Al Ajurruumiyyah – Chapter 24 – (The Chapter About Al-Mafʿuul Min-Ajlih [Causative Object])

     بَابُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَفْعُول مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬أَجْلِهِ

24 – (The Chapter About Al-Mafʿuul Min-Ajlih [Causative Object])

ʿArabic Text:

‏‮(‬‬وَهُوَ‏‮ ‬‬الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمَنْصُوبُ‏‮ ‬‬الِذي‏‮ ‬‬يُذْكَرُ‏‮ ‬‬بَيَانًا لِسَبَبِ‏‮ ‬‬وُقُوعِ‏‮ ‬‬الْفِعْلِ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ‏‮ ‬‬قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِجْلاَلاً‏‮ ‬‬لِعَمْرٍو وَقَصَدْتُكَ‏‮ ‬‬ابْتِغَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬مَعْرُوفِكَ‏‮)‬‬

English Translation:

وَهُوَ (It [al-mafʿuul min-ajlih – the causative object]) الإِسْمُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمَنْصُوبُ (is the noun in the case of naṣb) الِـذي (which) يُـذْكَرُ‏‮ ‬‬بَـيَانًـا (is mentioned to clarify) لِسَبَبِ‏‮ ‬‬وُقُوعِ (the reason for the occurrence of an action) – ‏‮ ‬‬نَحْوُ‏‮ ‬‬قَوْلِكَ‬(like when you say): قَـامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِجْـلاَلاً‏‮ ‬‬لِـعَمْرٍو (Zayd stood respectfully for ʿAmr) وَقَـصَدْتُـكَ‏‮ ‬‬ابْـتِغَـــاءَ‏‮ ‬‬معَْرُوفِـكَ and (I came to you seeking your kindness).

Explanation of Text in ʿArabic:

الـمفعول من أجله هو ما وفعه الفعل كقولك قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِجْلاَلاً‏‮ ‬‬لِعَمْرٍو وَذَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬شَوْقًا إِلَيْكَ‏‮ ‬‬وهو الإسم الـمنصوب الذي‏‮ ‬‬يُذكر بيانًا لسبب وقوع الفعل الصادر من الفاعل فإن إِجلالاً‏‮ ‬‬قد ذُكِر بيانًا لسبب الْقِيَام وشوقًـــا‏‮ ‬‬ذُكِر بيانًا لسبب الذَّوْب و لذلك سُمِّي‏‮ ‬‬الـمفعول لأجله أي‏‮ ‬‬الإسم الذي‏‮ ‬‬فُعِل الفعل لأجله لأن القيام في‏‮ ‬‬الـمثال الأوّل إنّما صدر من زيد لأجل إجلال عَمْرٍو و الذَّوْب في‏‮ ‬‬الـمثال الثّاني‏‮ ‬‬صدر لسبب الشّوق‏‮ ‬‬

Explanation of Text in English:

‏‮ ‬‬الْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬أَجْلِهِ (The causative object) is the noun upon which the action falls – like when you say: قَـامَ‏‮ ‬‬إِجْـلاَلاً‏‮ ‬‬لِـعَمْرٍو‏‮ ‬‬‏‮ ‬‬ (Zayd stood respectfully for ʿAmr and ذَبْتُ‏‮ ‬‬شَوْقًا إِلَيْك (I am pining away with longing for you); and it is the noun in the case of naṣb which is mentioned to clarify, the reason for the occurrence of an action which emanates/originates from the doer. And so إِجْـلاَلاً [respectfully] has been mentioned to clarify the reason for الْـقِيَام [the standing].  While شوقًـــا‏‮ ‬‬ [longing] has been mentioned to clarify the reason for الذَّوْب (the pining).  It is for this reason it is called الْـمَفْعُولُ‏‮ ‬‬مِـنْ‏‮ ‬‬أَجْـلِه (the causative object) – that is to say that the noun which has the action done لأَِجْـلِه (because of it), because القيام [the standing] which has been mentioned in the first example emanated from Zayd due to إجْـلالُ‏‮ ‬‬عَـمْرٍو (respect for Amr) and الذَّوْب [the pining] mentioned in the second example occurred as a result of الشَّوْق [the longing]).

