَضْرِبَنَّ (By no means should you beat…).  Therefore, we have said, “ … when nothing which is necessary for its construction has been attached to the end of it.”, because if one of the two nuuns is attached to the end of the verb, it will become مَبْنِيــــًًّا لا مُعْربًا (fixed and unchangeable).

 

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَأَمَّا‏‮ ‬‬الْوَاوُ‏‮ ‬‬ُ‏‮ ‬‬فَتَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَةً‏‮ ‬‬لِلرَّفْعِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬مَوْضِعَيْنِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬جَمْعِ‏‮ ‬‬ِالـْمُذَكَّرِ‏‮ ‬‬السَّالِمِ‏‮ ‬‬وَفِي‏‮ ‬‬الأسْمَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْخَمْسَةِ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬أَبُوكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخُوكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَحَمُوكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَفُوكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَذُو مَالٍ‏‮)‬‬

 

English Translation:

 

وَأَمَّا‏‮ ‬‬اَلْوَاوُ (As for the waaw), فَتَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَةً (it is a sign) للرَّفْع (for the case of rafʿ) فِي‏‮ ‬‬مَوْضِعَيْنِِ (in two places) فِي‏‮ ‬‬جَمْعِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُذَكَّرِالسَّالِمِِ (in the sound masculine plural noun) وَفِي‏‮ ‬‬الأسْماءِ‏‮ ‬‬الْخَمْسَةِ ( and in the five nouns) وَهِيَ (and they are): أَبُوكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخُوكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَحَمُوكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَفُوكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَذُو مَالٍ

 

Explanation of Text in Arabic:

الواو تكون علامةً‏‮ ‬‬للرفع في‏‮ ‬‬موضعين في‏‮ ‬‬جمع الـمذكر السّالم كقولك‏‮ ‬‬جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬اْلـمُومِنُونَ‏‮ ‬‬وفى الأسماء الخمسة وهي‏‮ ‬‬أبُوكَ‏‮ ‬‬وأخُوكَ‏‮ ‬‬وحَمُوكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَفُوكَ‏‮ ‬‬وذُو مَالٍ‏‮ ‬‬فذاك الجمع وهذه الأسماء ترفع بالواو نيابة عن الضّمة

Explanation of Text in English:

الْـوَاوُ (The waaw) is the sign for the case of rafʿ in two places: in جَـمْعْ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُذَكَّرِالسَّالِـم  (the sound masculine plural noun) – like when you say: جَـاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُومِنُونَ (The  male  believers came) and in  الأسْماءُ‏‮ ‬‬الْخَمْسَة (the five nouns) – like when you say:  أَبُـوكَ (your father), أَخُـوكَ (your brother), حَمُوكَ (your father-in-law), فُوكَ (your mouth), ذُو مَالٍ    (owner of wealth).  And so, that الجمع (the plural) and these اَلأسْـمَاءُ (nouns) are in the case of rafʿ by اَلْـوَاو instead of  اَلضَّمّة.

 

ʿArabic Text:

 

‏‮(‬‬وَأَمَّا الأَلِفُ‏‮ ‬‬فَتَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَةً‏‮ ‬‬لِلرَّفْعِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬تَثْنِِيَةِ‏‮ ‬‬الأسْمَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬خَاصَّةً‏‮) ‬‬

English Translation:

 

وَأَمَّا‏‮ ‬‬اَلأَلِفُ, (As for alif), فَتَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَةً (it is a sign) للرّفع (for the case of rafʿ) in فِي‏‮ ‬‬تَثْنِيَةُ‏‮ ‬‬الأسْمَاء (in the dual nouns) خَاصَّةً (exclusively).

 

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إنّ‏‮ ‬‬الألف تكون علامة للرّفع في‏‮ ‬‬تثنية الأسماء خاصةً‏‮ ‬‬أي‏‮ ‬‬لا تكون في‏‮ ‬‬غير هذا الـموضع علامة للرّفع كقولك‏‮ ‬‬جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلاَنِ

 

Explanation of Text in English:

الأَلِفُ  (Alif) is a sign for the case of rafʿ in تَـثْـنِيَة الأَسْمَاءِ (the dual nouns) exclusively.  That is to say, it is not a sign for the case of rafʿ in any other place. It is like when you say:  جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الرَّجُلاَنِ‏‮ ‬‬(the two men came).

 

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَأمَّاالنُّونُ‏‮ ‬‬فَتَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَةً‏‮ ‬‬لِلرَّفْعِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الْفِعْلِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُضَارِعِ‏‮ ‬‬إِذَا اتَّصَلَ‏‮ ‬‬بِهِ‏‮ ‬‬ضَمِيرُ‏‮ ‬‬تَثْنِيَةٍ‏‮ ‬‬أَوْ‏‮ ‬‬ضَمِيرُ‏‮ ‬‬جَمْعٍ‏‮ ‬‬أَوْ‏‮ ‬‬ضَمِيرُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُؤَنَّثَةِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُخَاطَبَةِ‏‮)‬‬

 

 

English Translation:

 

وَأمَّا‏‮ ‬‬اَلنُّونُ (As for the nuun), فَتَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَةً (it is a sign) للرّفع (for the case of rafʿ) فِِِي‏‮ ‬‬الفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُضَارِعِ (in the present tense verb)‏‮ ‬‬إِذَا اتَّصَلَ‏‮ ‬‬بِِِهِ (when has been affixed to it), ضَمِيرُ‏‮ ‬‬تَثْنِيَة (a dual pronoun) أَوْ (or) ضَمِيرُ‏‮ ‬‬جَمْعٍ (a plural pronoun) أَوْ (or) ضَمِيرُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُؤَنَّثِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُخَاطَبَةِ (the feminine singular pronoun for the one who is being spoken to).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إنّ‏‮ ‬‬النّون تكون علامة للرفع في‏‮ ‬‬الفعل الـمضارع إذا اتصل به‏‮ ‬‬ضمير تثنية‏‮ ‬‬مثل‏‮ ‬‬يَفْعَلاَنِ‏‮ ‬‬وتَفْعَلاَنِ‏‮ ‬‬أو‏‮ ‬‬ضمير جمع‏‮ ‬‬مثل‏‮ ‬‬يَفْعَـلُونَ‏‮ ‬‬وتَفْعَـلُونَ‏‮ ‬‬أو‏‮ ‬‬ضمير الـمؤنثة الـمخاطبة‏‮ ‬‬مثل‏‮ ‬‬تَفْعَلِينَ‏‮ ‬‬فان هذه الافعال لاتصالها بهذه الضّمائر تُرفَعُ‏‮ ‬‬بالنّون‏‮ ‬‬

Explanation of Text in English:

اَلنُّونُ (the nuun) is a sign for the case of rafʿ in الْفِعْل الْـمُضَارِع (the present tense verb) when ضَمِيرُ‏‮ ‬‬تَثْنِيَةٍ (a dual pronoun) has been affixed to it – for example: يَفْعَلانِ (the two of them [male or female] are doing…)  and تَفْعَلانِ (the two of you [male or female] are doing…) or when ضَمِيرُ‏‮ ‬‬جَمْعٍ (a plural pronoun) has been affixed to it – for example يَفْعَلُونَ (they [three or more males] are doing) and  تَفْعَلُونَ (you [three or more males] are doing…) or  ضَمِيرُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُؤَنِّثِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُخَاطَبَة (the feminine singular pronoun for the one who is being to spoken to) has been affixed to it  – for example تَفْعَلِينَ (you (feminine singular) are doing…).  So when these verbs have these pronouns affixed to the end of them, they are in the case of rafʿ by نَ.

(* Note in ʿArabic):

إنّ‏‮ ‬‬الاَبنية الفعلية الخمسة هذه وهي‏‮ ‬‬: يَفْعَلانِ تَفْعَلانِ يَفْعَلُون تَفْعَلُونَ تَفْعَلِين‏‮ ‬‬تسمى‏‮ ‬‬الافعال الخمسة‏‮ ‬‬جميعةً

(*note in English):

Collectively, these five verbal constructions: يَفْعَلانِ , تَفْعَلانِ , يَفْعَلُونَ , تَفْعَلُونَ and تَفْعَلِينَ  are known as الاَفْعَال الْخَمْسَة (the five verbs).

 

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَلِلنَّصْبِ‏‮ ‬‬خَمْسُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَاتٍ‏‮ ‬‭:‬‮ ‬‬الْفَتْحَةُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالأَلِفُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْكَسْرَةُ‏‮ ‬‬وََالْيَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬وَحَذْفُ‏‮ ‬‬النُّونِ‏‮)‬‬

 

 

English Translation:

وَللنَّصْبُ (And the case of naṣb has خَمْسُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَاتِ (five signs): الْفَتْحَةُ (the fat-ḥah ) وَالأَلِفُ (and the alif ) and (the kasrah) (and the letter yaa)  وَحَذْفُ‏‮ ‬‬النُّونِ (and the dropping of the letter nuun ن).