Arabic Grammar – Chapter 1 – الْفِعْلُ (The Verb) and وأَقسَامُهُ (and Its Parts) Section 2

Section 2 – الْـمْتَعدِّي‮ ‬ (The Transitive Verb) ‮ ‬واللاَّزِم(and Intransitive Verb)

The Arabic verb in respect to its meaning is divided betweenالْفِعْلُ‮ ‬الْـمْتَعَدِي‮ ‬ (The transitive verb) and اللازِم (the   intransitive verb).

الْفِعْلُ‮ ‬الْـمْتَعَدِي‮ ‬ (The Transitive Verb)

The action of الْـفِعْلُ‮ ‬الْـمْتَعَدِي‮ ‬ (The transitive verb) is traced back to فاعْـله (its doer) and directed towards الْـمَفْعول بِهِ (it’s direct object), like when you say:فَتَحَ‮ ‬طَارِقٌ‮ ‬الأَنْدَلُسَ‮ ‬ (Tāriq conquered al-Andalus). And so the verb needs the doer to do the action and the direct object to receive it.

الْـفِعْلُ‮ ‬الْـمْتَعَدِي‮ ‬(The transitive verb) is also called الْـفِعْلُ‮ ‬الْـوَاقِـعُ‮ ‬(The  verb of occurrence or happening) because its action falls upon or happens to الْـمَفْعول بِـهِ (the direct object for it).

الْـفِعْلُ‮ ‬الْـمْتَعَدِي‮ ‬(The transitive verb) is also referred to as الْـفِعْلُ‮ ‬الْـمُجَاوَزَةُ‮ ‬(The crossing verb) because the action of its doer crosses over to الْـمَفْعول بِـهِ (the direct object). One of its signs is that it comes in contact‮ ‬with هَـاء of the attached pronoun which replaces الْـمَفْعول بِـهِ (the direct object). اجْتِهَادُ‮ ‬الطَّالبِ‮ ‬فأَكْرََمَهُ‮ ‬أُسْتَاذُهُ (The student worked hard, and so his professor honored him).

As for the هَـاء of the attached pronoun which replaces الْـظَّرْفُ (the adverb) and الْـمَصْدَر (the verbal noun), it is not a sign of الْـفِعْلُ‮ ‬الْـمْتَعَدِي‮ ‬ (the transitive verb) when it is affixed to the end of the verb.  The example of the هَـاء of the attached pronoun which replaces الْـظَّرْفُ (the adverb) is like when you say: يَومُ‮ ‬الْـجُمُعَةِ‮ ‬زُرْتُهُ‮ ‬(The Day of Jumuʿah is when I visited him). تَـجَـمَّلْ‮ ‬بِـالْـفَضِيلَةِ‮ ‬تـَجَـمُّلاً‮ ‬كَـانَ‮ ‬يَتَجَـمَّلُهُ‮ ‬سَـلَفُكَ‮ ‬الصَّالِـحُ (adorned yourself greatly with moral excellence,  which your righteous predecessor used to adorned himself with). And so,  in the first example the هَـاء of the attached pronoun is standing in the place of a noun in the case of naṣb which is  الْـمَفْعول بِـهِ (the direct object), while in the second example the هَـاء of the attached pronoun is standing in the place of a noun in the case of naṣb which is مَفْعولُ‮ ‬مُطْلَقٍ (the unrestricted object) also called الْـمَصْدَر (the verbal noun).

‮ ‬الْـمْتَعَدِي‮ ‬بِنَفْسِهِ‮ ‬(The Transitive Verb That Comes by Itself) وَالْـمْتَعَدِي‮ ‬بِغَيْرهِ‮ ‬ (and the Transitive Verb that Comes with Something Else)

‮ ‬الْـمْتَعَدِي‮ ‬بِنَفْسِهِ‮ ‬(The transitive verb that comes by itself) is the verb that comes in direct contact with الْـمَفْعول بِـهِ (the direct object) without a حَـرْفُ‮ ‬الْـجَـرُّ (preposition) standing in between the verb and the object, like when you say: بَـرَيْـتُ‮ ‬الْـقَلَمَ‮ ‬ (I made the pen), and its object is said to be صَـرِيـحًا (clear, unambiguous).