 

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬فَأَمَّاالْفَتْحَةُ‏‮ ‬‬فَتَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَةً‏‮ ‬‬للنَّصْبِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬ثَلاَثَةِ‏‮ ‬‬مَوَاضِعَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُفْرَدِ‏‮ ‬‬وَجَمْعِ‏‮ ‬‬التَّكْسِيرِ‏‮ ‬‬ِوَالْفِعْلِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُضَارِعِ‏‮ ‬‬إِذَا دَخَلَ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَيْهِ‏‮ ‬‬نَاصِبٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَلَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَتَّصِلْ‏‮ ‬‬بِآخِرِهِ‏‮ ‬‬شَيْءٌ‏‮)‬‬

 

 

 

 

 

English Translation:

فَأَمَّا‏‮ ‬‬الْـفَتْحَةُ (As for the fat-ah), فَتَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَةً (it is a sign) للنَّصْبِ (for the naṣb case) فِي‏‮ ‬‬ثَلاَثَةِ‏‮ ‬‬مَوَاضِعَ (in three places): فِيالإسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُفْرَدِ (in the singular noun) وَفِي‏‮ ‬‬جَمْــع التَّكْسِـــرِِ (and in the broken plural noun) وَفِـي‏‮ ‬‬اَلْفِعْــــلُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُضَـــــارِعِ (and in present tense verb) إِذَا دَخَـــلَ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَيْهِِ (when it is preceded by) نَاصِبٌ (one of the particles of naṣb) وَلَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَتَّصِلْ‏‮ ‬‬بِآخِرِهِ‏‮ ‬‬شَيْءٌ (and nothing has been attached to its end anything) [which is necessary for its construction].

 

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إنّ‏‮ ‬‬الفتحة تكون علامة للنصب في‏‮ ‬‬ثلاثة مواضع في‏‮ ‬‬الإسم الـمفرد كقولك رَأَيتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا وضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الرَّجُلَ‏‮ ‬‬وجمع التكسير كقولك رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الرِّجَالَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخَذْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْكَوَاعِبَ‏‮ ‬‬والفعل الـمضارع إذا دخل عليه ناصب ولم‏‮ ‬‬يتصل بآخره شيء‏‮ ‬‬يجب بناءه كقولك لَنْ‏‮ ‬‬يَضْرِبَ

 

Explanation of Text in English:

الْـفَتْحَةُ (Fat-ḥah) is a sign for the case of naṣb in three places: in الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُفْرَد (the singular noun) – like when  you  say:‏‮ ‬‬رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيدًا (I saw Zayd) and ضَرَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الرَّجُلَ (I beat the man) and in جَمْعُ‏‮ ‬‬التَّكْسِير (the broken plural noun) – like when you say: رَأَيتُ‏‮ ‬‬الرِّجَآلَ (I saw the men – three or more) and أَخَذْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْكَوَاعِبَ (I took the girls – [three or more]) and in اَلْفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُضَارِع (present tense verb) when it is preceded by نَاصِبٌ (one of the particles of  naṣb) and it (اَلْفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُضَارِع) doesn’t have anything affixed to the end of it which is necessary for its construction like when you say:  لَنْ‏‮ ‬‬يَضْرِبَ (he never beats…).

 

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَأَمَّاالأَلِفُ‏‮ ‬‬فَتَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَةً‏‮ ‬‬لِلنَّصْبِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الأَسْمَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْخَمْسَةِ نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬أَبَاكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخَاكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَمَا أَشْبَهَ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِكَ‏‮)‬‬

 

English Translation:

 

وَأَمَّاالأَلِفُ (As for the alif), فَتَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَةً (it is a sign for the case of (naṣb) فِي‏‮ ‬‬الأَسْمَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْخَمْسَةِِ (in (the five nouns) نَحْوُ (like when you say): رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬أَبَاكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخَاكَ (I saw your father and your brother) وَمَا أَشْبَهَ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِكَ (and what is similar to these).‏‮   ‬‬

 

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

 

الألف تكون علامة للنصب في‏‮ ‬‬الأسماء الخمسة‏‮ ‬‬فقط فتقول‏‮ ‬‬رأيت أباك‏‮ ‬‬وأخاك‏‮ ‬‬وحماك‏‮ ‬‬وفاك‏‮ ‬‬وذا مال

 

Explanation of Text in English:

‏‮ ‬‬الأَلِفُ (Alif) is a sign for the case of  naṣb in الأَسْـمَاء‏‮ ‬‬الْـخَـمْسَة (the five nouns) exclusively – like when you say:

رَأَيتُ‏‮ ‬‬أَبَاكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَأَخَاكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَحَمَاك وَفَاكَ‏‮ ‬‬وَذَامَالٍ.

 

ʿArabic Text:‏‮                  ‬‬

‏‮(‬‬وَأَمَّا الْكَسْرَةُ‏‮ ‬‬فَتَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَةً‏‮ ‬‬لِلنَّصْبِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬جَمْْعِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُؤَنَّثِ‏‮ ‬‬السَّالِم‏‮)‬‬

 

English Translation:

 

 

وَأَمَّا الْكَسْرَةُ‏ (As for kasrah), فَتَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَةً (it is a sign) لِلنَّصْبِ (for naṣb) فِي‏‮ ‬‬جَمْْعِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُؤَنَّثِ‏‮ ‬‬السَّالِمِ (in the sound feminine plural noun).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

 

إنّ‏‮ ‬‬الكسرة تكون علامة للنصب في‏‮ ‬‬جمع الـمؤنث السّالم‏‮ ‬‬وهو ما جُمِعَ‏‮ ‬‬بــألف‏‮ ‬‬وتاء مزيدتين كقولك‏‮ ‬‬رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْــمُومِنَاتِ

 

Explanation of Text in English:

الكَسْـرََةُ  (Kasrah) is  a  sign  for  the  case  of  naṣb in جَـمْع الْـمُؤَنِث السَّالِـم (the sound feminine plural noun).   It becomes pluralized by ألف (alif) and a تاء (taa) which are added to its end like when you say: رَأَيْتُ الْـمُومِناتِ (I saw the female believers).

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَأَمَّااليَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬فَتَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَةً‏‮ ‬‬لِلنَّصْبِ‏‮ ‬‬فِِي‏‮ ‬‬التَّثْنِيَة‏‮ ‬‬ِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالـْجَمْعِ‏‮)‬‬

 

English Translation:

 

وَأَمَّا اليَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬(As for the letter yaa), فَتَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَةً (it is a sign) لِلنَّصْبِ‏‮ ‬‬(for the case of naṣb) فِِي‏‮ ‬‬التَّثْـنِيَة (in the dual noun) and وَالـْجَمْعِ‏‮ ‬‬(the plural noun).

 

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إنّ‏‮ ‬‬الياء‏‮ ‬‬تكون علامة للنصب في‏‮ ‬‬موضعين في‏‮ ‬‬التثنية مثل‏‮ ‬‬رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الرَّجُلَــيْـنِ‏‮ ‬‬وجمع الـمذكر السالم نحو‏‮ ‬‬رَأْيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الــمُوـمِنـِـيـنَ

 

Explanation of Text in English:

 

اليَاءُ (yaa) is a sign for the case of  naṣb  in two places: التَّثْنِيَةُ (the dual noun)  – like when you say: رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الرَّجُلَيْنِ (I saw the two men) and  جَمْعُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُذَكَّرِالسَّاِلمِ (the sound masculine plural noun) – like when you say: رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُومِنِينَ (I saw the male believers [three or more males]).

 

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وأَمَّا حَذْفُ‏‮ ‬‬النُّونِ‏‮ ‬‬فَتَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬علاَمَةً‏‮ ‬‬لِلنَّصبِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الأفْعَالِ‏‮ ‬‬الْخَمْسَةِ‏‮ ‬‬التِي‏‮ ‬‬رَفْعُهَا بِثبَاتِ‏‮ ‬‬النُّون‮ ‬‬ِ‏‮) ‬‬

 

English Translation:

 

وأَمَّا حَذْفُ‏‮ ‬‬النُّونِ (As for‏‮ ‬‬the dropping of nuun), فَتَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬علاَمَةً (it is a sign) لِلنَّصبِ (for the case of naṣb) فِي‏‮ ‬‬الأفْعَالِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْخَمْسَةِ‏‮ ‬‬ (in the five verbs) التِي‏‮ ‬‬رَفْعُهَا (which were caused to be in the case of rafʿ) بـِثبَاتِ‏‮ ‬‬النُّونِ (because of the affixing of the nuun) [to the end of them].

 

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

 

إنّ‏‮ ‬‬حذف النّون‏‮ ‬‬يكون علامة للنصب في‏‮ ‬‬الأفعال الخمسة التي‏‮ ‬‬يكون رفعها بثَبات النّون وهي‏‮ ‬‬كلّ‏‮ ‬‬فعلٍ‏‮  ‬‬مضارعٍ‏‮ ‬‬اتصل به ضمير تثنية‏‮ ‬‬أو ضمير جمع أو الـمؤنثة الـمخاطبة كما تقدّم‏‮  ‬‬بيان‏‮  ‬‬ذالك‏‮  ‬‬كقولك‏‮ ‬‬يَفْعَلاَنِ‏‮  ‬‬وَتَفْعَلاَنِ‏‮ ‬‬ويَفْعَلُونَ‏‮ ‬‬وتَفْعَلُونَ‏‮ ‬‬وتَفْعَلِينَ‏‮ ‬‬فهذه الافعال تُنصَب بحذف النّون التي‏‮ ‬‬كانت ترفع بها فتقول لَنْ‏‮ ‬‬يَفْعَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬ولَنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَفْعَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬في‏‮ ‬‬يَفْعَلاَنِ‏‮ ‬‬وتَفْعَلاَنِ‏‮ ‬‬ولَنْ‏‮ ‬‬يَفْعَلُوا ولَنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَفْعَلُوا في‏‮ ‬‬يَفْعَلُونَ‏‮ ‬‬وتَفْعَلُونَ‏‮ ‬‬ولَنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَفْعَلِي‏‮ ‬‬في‏‮ ‬‬تَفْعَلِينَ

 

Explanation of Text in English:

حَـذْفُ‏‮ ‬‬النُّونِ (the dropping of nuun) is a sign for the case of  naṣb  in الأَفْـعَال الْـخَـمْسَة (the five verbs) which are caused to be in rafʿ بـِـثبَاتِ‏‮ ‬‬النُّونِ by affixing nuun to (to the end of them).  It is every present tense verb on which ضَمِيُر تَثْنِيَةٍٍ (the dual pronoun), ضَمِيرُ‏‮ ‬‬جَمْعٍ (the plural pronoun)  or ضَـمِيرُ‏‮ ‬‬مُـخَاطَبَة (the feminine singular pronoun for one being spoken to) have been attached, like what has been explained before – like when you say: يَـفْعَلانِ (the two of them masculine are doing), تَفْعَلانِ (the two of you are doing [male or female]), يَفْعَلُونَ (they are doing [three or more males]), تَفْعَلُونَ (you are doing [three or more males].  تَفْعَلِينَ (you feminine singular are doing).

These verbs are caused to be مَنْصُوبًا ( in the case of naṣb) by حذف النّون ( dropping from the end of them, the nuun) which originally caused them to be in the case of rafʿ – and so you say:  لَنْيَفْعَلاَ (those two will never do…).  لَنْ‏‮ ‬‬تفْعَلاَ (you two will never do…), in the case of the verbs يَفْعَلانِand تَفْعَلانِ and لَنْ‏‮ ‬‬يَفْعَلُوا – (they [three or more] will never do…) and لَنْ‏‮ ‬‬تَفْعَلُو – (you [three or more] will never do…) in the case of the verbs يَفْعَلُون and تَفْعَلُونَ and لَن‏‮  ‬‬ْتَفْعَلِي(you [feminine singular] will never do…) in the case of the verb تَفْعَلِينَ.

 

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(وَلِلْخَفْضِ‏  ثَلاَثةُ‏  عَلاَمَاتٍ‏  الْكَسْرَةُ‏  وَالْيَاءُ‏  وَالْفَتْحَةُ)

 

English Translation:

 

وَلـِلْخَفْضِِ‏‮ ‬‬(The case of khafḍ) has ثَلاَثةُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَاتٍ (three signs): الْكَسْرَةُ (kasrah ــِـ.) وَالْيَاءُ (and the yaa = ي) وَالْفَتْحَةُ (and the fatah ــَـ )

 

ʿArabic Text:

 

‏‮(‬‬فَأَمَّاالّكَسْرَةُ‏‮ ‬‬فَتَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَةً‏‮ ‬‬للْخَفْضِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬ثَلاَثِ‏‮ ‬‬مَوَاضِعَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الإَسْمِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُفْرَدِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُنْصَرِفِ‏‮ ‬‬وَجَمْعِ‏‮ ‬‬التَّكْسِيرِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُنْصَرِفِ‏‮ ‬‬وَجَمْعِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُؤَنَّثِ‏‮ ‬‬السَّالِمِ‏‮)‬‬

 

English Translation:

فَأَمَّاالّكَسْرَةُ‏‮ ‬‬(As for kasrah), فَتَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَةً (it is a sign)‏‮ ‬‬للْخَفْضِِِِ (for the case of khafḍ) فِي‏‮ ‬‬ثَلاَثِ‏‮ ‬‬مَوَاضِـعَ (in three places): فِي‏‮ ‬‬الإَسْمِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُفْرَدِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُنْصَرِفِ (in the inflected singular noun) وَجَمْعِ‏‮ ‬‬التَّكْسِير الـمُنْصَرِفِ (and the inflected broken plural) وَجَمِعِ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُؤَنَّثِ‏‮ ‬‬السَّاِلمِ (and the sound feminine plural noun).

 

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

 

إنّ‏‮ ‬‬الكسرة تكون علامة للخفض في‏‮ ‬‬ثلاثة مواضع في‏‮ ‬‬الإسم الـمفرد الـمنصرف كقولك مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِزَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬وفي‏‮ ‬‬جمع التكسير الـمنصرف كقولك مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالرِّجَالِ‏‮ ‬‬وفي‏‮ ‬‬جمع الـمؤنث السالم كقولك مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْـمُومِنَاتِ

 

Explanation of Text in English:

الْـكَسْرَةُ (kasrah) it is sign for the case of khafḍ in three places: in الإِسْمِ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُفْرَدِ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُنْصَرِفِ (the inflected singular noun) – like when you say: مََرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِزَيدٍ (I passed by Zayd) and in جَمْعُ‏‮ ‬‬التَّكْسِير الـمُنْصَرِف (the fully inflected broken plural) – like when you say: مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالرِّجَالِ (I passed by the men) and جَمِع‏‮ ‬‬الْـمَؤَنّثِ‏‮ ‬‬السَّالِمِ (the sound feminine plural noun). – like when you say: مَرَرْتُ بِالْمُومِناتِ (I passed by the female believers).

 

(*note in ʿArabic):

الإسم الـمنصرف هو الإسم الـمتمكّن في‏‮ ‬‬الإسمية الذي‏‮ ‬‬يدخله التنوين والجرّ‏‮ ‬‬أيضًا وأما الإسم الذي‏‮ ‬‬لا‏‮ ‬‬ينصرف فهو الإسم الذي‏‮ ‬‬لا‏‮ ‬‬يدخله التنوين ولا الجرّ‏‮ ‬‬

(*note in English):‏‮

الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُـنْصَرفُ (the fully inflected noun) is among those nouns to which التّنويِن (the nuun sound) and الـْجَرّ (the case of jarr) are affixed.  As for الإسمُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَبْنِي (the indeclinable noun) or الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الذِي‏‮ ‬‬يَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬مَمْنُوعًا مِنَ‏‮ ‬‬الصَّرْفِ (partially declinable noun), it is the noun that التَنْوِين and الجَـرّ do not enter (that is to say: tanwiin and kasrah are not affixed to the end of this kind of noun).

 

 

 

 

 

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَأَمَّآ الْيَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬فَتَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَةً‏‮ ‬‬لِلْخَفْضِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬ثَلاَثَةِ‏‮ ‬‬مَوَاضِعَ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الأَسْمَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْخَمْسَةِ‏‮ ‬‬وَفِي‏‮ ‬‬التَّثْنِيَةِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالـْجَمْع‏‮)‬‬ِ

 

English Translation:

 

وَأَمَّا الْيَاءُ (As for the letter yaa), فَتَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَة (it is a sign)‏‮ ‬‬لِلْخَفْضِِِ (for case of khafḍ) ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬ثَلاَثَةِ‏‮ ‬‬مَوَاضِعَ (in three places): فِِِي‏‮ ‬‬الأَسْمَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬الْخَمْسَـةِ (in the five nouns) وَفِي‏‮ ‬‬التَّثْنِيَةِِِ (and in the dual noun) وَالـْجَمْعِ and the [sound masculine] plural noun).

 

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

إنّ‏‮ ‬‬الياء‏‮ ‬‬تكون علامة للخفض في‏‮ ‬‬ثلاثة مواضع في‏‮ ‬‬الأسماء الخمسة‏‮ ‬‬كقولك‏‮ ‬‬مررت بِأَبِيكَ‏‮ ‬‬وأَخِيكَ‏‮ ‬‬وحَمِيكَ‏‮ ‬‬وفِيكَ‏‮ ‬‬وذِي‏‮ ‬‬مَالٍ‏‮ ‬‬وفي‏‮ ‬‬التثنية كقولك مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالرَّجُلْينِ‏‮ ‬‬وفي‏‮ ‬‬الجمع‏‮ ‬‬‏‮((‬‬الـمذكر السالم‏‮)) ‬‬

كقولك‏‮ ‬‬مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْـمُومِنِينَ‏‮ ‬‬

 

Explanation of Text in English:

الْيـَاء (yaa) is a sign for the case of khafḍ in three places:  in الأَسْمَاء الخَمَسَة (the five nouns) – like when you  say: مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِأَبِيكَ‏‮ ‬‬،‏‮ ‬‬أَخِيكَ‏‮ ‬‬،‏‮ ‬‬حَمِيكَ‏‮ ‬‬،‏‮ ‬‬فِيكَ‏‮ ‬‬،‏‮ ‬‬ذِي‏‮ ‬‬مَالٍ and in التثنية (the dual noun) – like when you say: مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بالرَّجُلَيْنِ and  جمع‏‮ ((‬‬الـمذكَّر السّالم‏‮))‬‬ (the sound masculine plural) – like when you say: مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْمُومِنِينَ (I passed by the believers).