‮ ‬الْـمْتَعَدِي‮ ‬بِـغَيْرِهِ‮ ‬(The transitive verb that is accompanied) is the verb that comes in contact with الْـمَفْعول بِـهِ (the direct object) by means of حَـرْفُ‮ ‬الْـجَـرُّ (the preposition) which stands between the verb and the object, like when you say: ذَهَـبْتُ‮ ‬بِـكَ‮ ‬ (I went away with you),  meaning أَذْهَـبْتُكَ‮ ‬ (I took you away with me) and its object is said to be  غَيْرُ صَـرِيـحٍ (unclear).

There isالْـفِعْلُ‮ ‬الْـمْتَعَدِي‮ ‬ (the transitive verb) that has two direct objects. One of them is  صَـرِيـحًا (clear, unambiguous) and the other is  غَـيْرُ صَـرِيـحٍ (unclear, ambiguous), like when you say: أَدُّوا الأمَانَاتِ‮ ‬إِلَى أَهْلِهَا ‬ (They took/delivered what they were entrusted with to its owner). الأمَـانَـاتِ is مَـفْعول بِـهِ (a direct object) صَـرِيـحٌ (which is clear, unambiguous), while أَهْلِ is a direct object which  غَيْرُ صَـرِيـحٍ (is not clear). It is is clearly expressed in the case of jarr due to حَـرْفُ‮ ‬الْـجَـرُّ (the preposition), and it’s standing in the place of a noun in the case of naṣb, because the fact that it is مَـفْعول بِـهِ (a direct object) غَيْرُ صَـرِيـحٍ (is not clear).

Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 1 – Letters, Words and Sentences
 
 
 
 
 
 
and The Meaning of الْـكَلاَمُ(Speech) in the Arabic Language
 



Arabic Grammar – Chapter 1 – الْفِعْلُ (The Verb) and وأَقسَامُهُ (and Its Parts) Section 1

Section 1 – The Discussion Aboutالْـمَاضِـي‮ ‬(The Past Tense Verb), الْـمُضَارِعُ‮ ‬(The Present Tense Verb), الأَمْرُ‮ ‬ (The Command Tense Verb)

With respect to time, the verb is divided into: the الْـمَاضِـي‮ ‬ (the present tense verb), الْـمُضَارِعُ‮ ‬ (the past tense verb), الأَمْرُ‮ ‬ (the command tense verb).

 الْـمَاضِـي‮ ‬ (The past tense verb) is a word which in itself shows the meaning of something which has occurred in past time, like the words: اِجْتَحَـدَ‮ ‬,‮ ‬جَـاءَ and تَـعَلَّمَ. The signs that distinguish the past tense verbs are: تَـاء التَّأنِـيثِ‮ ‬السَّاكِـنَةِ‮ ‬ (the feminine taa which bears sukuun), like when you say:كَتَـتْ‮ ‬ or تَـاء الضَّمير‮ ‬ (the taa of the pronoun doer), like when you say:‮ ‬كَتَـبْـتُمْ‮ ‬,كَتَبْـتُمَا‮ ‬,كَتَـبْـتِ‮ ‬,كَتَـبْـتَ‮  ‬,كَتَبَـتْ‮ ‬and كَتَبْـتُـنَّ.

الْـمُضَارِعُ‮ ‬ (The Present Tense Verb) is that which in itself shows the meaning of something which most likely will occur in the present or in the future, like the words: يَجْتَحِـدُ‮ ‬,‮ ‬يَـجِـيءَُ and يَـتَـعَلَّمُ. Among the signs that distinguish the present tense verbs are: لَنْ  , لَمْ , سَوفَ , سَ , like when you say: لَنْ‮ ‬أَتَأَخَّرْ  , لَمْ‮ ‬أَكْسِلْ , سَوفَ‮ ‬يَـجِـيءَُ.

الأَمْـرُ‮ ‬ (The Command Tense Verb) is the verb which demonstrates that an action is sought from the second person doer (you) by way of a command or order, like when you say: اِجْتَحِـدْ‮ ‬,‮ ‬جِـيءَْ and تَـعَلَّمْ. The signs that distinguish the command tense verbs depends on the form pattern of the verb, and in addition, the affixing of ي to the end of the verb to denote the second person feminine doer, like when you say: اِجْتَحِـدي.

Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 1 – Letters, Words and Sentences
and The Meaning of الْـكَلاَمُ(Speech) in the Arabic Language

Arabic Grammar – Chapter 1 – الْفِعْلُ (The Verb) and وأَقسَامُهُ (and Its Parts) Section  2 – الْـمْتَعَدِّي‮ ‬ (The Transitive Verb) ‮ ‬واللاَّزِم(and Intransitive Verb)

‮ ‬ Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 6 -أحْكَام ‬الإعْرَاب ‬ (Rules of Inflection)

أحْكَام ‬الإعْرَاب ‬ (Rules of Inflection)

الْـمُعْرَبُ‮ ‬بالْـحَرَكَة ‬ (The Word  That is Inflected with the Vowel) and الْـمُعْرَبُ‮ ‬بِالْـحَرْف (The Word That is Inflected with the Letter)

 There are two kinds of الْـمُعْرَبَـات (Inflected words): words that are inflected with vowels and words that are inflected with letters. There are four kinds of words that are inflected with vowels: الْإِسْمُ الْـمُفْرَدُ (the singular noun), جَمْعُ التَّكْسِيرِ (the broken plural noun), جَمْعُ الْـمُؤَنِثِ السَّالِمِ  (the sound feminine plural noun), and الْفِعْلُ الْـمُضَارُ الَّذِي لَمْ يَتَّصِلْ بِآخَرِهِ شَيْءٌ (the present tense verb which does not have anything affixed to its end [that is necessary for its construction]).

All of the above mentioned words are in the case of rafʿ by ḍammah, in the case of naṣb by fatḥah, in the case of jarr by kasrah and in the case of jazm by sukuun. The exception to this rule is: the noun which is not fully inflective which is in the case of jarr by fatḥah, like when you say: صَـلَّى اللهُ‮ ‬عَـلَى إِبْرَاهِمَ; and the sound feminine plural which is in the case of naṣb by kasrah, like when you say: أَكْرِمْتُ‮ ‬الْـمُجْتَحِدَاتِ‮ ‬, and‮ ‬the present tense verb which has a weak letter affixed to its end. It is caused to be in the case of jazm by dropping the weak letter, like when you say لَمْ‮ ‬يَخْشَ‮  (‬يَخْشَــى‮)‬ ‮ ‬ولَمْ‮ ‬يَـمْشِ‮  (‬يَـمْشِــي‮)‬  ولَمْ يَغْزُ)‮ (‬يَغْزُو‮)‬ا.

There are also four kinds words which are inflected with letters: الْـمُثَنّى وَالْـمُلْحَق بِهِ (the dual noun and what is annexed to [follows] it), جَمْعُ‮ ‬الْـمُذَكِّرِ‮ ‬السَّالِمِ‮ ‬وَالْـمُلْحَقُ بِهِ (the sound masculine plural and what is annexed to [follows] it), الْأَسْـمَاءُ‮ ‬الْـخَـمْسَةُ (the five nouns) and الأَفْعَالُ‮ ‬الْـخَـمْسَةُ  (the five verbs).  The five nouns are: أَبُو وَأخُو وَحَمُو وَفُو وَذُو. The five verbs are: يَذْهَبَانِ‮ ‬وَتَذْهَبْانِ‮ ‬وَيَذْهَبُونَ‮ ‬وَتَذْهَبُونَ‮ ‬وَتَذْهَبِينَ. More explanation of all of these in the sections that explain the inflection of verbs and nouns.