 

 

 

 

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَأَمَّا الْفَتْحَةُ‏‮ ‬‬فَتَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَةً‏‮ ‬‬لِلْخَفْضِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمِ‏‮ ‬‬الِذى لاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَنْصَرِفُ‏‮)‬‬

 

English Translation:

 

وَأَمَّا الْفَتْحَةُ (As for fat-˙ah), فَتَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَةً‏‮ ‬‬(it is a sign)‏‮ ‬‬لِلْخَفْضِ (for case of khafḍ فِي‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمِ‏‮ ‬‬الِذى لاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَـنْصَرِفُ (in the indeclinable noun [only]).

 

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

 

إنّ‏‮ ‬‬الفتحة تكون علامة للخفض في‏‮ ‬‬الإسم الذي‏‮ ‬‬لا‏‮ ‬‬ينصرف فقط كقولك‏‮ ‬‬مررت بِإِبْرَاهِيمَ

 

Explanation of Text in English:

الْفَتْحَــــةُ (fat-˙ah) is a sign for الْـخَفْـــض (khafḍ) in   الإِسْــــم الَّذِي‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَنْصَرِفُ the indeclinable noun only – like when you say: مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِإِبْرَاهِيمَ (I passed by Ibraahiim).

 

 

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮ (‬‬وَلِلْجَزْمِ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَتَانِ‏‮ ‬‬السُّكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالـْحَذْفُ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

 

وَلِلْجَزْمُ (the case of jazm has) عَلاَمَتَانِِِ (two signs) السُّكُونُ (sukuun) and وَالْـحَذْفُ (and the dropping [of the final letter]) .

 

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَأَمَّاالسُّكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬فَيَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَةً‏‮ ‬‬لِلْجَزْمِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الْفِعْلِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُضَارِعِ‏‮ ‬‬الصَّحِيحِ‏‮ ‬‬الآخِرِ‏‮)‬‬

 

English Translation:

 

وَأَمَّاالسُّكُونُ (As for sukuun), ‏‮ ‬‬فَيَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَةً (it is a sign) لِلْجَزْمِ (for the case of jazm) فِي‏‮ ‬‬الْفِعْلِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُضَارِعِ‏‮ ‬‬الصَّحِيحِ‏‮ ‬‬الآخِرِ (in the present tense verb which is sound at its end).‏‮ ‬‬

 

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

 

فأمّا السكون فيكون علامةً‏‮ ‬‬للجزم في‏‮ ‬‬الفعل الـمضارع الصّحيح الآخِرِ‏  كقولك لَمْ‏  يَضْرِبْ

 

Explanation of Text in English:

As for السُّّكُونُ (sukuun) is a sign for الْـجَزْم (the case of jazm) in  الْفِعْل الْـمُضَارِع الْصَّحِيح (the present tense verb which is sound at its end).  The last letter of this verb is as you would say: لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَضْرِبْ (he did not beat). ‏‮ ‬‬

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَأَمَّا الـْحَذْفُ‏‮ ‬‬فَيَكُونُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَةً‏‮ ‬‬لِلْجَزْمِ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الْفِعْلِ‏‮ ‬‬الـمُُضَارِعِ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُعْتَلِّ‏‮ ‬‬الآخِرِ‏‮ ‬‬وَفِي‏‮ ‬‬الأَفْعَالِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْخَمْسَةِ‏‮ ‬‬الِتي‏‮ ‬‬رَفْعُهَا بِثَبَاتِ‏‮ ‬‬النُّونِ‏‮)‬‬

 

 

 

 

English Translation:

 

وَأَمَّا الـْحَذْفُ (And as for the dropping [of the final letter]), فَيَكُــونُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلاَمَةً (it is a sign) لِلْجَـــزْمِ (for the case of jazm)‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الْـفِعْلِ‏‮ ‬‬الـمُُضَارِعِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُعْتَلِّ‏‮ ‬‬الآخِرِ (in the  present tense verb which is weak at its end) وَفِي (and in) الأَفْعَالِ‏‮ ‬‬الـْخَمْسَةِ (the five verbs) الِتي (which are) رَفْعُهَا بِـثَبَاتِ‏‮ ‬‬النُّون in the case of rafʿ by affixing nuun [to their last letter]).

 

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

 

إنّ‏‮ ‬‬الحذف‏‮ ‬‬يكون علامة للجزم في‏‮ ‬‬موضعين إحدهما الفعل الـمعتلّ‏‮ ‬‬آخره فإنّ‏‮ ‬‬علامة الجزم فيه حذفُ‏‮ ‬‬حرفِ‏‮ ‬‬العلة من آخره كقولك‏‮ ‬‬لمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَخْشَ‏‮ ‬‬ولَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَغْزُ‏‮ ‬‬ولَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَرْمِ‏‮ ‬‬بحذف الألف والواو‏‮ ‬‬والياء‏‮ ‬‬فانّ‏‮ ‬‬أصلها‏‮ ‬‬يخشى ويغزو ويرمي‏‮ ‬‬بالالف والواو والياء حذفت اواخرها بدخول جازم عليها علامةً‏‮ ‬‬لجزمها‏‮ ‬‬

ثانيهما الافعال الخمسة التي‏‮ ‬‬يكون رفعها بثبات النّون وقد تقدّم ذكرها كقولك‏‮ ‬‬لم‏‮ ‬‬يفعلا‏‮ ‬‬ولم تفعلا‏‮ ‬‬في‏‮ ‬‬يفعلان‏‮ ‬‬وتفعلان‏‮ ‬‬ولم‏‮ ‬‬يفعلوا‏‮ ‬‬ولم‏‮ ‬‬تفعلوا‏‮ ‬‬في‏‮ ‬‬يفعلون‏‮ ‬‬وتفعلون‏‮ ‬‬ولم‏‮ ‬‬تفعلي‏‮ ‬‬في‏‮ ‬‬تفعلين

 

Explanation of Text in English:

الْـحَذْفُ (the dropping of the letter) is a sign for الْـجَزْم ( the case of  jazm) in two places.  One of them is at the end of‏‮ ‬‬الْفِعْل‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُضَارِع الْـمُعْتَلُّ (the present tense verb which is weak at its end).  The sign of الْـجَزْم (case of jazm) in it is the dropping of حَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعِلَّة (the weak letter) from its end – like when you say: لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَخْشَ (He did not fear) and لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَغْزُ (he did not raid) and لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَرْمِ (he did not throw) by dropping الألف, الواو and الياء  (respectively).  And the roots of them are يَخْشَى and يَغْزُو and يَرْمِي with الأَلِف, الْوَاو and اليَاء having been dropped from the end of them because of the prefixing of الـْجَازِم (the particle of jazm لَمْ) as a sign of their being in the case of الْـجَزْم.

The second place (in which الْـحَذْف (the dropping a letter) is a sign of الجزم (the case of jazm) is in الَافْعَال‏‮ ‬‬الْـخَمْسَة (the five verbs) which are caused to be in the case of rafʿ by affixing nuun( ن ) to their end – like what has been previously mentioned – as you would say: لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَفْعلاَ andلَمْ‏‮ ‬‬تَفْعَلاَ in the case of the verbs يَفْعَلانِ and تَفْعَلانِ and لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَفْعَلوا and لَم تَفْعَلُوا in the case of the verbs يَفْعَلُونَ and تَفْعَلُونَ and لَمْ‏‮ ‬‬تَفْعَلِي in the case of the verb تَـفْعَلِينَ.

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 4 – A Section Elaborating About What Has Been Previously Mentioned)

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 5 – The Chapter about Al-Afʿaal [the Verbs]

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 6 – The Chapter About Marfuʿaatu – l – Asmaa’[The Nouns that are Caused to be in the Case of Rafʿ]

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 7 – The Chapter About Al-Faaʿil [the Doer])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 8 – (The Chapter About al-Mafʿuul [The Receiver Of The Action Whose Doer Was Not Mentioned])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 9 – (The Chapter About Al-Mubtada’ [The Subject] And Al-Khabr [The Predicate])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 10 – (The Chapter About Al – ʿAwaamil [The Governors] That Enter Upon The Subject And The Predicate

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 11 – (The Chapter About An-Naʿt [The Adjective])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 12 – (The Chapter About Al-ʿAṭf [The Conjoining Of Words])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 13 – (The Chapter About At-Tawkiid [The Emphasizing of the Noun])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 14 – (The Chapter About Al-Badal [The Substitute])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 15 – (The Chapter About Al-Manṣuubaatu-l-Asmaa’i [The Nouns In The Case Of Naṣb])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 16 – (The Chapter About Al – Mafʿuul Bihi [The Object of the Verb])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 17 – (The Chapter About Al-Maṣdar [The Verbal Noun])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 18 – (The Chapter About Ḍharfu-z-Zamaan [The Adverb Of Time] and Ḍharful-Makaan [The Adverb Of Place])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 19 – (The Chapter About Al-Haal [The Circumstantial Noun])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 20 – (The Chapter About At-Tamyiiz [The Noun Of Specification])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 21 – (The Chapter About (Al-Istath-naa’ [The Exclusion of Nouns])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 22 – (The Chapter About Laa)

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 23 – (The Chapter About Al-Munaadaa [The Noun in Direct Address])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 24 – (The Chapter About Al-Mafʿuul Min-Ajlih [Causative Object])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 25 – The Chapter About Al-Mafʿuul Maʿahu [The Object Which Accompanies The Subject In The Execution Of An Action])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 26 – (The Chapter About Al-Makhfuuḍaat [The Nouns Caused to be in The Case of Khafḍ)

Published in: on November 1, 2010 at 18:25  Leave a Comment  

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 2 – (The Chapter About الاِعْرَاب [Inflection])

بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬الاِعْرَاب

2 – (The Chapter About Iʿraab [Inflection])

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬الإِِعْرَابُ‏‮ ‬‬هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬تَغْيِيرُ‏‮ ‬‬أَواَخِرِ‏‮ ‬‬الْكَلِمِ‏‮ ‬‬لاِخْتِلافِ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَوَامِلِ‏‮ ‬‬الدَّاخِلَةِ‏‮ ‬‬عَـلَيْهَا لَفْظًا أَوْ‏‮ ‬‬تَقْدِيرًا‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

اَلإِعْرَابُ (inflection) هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬تَغْيِير (is the changing) أَواَخِرِ (of the end [last letter] of) الْكَلِم (words) ‏‮ ‬‬لاِخْتِلاف (because of the different) [kinds of] عَوَامِل (governors / governing factors) الدَّاخِلَةِ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَيهَا (preceding / affecting them). [The change] is لَفْظاً (by expression) or تَقْدِيرًا (by implication).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

‏‮ ‬‬الإعْراَب هو تَغْيير أَواخرالْكَلم لاخْتلاف الْعوامل الدّاخلة عليها لفظا أو تقدِيرا إنّ‏‮ ‬‬هذا التّغييراللاّحق في‏‮ ‬‬أواخرَ‏‮ ‬‬الكلم قد‏‮ ‬‬يكون لفظًا كقولك جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬ورَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا ومَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِزَيْدٍ‏‮ ‬‬وقد‏‮ ‬‬يكون‏‮  ‬‬تقديرًا كقولك جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَتَى ورَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَتَى‮ ‬ومَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْفَتَى فإنّ‏‮ ‬‬التّغيير الذي‏‮ ‬‬في‏‮ ‬‬آخر زيد ظاهر ملفوظ والتّغيير الذي‏‮ ‬‬في‏‮ ‬‬آخر الفتَى مقدّر منويّ‏‮ ‬‬لأنه مبني‏‮ ‬‬على الألف الـمقصورة ولهذا قيل إنّ‏‮ ‬‬التّغيير‏‮ ‬‬يكون لفظًا أو تقديرًا‮ ‬‏‮ ‬‮  ‬‬

Explanation of Text in English:

اَلإعْرَاب (Al-iʿraab [inflection]) is the changing of the end (last letter) of words because of the different (kinds of  عَوَامِل (governors) preceding them / governing factors affecting them.  (This change) is لَفْظًا (by expression) or تَقْدِيرًا (by implication).  This affixed change which is at the end of words is‏‮ ‬‬لَفْظًا  like when  you  say: جََاءَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ (Zayd came) and رَأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدًا (I saw Zayd) and‏‮ ‬‬مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِزَيْدٍ (I passed by Zayd).  It is تَقْدِيرًا  when you  say: جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَتَى (the youth came) and رََأَيْتُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفَتَى (I saw the youth) and مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْفتَى (I passed by the youth).

And so the change which occurred at the end of the word زَيْد is ظَاهِر (clear) and ملَفُوظ (expressed) and the change (which should have occurred)  at  the end of اَلْفَتَى is مُقَدَّرٌ (implied) and مَنْــــوِيٌّ (intended), because it (اَلْفَــــتَى) is مَبْنِي‏‮ ‬‬على الالف المقصورة‏‮ = ‬‬‏‮(‬‬ى‏‮)‬‬ (fixed in its construction on the alif maqṣuurah and unchangeable).  It is for these reasons, it has been said, “that the change is لَفْظًا or تَقْدِيرًا .”

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَأَقْسَامُهُ‏‮ ‬‬أَرْبَعَةٌ‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬رَفْعٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَنَصْبٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَخَفْضٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَجَزْمٌ‏‮ ‬‬فَلِلاَسْمَاءِ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلِكَ الرَّفْعُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالنَّصْبُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْخَفْضُ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬جََزْمَ‏‮ ‬‬فِيهَا وَلِلاَفْعَالِ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلكَ‏‮ ‬‬الرَّفْعُ‏‮  ‬‬وَالنَّصْبُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْجَزْمُ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬خَفْضَ‏‮ ‬‬فِيهَا‏‮)

English Translation:

وأَقْسَامُهُ (and its parts) أَرْبَعَةٌ (are four): رَفْعٌ (rafʿ),‏‮ ‬‬نَصْبٌ (naṣb),‏‮ ‬‬خَفْضٌ (khafḍ) and جَزْم (jazm). فلِلأسْمَاءِ (And so the nouns‏‮ ‬‬can have) مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬ذَلـــكَ (from these) الرَّفْعُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالنَّصْبُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْخَفْضُ‏‮ ‬‬(the  case  endings  of  rafʿ, naṣb, and khafḍ [affixed to their last letter],‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬جََزْمَ‏‮ ‬‬فِيهَا (but the case of jazm does not occur in it), وَلِلأفْعَال (while the verbs  can  have) الرَّفْعُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالنَّصْبُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْجَزْمُ (the cases of rafʿ, naṣb, and jazm) [affixed to their last letter], وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬خَفْضَ‏‮ ‬‬فِيهَا (but the case of khafḍ does not occur in it).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

وأقسامه أربعة رفعٌ‏‮ ‬‬ونصبٌ‏‮ ‬‬وخفضٌ‏‮ ‬‬وجزمٌ‏‮ ‬‬إنّ‏‮ ‬‬قسمًا من أقسام الإعراب مشترك بين الأسماء والأفعال قسمٌ‏‮ ‬‬منها مختصّ‏‮ ‬‬بكل منهما وأمّا الحروف فلا‏‮ ‬‬يدخلها شيء من أقسام الإعراب لانّها مبنيّة فأمّا القسم الـمشترك بينهما وهو رفعٌ‏‮ ‬‬ونصبٌ‏‮ ‬‬لأنّهما‏‮ ‬‬يدخلان الإسم والفعل كقولك‏‮ ‬‬يضربُ‏‮ ‬‬زيدٌ‏‮ ‬‬ولن أضربَ‏‮ ‬‬زيدًا والقسم الـمختصّ‏‮ ‬‬هو الخفض والجزم فالخفض مختصّ‏‮ ‬‬بالاسم والجزم مختصّ‏‮ ‬‬بالفعل كقولك لم أذهبْ‏‮ ‬‬بعبّاسٍ

Explanation of Text in English:

And it (الإِعْرَاب) has four parts: رَفْعٌ‏‮ ‬‬ونَصْبٌ‏‮ ‬‬وخَفْضٌ‏‮ ‬‬وجَزْمٌ (the cases of rafʿ, naṣb, khafḍ and jazm.).  One part (of الإِعْرَاب) is common between الأَسْمَاء (nouns) and الأَفْعَال (verbs) and another part of it is exclusive to each of them.

As for الـْحُرُوف (the particles), nothing from أَقْسَام الإِعْرَابِ (the parts of iʿraab) is affixed to them, because they are fixed at‏‮ ‬‬their end.

The common parts between اَلأَسْمَاء (nouns) and the الأَفْعَال (verbs) are: اَلرَّفْعُ (the rafʿ case) and اَلنَّصْب (the naṣb case), because both cases occur in  الإسْم (the noun) and اَلْْفِعْل (the verb) – like when you  say: يَضْــــرِبُ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـــــدٌ (Zayd beat…) in the case of الرَّفْـــــع and لَــنْ‏‮ ‬‬أَضْرِبَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدًا (I never beat Zayd) in the case of النَّصْب.  The  exclusive part is اَلْخَفْض (the khafḍ case) and اَلْجَزْم (the jazm case).  اَلْخَفْض (the  khafḍ case) is exclusively affixed to اَلأسْماء (nouns) while اَلْجَزْم (the jazm case) is exclusively affixed to اَلافْعَال (verbs) – like when you say: لَـمْ‏‮ ‬‬أَذْهَبْ‏‮ ‬‬بِعَبَّاسٍ (I did not  go with ʿAbbaas).