  The Divisions of الإعْرَابُ‮ ‬ (the Inflection of Words)

There are three types ofالإعْـرَابُ‮ ‬ (word inflection): اللَـفْظِيّ ‬(expressed inflection), تَـقْدِيريّ‮ ‬ (implied inflection) and ‮ ‬مَحَـلْيّ (inflection due to the word’s location).

 الإعْـرَابُ‮ ‬اللَـفْظِيّ‮ ‬ (Expressed Inflection)

 الإعْـرَابُ‮ ‬اللَـفْظِيّ‮ ‬ (Expressed inflection) is a clear signed placed at the end of the word due to the governor that precedes it. Expressed inflection is found in inflective words that are not weak at the end.  For example: يُكْرِمُ‮ ‬الأُسْتَاذُ‮ ‬الْـمُجْتَحهِدَ.

 الإعْـرَابُ‮ ‬التَّـقْدِيريّ‮ ‬ (Implied Inflection)

 الإعْـرَابُ‮ ‬التَّـقْدِيريّ‮ ‬ (Implied inflection) is a sign not clearly seen at the end of the word due to the governor that precedes it. The vowel at the end of the word is implied because it can’t be expressed. They are words which are weak because they have alif, waaw or yaa affixed to their end. andالإعْـرَابُ‮ ‬التَّـقْدِيريّ‮ ‬ (implied inflection) is also found in the nouns that are in iḍaafah with the yaa of the first person masculine pronoun, and in a word used for illustration or example when  not a sentence.الإعْـرَابُ‮ ‬التَّـقْدِيريّ‮ ‬(Implied inflection) is also found in any fixed word or sentence that is said to haveالإعْـرَابُ‮ ‬التَّـقْدِيريّ‮ ‬(implied inflection).

‮ ‬إعْرَابُ‮ ‬الْـمُعْتِلِّ‮ ‬الآخَرِ‮ ‬(Inflection of Words That are Weak at the End)

It is not possible to affix any of the three vowels to alif maqsuurah, for example: يَقْضِي‮ ‬الْقَاضِي‮ ‬عَلَى الّهُدَى لِلعُلَى. The meaning of not possible is that it is not possible for the three signs of inflection: ḍammah, fatḥah, and kasrah, to be affixed to alif maqṣuurah.

As for the case of jazm, alif maqṣuurah is  dropped as a sign of jazm, like when you say: لَمْ‮ ‬يَخْشَ‮ ‬إِلاَّ‮ ‬اللهَ.

As for waaw and yaa, ḍammah and kasrah are impicit for them because they are burdensome on the tongue if expressed, and so you say: يَقْضِي‮ ‬الْقَاضِي‮ ‬عَلَى الْـجَانِي‮ ‬ and ‮ ‬يَدْعُو الدَّاعِي‮ ‬إِلَى النَّادِي

What is meant by the term burdensome on the tongue is that the affixing of ḍammah and kasrah to waaw and yaa is possible, like  if you say: يَقْضِيُ‮ ‬الْقَاضِيُ‮ ‬عَلَى الْـجَانِي‮ ‬ and‮ ‬يَدْعُوُ‮ ‬الدَّاعِيُ‮ ‬إِلَى النَّادِي‮ ‬but it is a burden on the tongue  that is greatly disliked. This is the reason why both ḍammah and kasrah are implied rather than expressed. That is to say, that the possibility of their expression is understood, but not done.

إعْرَابُ‮ ‬الْـمُضَافِ‮ ‬إِلَى‮ ‬يَاءِ‮ ‬الْـمُتَكَلَّمِ‮ ‬ (The Inflection of the Noun That is in an Iḍaafah Construction with the Yaa First Person Pronoun)

The noun that is in an iḍaafah construction with the first person pronoun is inflected (as long as it doesn’t end with alif maqṣuurah, or  it is not a defective noun, or a dual noun or a sound masculine plural noun). It is in the case of rafʿ or naṣb by either an implied ḍammah or fatḥah the end which cannot appear at the end of the nouns in the case of rafʿ or naṣb, because the kasrah (which is the vowel that corresponds with yaa)  must be used, like when you say: ‮ ‬رَبِّيَ‮ ‬اللهُ and أَطَعْتُ‮ ‬رَبِّي.

As for the case of jarr, it is known by placing kasrah clearly at the end of a noun according to what is most correct, like when you say:  الزِّمْتُ‮ ‬طَاعَةَ رَبِّي. This is the opinion/view of a group of the recognized/competent grammarians, among whom is Ibnu Mālik, while The majority of them agree that it is inflected, and also in the case of jarr at the end by an implied kasrah. This is because they are of the opinion that the kasrah which appears at the end is not a sign of jarr, but rather, it is the kasrah which accompanies the yaa of the first person singular pronoun when it is affixed to a noun, while the kasrah of the case of jarr is implied.

If the noun in an iḍaafah with the yaa of the first person singular pronoun is affixed with alif maqṣuurah as a final vowel, the alif remains in its condition, and is inflected with implied vowels on the alif maqsuurah in the same manner it would have been inflected before the yaa of the first person singular pronoun would have been affixed to it, and so you say: هَـذِه عَـصَايَ‮ ‬ and تَـوَكَّأَْتُ‮ ‬عَـلى عَـصَايَ. If the noun is defective, then its yaa is assimilated into the yaa of the first person singular pronoun.

The noun in the case of naṣb is inflected with an implied fatḥah because the sukuun of assimilation is prevented from appearing on it, and so you say: حَـمِدْتُ‮ ‬اللهَ‮ ‬مُـعْطِيّ‮ ‬الرِزْقَ

The noun in the case of rafʿ and jarr is inflected by implied ḍammah and kasrah on its yaa, which are prevented from appearing on either of them because the first is heavy on the tongue and the second is the sukuun of assimilation, and so you say: ‮ ‬اللهَ‮ ‬مُـعْطِيّ‮ ‬الرِزْقَ and ‮ ‬شَكَرْتُ‮ ‬لِـمُـعْطِيّ‮ ‬الرِزْقَ.

Some of the recognized/competent grammarians are of the opinion/view that the appearance of ḍammah and kasrah on the defective letters that are in an iḍaafah with the yaa of the first person singular pronoun are prohibited whenever it is the sukuun of assimilation, and  it’s a similar case when it is the case of naṣb.

Aṣ-Ṣibaan has said in the chapter about the yaa of the first person singular pronoun, according to the one explaining the point of grammar about هَـذَا رَامِـي, that رَامِـي is in the case of rafʿ by an implied ḍammah on the the letter that precedes the yaa of the first person singular pronoun which is prevented from appearing on letter, because its place is occupied by the sukuun that is required because of assimilation and not because of the weightiness of expression. It would be same even if this wasn’t the case. This is due to the fact that prosody necessitates sukuun in this case with what is stronger than the burdensome vowels, which is the assimilation of the letters.

 It would be same even if this weren’t the case, due to the fact that prosody necessitates sukuun in this case, with of what is stronger than burdensome vowels, which is the assimilation of the letters.

As for the dual noun, its alif remains in its condition, like when you say: هَـذَانِ‮ ‬كِتَابَايَ,  the yaa of the dual noun, it is assimilated into the yaa of the first person singular pronoun like when you say: عَلَّمْتُ‮ ‬وَلَدَىَّ.

If is the sound masculine plural, its waaw [like in the word مُـعَلِّمُــونَ] is converted to a yaa which is assimilate into the yaa of the first person singular pronoun, like when you say: مُـعَلِّمِــيَّ‮ ‬يُـحِبُّونَ‮ ‬أَدَبِـي.

As for its yaa,  [like in the word مُـعَلِّمـيــنَ], it is also assimilated into the yaa of the first person singular pronoun also. like when you say: أَكْرِمْتُ‮ ‬مُـعَلِّمِـيَّ.