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 3 – (The Chapter Concerning The Knowledge of ʿAlaamaatu-l-Iʿraab [The Signs Of Iʿraab])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 4 – A Section Elaborating About What Has Been Previously Mentioned)

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 5 – The Chapter about Al-Afʿaal [the Verbs]

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 6 – The Chapter About Marfuʿaatu – l – Asmaa’[The Nouns that are Caused to be in the Case of Rafʿ]

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 7 – The Chapter About Al-Faaʿil [the Doer])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 8 – (The Chapter About al-Mafʿuul [The Receiver Of The Action Whose Doer Was Not Mentioned])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 9 – (The Chapter About Al-Mubtada’ [The Subject] And Al-Khabr [The Predicate])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 10 – (The Chapter About Al – ʿAwaamil [The Governors] That Enter Upon The Subject And The Predicate

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 11 – (The Chapter About An-Naʿt [The Adjective])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 12 – (The Chapter About Al-ʿAṭf [The Conjoining Of Words])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 13 – (The Chapter About At-Tawkiid [The Emphasizing of the Noun])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 14 – (The Chapter About Al-Badal [The Substitute])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 15 – (The Chapter About Al-Manṣuubaatu-l-Asmaa’i [The Nouns In The Case Of Naṣb])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 16 – (The Chapter About Al – Mafʿuul Bihi [The Object of the Verb])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 17 – (The Chapter About Al-Maṣdar [The Verbal Noun])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 18 – (The Chapter About Ḍharfu-z-Zamaan [The Adverb Of Time] and Ḍharful-Makaan [The Adverb Of Place])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 19 – (The Chapter About Al-Haal [The Circumstantial Noun])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 20 – (The Chapter About At-Tamyiiz [The Noun Of Specification])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 21 – (The Chapter About (Al-Istath-naa’ [The Exclusion of Nouns])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 22 – (The Chapter About Laa)

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 23 – (The Chapter About Al-Munaadaa [The Noun in Direct Address])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 24 – (The Chapter About Al-Mafʿuul Min-Ajlih [Causative Object])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 25 – The Chapter About Al-Mafʿuul Maʿahu [The Object Which Accompanies The Subject In The Execution Of An Action])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 26 – (The Chapter About Al-Makhfuuḍaat [The Nouns Caused to be in The Case of Khafḍ)


Published in: on September 6, 2010 at 17:29  Leave a Comment  

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 1 – بَابُ‏ الْكَلاَم (The Chapter About Speech)

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

قال الْـمُصَـنِّف وهو أبو عبد الله محمد بن محمد بن داوود الصنهاجي‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُـلَـقَّب بابن آجُرُّوم الذي‏‮ ‬‬وُلِد في‏‮ ‬‬سنة اثنتين‏‮  ‬‬وسبعين وستمائة والمتوفي‏‮ ‬‬في‏‮ ‬‬سنة ثلاث وعشرين وسبعمائة من الهجرة النبوية رحمه الله قال‏‮ ‬‬‏‭:

The author, and he is Abū ʿAbdullaahi Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Dāwūd aṣ-Ṣanhaajī known as Ibn Aajurruum who was born in the year 672 and who died in the year 723 after the Prophetic hijrah may Allah have mercy on him – said after بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم:

بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬الْكَلاَم‮ ‬

1 – (The Chapter About  Speech)

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬اَلْكَلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّفْظُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُرَكَّبُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُفِيدُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْوَضْعِ‏‮)

English Translation:

الْـكَلاَمُ‮ ‬(Speech) هُـوَ (is) اللَّفْظُ (expression [which is articulated]) الـْـمُرَكَّبُ (composite) الـْـمُفِيدُ (informative) بِـالْـوَضْـعِ (in accordance with customary usage and [regulated] by conventional [Arabic] rules).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

اَلْكَلاَمُ‏  هُوَ‏  اللَّفْظُ‏  الـْمُرَكَّبُ‏  الْـمُفِيدُ‏  بِالْوَضْعِ‏  العربي‏  فلا بدَّ‏  الكلام العربي‏  أن‏  يبنى على أربعة أشياء وهي‏  أن‏  يكون لفظًا وأن‏  يكون مركبًا وأن‏  يكون مفيدًا وأن‏  يكون موضوعًا بالوضع العربيّ‏  فأمّا معنى كونه لفظًا فأن‏ يُلْفَظَ‏  صوتيّــًا مستعملاً‏  بعض الحروف الأبجديّة كقولك مُحَمَّدٌ‏  وعَلِيٌّ‏  وذَهَبَ‏  فكلّ‏  كلمة من هذه الكلمات الثلاثة تكون صوتًا مستعملاً‏  بعض الحروف الهجائيّة العربيّة‏

وأمّا معنى كونه مركّبًا فأن‏  يكون الكلام العربي‏  مؤلّفًا من كلمتين أو أكثرَ‏  نحو عَبْدُاللَّهِ‏  وإِذَا جاَءَ‏  مُحَمَّدٌ‏  وطُلُوعُ‏  الشَّمْسِ‏  وكلّ‏  عبارة من هذه العبارات مركّبةٌ‏  غيرُ‏  مفيدةٍ‏

وأمّا معنى كونه مفيدًا فأن‏  يَكْفي‏  سكوتُ‏  الـمتكلم عليه بحيثُ‏  لا‏  يبقى السّامع منتظرًا لشيء آخر فإذا قلت إِذَا جَاءَ‏  مُحَمَّدٌ‏  هذه العبارة ليست مفيدةً‏  لأنّها لا تفيد الـمخاطب فائدةً‏  تامّةً‏  ولكن إذا قلت إِذَا جَاءَ‏  مُحَمَّدٌ‏  إِلَى بَيْتي‏  فَاَكْرِمْهُ‏  فهذه العبارة أفادت إفَادة  كَافيةً‏  والسامع بها لا‏  ينتنظر أكثر من هذه‏

وأمّا معنى كونه موضوعًا بالوضع العربي‏  هي‏  بثلاث حالات أولها تكون الألفاظ الـمستعملة في‏  الكلام التي‏  وضعها العرب للدلالة على معنى ذات شخص نحو مُحَمَّدٌ‏  أو   للدلالة على معنى ذات مكان نحو مَسْجِدٌ‏  أو للدلالة على معنى ذات شيء نحو كِـتَابٌ‏  فيسمّى كل لفظ من هذه الألفاظ إسمًا

‏  ثانيها تكون الألفاظ الـمستعملة في‏  الكلام التى‏   وضعها العرب للدلالة على معنى حصول الحدث بأحد الأزمنة الثلاثة وهي‏  الفعل الماضي  أي‏  ما دلّ‏  على حدث وقع قبل زمان التَّكلُّم نحو ذَهَبَ‏  والفعل المضارع أي‏  ما دلّ‏  على حدث‏  يقع في‏  زمان التكلُّم أو بعده كقولك‏  يَذْهَبُ‏  وفعل الأمر أي‏  ما دلّ‏  على حدث‏  يُطلَب حصوله بعد زمان التكلُّم نحو إذْهَبْ‏

ثالثها تكون الألفاظ الـمستعملة في‏  الكلام التى وضعها العرب  غير تامّ  الْـمعنى حتّى تُضَمَّ‏  إلى كلمة  غيرها وهي‏  كقولك هَلْ‏  ومِنْ‏  ولَمْ‏   فإذا قلت هَلْ‏  ذَهَبَ‏  ومِنَ‏  الـْمَسْجِدِ‏  ولَمْ‏  يَخْرُجْ‏  فكلّ‏  عبارة من هذه العبارات‏  الثّلاثة لم‏  يُفْهَم معناها تامـّــًا حتّى تضمّ‏  إلى كلمة‏  غيرها وتسمّى كل عبارة من هذه العبارات الثلاثة حرفًا فالإسم والفعل والحرف تكون من حالات الكلام الثلاثة التي‏  وضعها العرب بالوضع العربي


Explanation of Text in English:

الْـكَلاَمُ (Speech) is informative composite expression which is articulated according to conventional ʿArabic rules.  Undoubtedly, ʿArabic speech is constructed on four things.   They are that it (Speech) is لَفْظـًا (expressed),  مُرَكَّبًا (composite  [composed of two or more parts]), مُفِيدًا (informative), and مَوْضُوعًا بِالْوَضْعِ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَرَبِيِّ (regulated by conventional ʿArabic rules).  And so the meaning of its being لَـفْظًا is that ʿArabic speech is expressed vocally by using some of الْـحُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الأَبْجَدِيَّة (the letters of the ʿArabic alphabet) – like when you say: مُحَمَّدٌ (Muhammad) and عَـلِيٌّ (ʿAlī) and ذَهَـبَ (He went).  Each word from these three words is vocalized by using some of الْـحُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الْهَجَائِيَّةُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَرَبِيَّة (the letters of the ʿArabic alphabet).