The dual noun and the sound masculine plural noun are inflected when they are in an iḍaafah construction with the yaa of the first person singular pronoun by the letters in the same manner they were inflected before they were put in an iḍaafah construction with it. As you saw.

إعْرَابُ‮ ‬الْـمَحْكِيِّ‮  ‬ (The Inflection of The Exact Quotation)

الـحِـكَايَـة (The exact quotation) is the quotation of what you have heard or read. It is the exact quotation of a word or a sentence, and the speech from either of these is repeated exactly as it has been expressed, even if it’s a grammatical mistake and the exact quotation of it is necessary in order to point out the mistake.

 الـحِـكَايَـة (The exact quotation) is like when some has said: كَـتَبْتُ‮  ‬يَـعلَمُ‮ ‬(I wrote, “يَـعلَمُ”), meaning I wrote this word.

يَـعلَمُ  is  normally a present tense verb in the case of rafʿ, and therefore ungoverned  by the particles of naṣb and jazm.  In the above example يَـعلَمُ is a exact quotation and therefore it is the object of the verb  كَـتَبْتُ, but its inflection is implied because the real vowels of inflection cannot appear on a exact quotation.

If you say: كَـتَبَ‮ ‬فِـعْلٌ‮ ‬مَاضِـي, the word كَـتَبَ in this case is a exact quotation, and it is the subject of the sentence in the case of rafʿ by an implied ḍammah which cannot appear on a exact quotation.

If it is said to you  give an explanation of the inflection of the word سَـعِيدًا ‬ when you have said: رَأَيْـتُ سَـعِيدًا, in turn you say:‮ ‬سَـعِيدًا الْـمَفْعُولُ‮ ‬بِـهِ, you quote the expression exactly in the case of naṣb, even though in your statement سَـعِيدًا is the subject of the sentence and الْـمَفْعُولُ‮ ‬بِـهِ is the predicate, except that سَـعِيدًا has an implied ḍammah at its end, because a vowel of inflection cannot appear at the end of a exact quotation, That is to say, whatever is exactly quoted by you remains fixed in the construction on the way it was quoted.

The word is quoted exactly  after  من الإستفهامية‮ ‬ (man which is used for clarification) if it is not preceded by a conjunction like when you say: رَأَيْتُ‮ ‬خَالِدًا and someone says: مَـن خَـالِـدًا, however if it preceded by a conjunction the exact quotation of it is not permitted, rather you should say: وَمَن خَالِدٌ؟

The sentence that is exactly quoted is like when you say: قُـلْتُ‭:‬‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬إِلـاـه إِلاَّ‮ ‬الله‮ ‬(I said),‮ ‬, سَمِعْتُ‭:‬حَيِّ‮ ‬عَلَى الصَّلاةِ‮ ‬(I heard), قَرَأْتُ‭:‬قُلْ‮ ‬هُوَ‮ ‬اللهُ‮ ‬أَحَدٌ (I read), كَتَبْتُ‭:‬اسْتَقِمْ‮ ‬كَمَا أُمِـرْتَ(I wrote). These sentences are exact quotations standing in the place of a noun in the case of naṣb due to the verbs that precede them, and therefore they are inflected according to their position in the sentence.

The rule regarding a sentence is that it is fixed in its construction, and if it is governed by a governor, then it is standing in the place of a noun that is either in the case of rafʿ, naṣb or jarr, depending on the governor, unless it can’t be inflected.

إعْرَابُ‮ ‬الْـمَسَمَى بِهِ‮  ‬ (The Inflection of a Word That Has Been Given a Name)

When you mention a word that is fixed in its construction, then you should leave it in its case, and its inflection is implied for all three cases.

If you name a man رُبَّ or مَنْ or حَيْثُ, and so you say: جَاء رُبَّ‮ . ‬أَكْرِمْتُ‮ ‬حَيْثُ‮ . ‬أَحْسَنْتُ‮ ‬إِلَـى مَـنْ, the vowels of inflection are implied at the end of them. A vowel of inflection is prohibited from appearing  on a word that has a fixed vowel as part of its root construction.