As for the meaning of its being مَـرَكَّبًا , ʿArabic speech is composed of two or more words – like عَبْدُاللَّهِ‏‮ ‬‬(ʿAbdullah) and إِذَا جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬مُحَمَّدٌ (if Muhammad comes) and طُلُوعُ‏‮ ‬‬الشَّمْسِ (the rising of the sun). Each expression from these expressions is مُرَكَّّبًا (composed of two or more parts) without being مُفِيدًا (informative).

As for the meaning of its being مُـفِيدًا , it is when the silence of the speaker becomes sufficient, wherein the listener does  not  expect  to  hear  anything  else.  If  you  say: إِذَا جَـاءَ‏‮ ‬‬مُحُـمَّدٌ (If Muhammad comes), this expression is not مُـفِيدًا (informative), because it does not convey complete information to the person being spoken to – [that is to say, the one who heard it].

However, if you say:‏‮ ‬‬إِذَا جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬مُحَمَّدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِلَى بَيْتيِ‏‮ ‬‬فَاَكْرِمْهُ (If Muhammad comes to my house, I will honor him.), This statement is completely informative and enough.  The person who hears it does not expect more than this.

As for the meaning of الْكَلاَم (speech) being مَوْضُوعًا بِالْوَضْعَ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَرَبِيِّ (regulated by conventional ʿArabic rules), it occurs in three cases:

The first case is the expressions that are used in الْـكَلاَم that have been constructed by the ʿArabs to define the essence of a person – like when you say: مُحَـمَّدٌ (Muhammad) and the expressions used in الْـكَلاَم which the ʿArabs have constructed to define the nature of a place – like when you say: مَسْجِـــدٌ (masjid [place of prostration]) and the expression used in الْـكَلاَمُ that the ʿArabs have constructed to define the nature of a thing – like when you say: كِـتاَبٌ  (book).  Each of these expressions is called إِسْمًا (a noun).

The second case is the expressions used in الْـكَلاَمُ which the ʿArabs have constructed to define the occurrence of something in one of three time periods.  They are الْـفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬الـمَاضِـي (the past tense verb) – that is to say, the expression which shows an occurrence that occurred before the time of the conversation – like when you say: ذَهَبَ (he went), and الْفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُضَارِعُ (the present tense verb) – that is to say, the expression which shows the occurrence of a thing during the time of the conversation or soon after it – like when you say: يَذْهَبُ (he is going), and the ‏‮ ‬‬فِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬الأَمْرِ (the command tense verb) that is say, the expression which  shows the occurrence of a thing that is being sought after the time of the conversation – like when you say: إِذْهَبْ (go).

The third case is the expressions used in الْـكَلاَم that have been constructed by the ʿArabs – their purpose is not completely understood until they are placed next to another word.  They are like: هَـلْْ and مِـنْ and لَـمْ and so if you say: هَلْ‏‮ ‬‬ذَهَـبَ (did he go) and مِـنْ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَسْجِـدِ (from the masjid) and لَـمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَخْرُجْ (he did not leave), the purpose of these three expressions (هَـلْ and مِـنْ and لَـمْ) was not completely understood until they were placed next to another word.  Each of these three expressions is called حَرْفًا (a letter [particle]).‏‮ ‬‬ And so, الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْـفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْـحَـرْفُ are the three cases of الْـكَلاَم which the ʿArabs have been regulated with conventional ʿArabic rules.

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وأَقْسَامُهُ‏‮ ‬‬ثَلاَثَةٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِسْمٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَفِعْلٌ‏‮ ‬‬وَحَرْفٌ‏‮ ‬‬جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬لِـمَعْنًى‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

وَأَقْسَامُــــهُ (And its parts) ثَلاَثَةٌ‏‮ ‬‬(are three): إِسْمٌ (a noun) and فِعْلٌ (a verb) and حَرْفٌ‏‮ ‬‬جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬لِـمَعْنَى (a letter [particle] coming with/for a meaning).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

وأقسامه ثلاثة إسم مثل زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬ورَجُلٌ‏‮ ‬‬وفعل مثل ضَرَبَ‏‮ ‬‬يَضْرِبُ‏‮ ‬‬إِضْرِبْ‏‮ ‬‬وحرف جاء لِـمعنى مثل هَلْ‏‮ ‬‬وفِي‏‮ ‬‬ولَمْ

Explanation of Text in English:

And its parts are three: إِسْمٌ (a noun) – like: زَيْدٌ (Zayd) and رَجُلٌ (man), and; فِعْلٌ (a verb) – like: ضَرَبَ (He beat) in the past tense, يَضْرِبُ (He beats) in the present tense and إِضْـرِبْ (Beat) in the command tense; and حَرْفٌ‏‮ ‬‬جَـاءَ‏‮ ‬‬لِـمَعْنَى (a letter coming with a meaning) – that is to say one letter by itself or two or three letters joined together that have a specific meaning like: هَـلْ (an interrogative particle that introduces a question) and فِـي (A preposition meaning ‘in’ or‘into’ among other things) and لَـمْ (a particle of negation that is used to negate the occurrence of an action in the past).

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬فَالِإسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬يُعْرَفُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْخَفْضِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالتَّنْوِينِ‏‮ ‬‬وَدُخُولِ‏‮ ‬‬الأَلِفِ‏‮ ‬‬وَاللاَّمِ‏‮  ‬‬وَحُرُوفِ‏‮ ‬‬الْخَفْضِ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‭:‬‮ ‬‬مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَإِلَى وَعَنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَعَلَى وَفِي‏‮ ‬‬وَرُبَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْبَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْكَافُ‏‮ ‬‬وَاللاَّمُ‏‮ ‬‬وَحُرُوفِ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَسَمِ‏‮ ‬‬وَهِيَ‏‮ ‬‬الْوَاوُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْبَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالتَّاءُ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

فَالإِسْمُُ (And so the noun) يُعْرَف بِـ (is known by) ‏‮ ‬‬الْـخَفْضِ (the lowering [of the vowel]) وَتَنْوِينِ ‏‮ ‬‬(and tanwiin [adding the nuun sound to the end of the word]); وَدُخُولِ‏  الأَلِفِ‏  اللاَّمِِ‏ (and the prefixing of the alif and the laam اَلْْ [the]);

وَحَرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الْخَفْضِ (and the particles of khaf [letters] of lowering) and they are:

; مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَإلَى وَعَنْ‏‮ ‬‬وَعَلَى وَفِي‏‮ ‬‬وَرُبَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْبَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْكَافُ‏‮ ‬‬وَاللاَّمُ

وَحَرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَسَمِ (and the particles of swearing) and they are:

.الْواوُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْبَاءُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالتَّاءُ.

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

فالإسم‏‮ ‬‬يعرف بالخفض كقولك مررت بالرّجلِ‏‮ ‬‬والغلامِ‏‮ ‬‬ِوبالتّنوين كقولك زيدٌ‏‮ ‬‬ورجلٌ‏‮ ‬‬وبدخول الألف واللاّم كقولك الرّجلُ‏‮ ‬‬والغلامُ‏‮ ‬‬وبحروف الخفض وهي‏‮ ‬‬من وإلى وعن وعلى وفي‏‮ ‬‬وربّ‏‮ ‬‬والباء والكاف واللام وحروف القسم وهي‏‮ ‬‬الواو والباء والتّاء كقولك سرتُ‏‮ ‬‬من البصرةِ‏‮ ‬‬إلى الكوفةِ‏‮ ‬‬ورحلتُ‏‮ ‬‬عن البلدِ‏‮ ‬‬وصعدت على الخيلِ‏‮ ‬‬وجلست في‏‮ ‬‬البيتِ‏‮ ‬‬وربّ‏‮ ‬‬رجلٍ‏‮ ‬‬كريمٍ‏‮ ‬‬لقِيته وكتبت بالقلمِ‏‮ ‬‬وزيدٌ‏‮ ‬‬كالأسدِ‏‮ ‬‬والحمدُ‏‮ ‬‬للّهِ‏‮ ‬‬وواللّهِ‏‮ ‬‬وباللّهِ‏‮ ‬‬وتاللّهِِ

Explanation of Text in English:

الإِسْمُ (The noun) is known by:

الْـخَفْضِ the lowering of the vowel (that is to say placing the vowel  كَسْرَة = ــِـ beneath the noun) as you would say: مَرَرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالرَّجُلِ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْغُلاَمِ (I passed by the man and the boy);

and by  التَّنْوِينِ (tanwin = ــًـ‏‮ ‬‬،‏‮ ‬‬ــٍـ‏‮ ‬‬،‏‮ ‬‬ــٌـ [the expression of ([the nuun sound bearing sukuun = نْ] at the end of a noun]) as you would say: زَيْدٌ (Zaydun) and رَجُلٌ (rajulun) and مُومِنَاتٌ (muuminaatun);

and by دُخُولِ‏‮ ‬‬الأَلِفِ‏‮ ‬‬وَاللاَّمِ (the prefixing of alif and laam = اَلْ to the front of the word) – as you would say: اَلرَّجُلُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْغُلاَمُ (the man and the servant boy) formed from the words: رَجُـلٌ and غُلاَمٌ;

and by the prefixing of حُرُوفِ‏‮ ‬‬الْـخَفْضِ (the letters [particles] of khaf∂ [lowering]) mainly prepositions – which cause the noun to carry  كَسْرَة = ــِـ / ــٍـ as its final vowel) and they are: مِنْ (from), إلَى (to), عَنْ (about, from), عَلَى (on), فِي (in, into), رُبَّ (how many a…), ِاَلْبَاءُ = بِ (by, in, with), اَلْكَافُ‏‮ ‬‬= كَ (like, as), اللاّمُ =‏‮ ‬‬لِ (to, belonging to, for) as you would say: سِرْتُ‏‮ ‬‬مِنَ‏‮ ‬‬الْبَصْرَةِ‏‮ ‬‬إِلَى الْكُوفَةِ‏‏ (I traveled from Baßrah to Kuufah), رَحَلْتُ‏‮ ‬‬عَنِ‏‮ ‬‬الْبَلَدِ (I departed from the country),  صَعَدتُ‏‮ ‬‬عَلَى الـْخَـيْـلِ  (I climbed upon the stallion),  جَلَسْتُ‏‮ ‬‬فِي‏‮ ‬‬الْبَـيْتِ (I sat in the house), رُبَّ‏‮ ‬‬رَجُلٍ‏‮ ‬‬كَرِيمٍ‏‮ ‬‬لَقِيتُهُ (Many a noble man I have met), كَتَـبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬بِــالْقَلَمِ  (I wrote with the pen), زَيْدٌ ‏كَـالأَسَدِ (Zayd  is like the lion), اَلْحَمْدُ‏‮ ‬‬لِــلَّهِ (The praise belongs to Allah);

and by حُرُوفِ‏‮ ‬‬الْقَسَمِ (the particles for swearing) and they are   اَلْوَاوُ = و (by) and  اَلْبَاءُ = بِ (by) and  اَلْتَاءُ = تَ (by) like when you say: وَاللَّهِ (I swear by Allah) and بِـاللَّهِ (I swear by Allah) تَـاللَّهِ (I swear by Allah),

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَالْفِِِِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬يُعْرَفُ‏‮ ‬‬بِقَدْ‏‮ ‬‬وَالسِّينِِِِِِِ‏‮ ‬‬وَسَوْفَ‏‮ ‬‬وَتَاءِِِِ‏‮ ‬‬التَّأْنِيثِِِ السَّاكِنَةِ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

وَاَلْفِعْلُ (And the verb) يُعْرَفُ‏‮ ‬‬بِقَدْ (is known by‮ ‬قَدْ)  and وَالسِّينوَسَوْفَ (and the particles سَ and وَسَوْفَ) and وَتَاءُ‏  التَّأْنِيثِ‏  السَّاكِنَةِ (and the taa of femininity bearing sukuun)

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

والفعل‏‮ ‬‬يعرف بـقد كقولك قَدْ‏‮ ‬‬قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬وقَدْ‏‮ ‬‬يَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬وبالـسّين وسَوْفَ‏‮ ‬‬كقولك سَيَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬وسَوْفُ‏‮ ‬‬يَقُومُ‏‮ ‬‬وبـتاء التّأنِيثِ‏‮ ‬‬السّاكنة كقولك قَامَتْ‏‮ ‬‬وقَاَلتْ‏‮

Explanation of Text in English:

The verb is known by قَدْ‏‮ ‬‬as you would say: قَدْ‏‮ ‬‬قَامَ (He definitely stood up) and قَدْ‏‮ ‬‬يَقُومُ (He might stand) and by السَّينِ (the particle سَ) and the particle سَوْفَ as you would say: سَيَقُومُ (He will stand) and سَوْفَ‏‮ ‬‬يَقُومُ (He will stand) and by تاَءِ‏‮ ‬‬التَّأنِيثِ‏‮ ‬‬السَّاكِنَةِ (the taa of the feminine doer bearing sukuun = تْ [which occurs at the end of the past tense verb to show that the pronoun [she] or [it – feminine] is the doer of the verb]) – like when you say:  قَـامَـتْ (she stood) and قَالَتْ (she spoke).

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَالـْحَرْفُ‏‮ ‬‬مَا لاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَصْلُحُ‏‮ ‬‬مَعَهُ‏‮ ‬‬دَليِلُ‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمِ‏‮ ‬‬وَلاَ‏‮ ‬‬دَلِيلُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفِعْلِ‏‮)

English Translation:

وَالْـحَرْفُ (And the particle is) مَا (the [(part of speech) for which]), دَلِيلُ‏‮ ‬‬الاِسْمِ (the distinguishing signs of the noun)‏‮ ‬‬وَدَلِيـلُ‏‮ ‬‬الْفِعْــلِ (and the distinguishing signs of the verb)‏‮ ‬‬لاَ‏‮ ‬‬يَصْلُحُ‏‮ ‬‬مَعَهُ (are not permissible with it).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

والحرف ما لا‏‮ ‬‬يصلح معه دليل الإسم ولا دليل الفعل لأنه لا‏‮ ‬‬يقبل علامات نحو ال ولا تنوين ولا‏‮ ‬‬يدخل حرف الخفـض عليه‏‮  ‬‬ولا قد أو السين أو سوف فلا تقول الـْمِِِنْ‏‮ ‬‬أو مِنًا أو إِلَي‏‮ ‬‬هَلْ‏‮ ‬‬لا تقول قََدْ‏‮ ‬‬فِِِِي‏‮ ‬‬أو سَعَلَى أو سََوْفَ‏‮ ‬‬عَنْ‏‮ ‬‬ ولو أنّ‏‮ ‬‬الحرف خالٍ‏‮ ‬‬من العلامات فإنه علامة لغيره‏‮ ‬‬

Explanation of Text in English:

الْـحَرْفُ (the particle) is the (part of speech) for which none of the  distinguishing signs of the noun and the distinguishing signs of the verb are permitted, because it is void of signs.  For  instance,  it  does  not  receive ال nor tanwiin (ــً‏‮ ‬‬,‏‮ ‬‬ــٍـ‏‮ ‬‬, ــٌـ‏‮ ‬‬) nor do the prepositions ( عَنْ‏‮ ‬‬،‏‮ ‬‬إِلَى‏‮ ‬‬،‏‮ ‬‬مِنْ etc.) come in front of it nor  do قد or سـَ or سوف come in front of it.  You can not say الـْمِِِنْ or مِنًا or إِلَي‏‮ ‬‬هَلْ nor do you say قَدْ‏‮ ‬‬فِي or سَعَلَى or سَوْفَ‏‮ ‬‬عَنْ.  Although الْحَرْف (the particle) is void of distinguishing signs, it is a distinguishing sign for other words.

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 2 – (The Chapter About الاِعْرَاب [Inflection])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 3 – (The Chapter Concerning The Knowledge of ʿAlaamaatu-l-Iʿraab [The Signs Of Iʿraab])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 4 – A Section Elaborating About What Has Been Previously Mentioned)

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 5 – The Chapter about Al-Afʿaal [the Verbs]

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 6 – The Chapter About Marfuʿaatu – l – Asmaa’[The Nouns that are Caused to be in the Case of Rafʿ]

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 7 – The Chapter About Al-Faaʿil [the Doer])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 8 – (The Chapter About al-Mafʿuul [The Receiver Of The Action Whose Doer Was Not Mentioned])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 9 – (The Chapter About Al-Mubtada’ [The Subject] And Al-Khabr [The Predicate])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 10 – (The Chapter About Al – ʿAwaamil [The Governors] That Enter Upon The Subject And The Predicate

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 11 – (The Chapter About An-Naʿt [The Adjective])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 12 – (The Chapter About Al-ʿAṭf [The Conjoining Of Words])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 13 – (The Chapter About At-Tawkiid [The Emphasizing of the Noun])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 14 – (The Chapter About Al-Badal [The Substitute])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 15 – (The Chapter About Al-Manṣuubaatu-l-Asmaa’i [The Nouns In The Case Of Naṣb])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 16 – (The Chapter About Al – Mafʿuul Bihi [The Object of the Verb])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 17 – (The Chapter About Al-Maṣdar [The Verbal Noun])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 18 – (The Chapter About Ḍharfu-z-Zamaan [The Adverb Of Time] and Ḍharful-Makaan [The Adverb Of Place])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 19 – (The Chapter About Al-Haal [The Circumstantial Noun])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 20 – (The Chapter About At-Tamyiiz [The Noun Of Specification])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 21 – (The Chapter About (Al-Istath-naa’ [The Exclusion of Nouns])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 22 – (The Chapter About Laa)

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 23 – (The Chapter About Al-Munaadaa [The Noun in Direct Address])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 24 – (The Chapter About Al-Mafʿuul Min-Ajlih [Causative Object])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 25 – The Chapter About Al-Mafʿuul Maʿahu [The Object Which Accompanies The Subject In The Execution Of An Action])

Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 26 – (The Chapter About Al-Makhfuuḍaat [The Nouns Caused to be in The Case of Khafḍ)

 

Published in: on August 28, 2010 at 18:45  Leave a Comment  
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