It is similar if you name a sentence like: تَأْبِطَ‮ ‬شَرًا‮ ‬and جَادُ‮ ‬الْـحَقُّ‮ ‬ you‮ ‬didn’t change it because of the unusual inflection and so you say: جَاءَ‮ ‬تَأْبِطَ‮ ‬شَرًا‮ . ‬أَكْرِمْتُ‮ ‬جَادَ‮ ‬الْـحَقُّ‮ ‬the inflection of the unusual construction is implied. A vowel of inflection is prohibited from appearing  on a word that has a fixed vowel as part of its root construction.‮ ‬

إعْرَابُ‮ ‬الْـمَحَلِّي‮ ‬ (The Inflection of a  Part of Speech By Virtue of its Location in the Grammatical Construction)

The inflection of a part of speech by virtue of its location in the grammatical construction is a relative change due to the governor that proceeds that part of speech, but this change is neither expressed or implied, because it is found in words fixed in their construction, like when you say:  جَاءَ‮ ‬هَؤُلاَءِ‮ ‬التِّلْمِيذُ‮ ‬،‮ ‬وأَكْرَمْتُ‮ ‬مَنْ‮ ‬تَعَلَّمَ‮ ‬وَأَحْسَنْتُ‮ ‬إِلَى الذِينَ‮ ‬احْتَهَدُوا لَمْ‮ ‬يَنْحَجّنَّ‮ ‬الْكَسْلاَنُ.

It is also found in sentences that are exactly quoted. There has already been a discussion about it. The vowels of inflection do not appear at the end of the fixed construction because they are fixed in a specific case.

When word fixed in its construction is in the case of rafʿ, naṣb, jarr, or jazm, its case of rafʿ, naṣb, jarr, or jazm is in consideration of its location.  It’s inflection is called the inflection of location in view of the fact that the word is standing in the place of a word that would either be in the case of rafʿ, naṣb, jarr, or jazm. and therefore it is said that the case of rafʿ, naṣb, jarr, or jazm is due to the location. That is to say, with respect to its location in the sentence), in as much as if its location is permitted to be inflected in the case of rafʿ, naṣb, jarr, or jazm.

The particles, the command tense verb, the past tense verb which is not preceded by a conditional sign of the case of jasm, the verbal nouns and the interjections do not have an expressed, implied or locational change at their end, and it is for this reason, it is said, that there is no form of inflection for them.

As for the present tense verb which is fixed in its construction, its inflection  which is based on its location is either rafʿ, naṣb or jazm, like when you say: هَـلْ‮  ‬يَكْتُبَنَّ‮ ‬وَيَكْتُبْنَ‮ ‬وَاللهُ‮ ‬لَنْ‮ ‬يَكْتُبَنَّ‮ ‬وَلَنْ‮ ‬يَكْتُبْنَ‮ ‬لَمْ‮ ‬يَكْتُبَنَّ‮ ‬وَلَمْ‮ ‬يَكْتُبْنَ.

As for the past tense verb which is preceded by a conditional sign of the case of jasm, it is in the case of jasm due to its location, like when you say: إِنَ‮ ‬اجْتَهَدَ‮ ‬عَـلِيٌّ‮  ‬اكْرَمَهُ‮ ‬مُعَلِّمُهُ.

Inflection Summary

There are four kinds of inflectional words: مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬إِلَـيْهِ‮ ‬ (subject), مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬ (predicate), فَـضْلَة‮ ‬ (The word that is used in addition to words normally used), and أَدَاة‮ ‬ (particle).

مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬إِلَـيْهِ‮ ‬ (Subject) and مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬ (predicate) have been previously discussed. Each of them is called a support word because it is one of the parts of speech which cannot under any condition stand independently from it, nor is a sentence complete without it. the example of مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬إِلَـيْهِ‮ ‬ (predicate) and مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬ (subject) is like when you say: الصِّدْقُ‮ ‬أَمَانَة.

مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬ (The predicate) is always a noun, like the word: نَافِعٌ‮ ‬ when you say: الْعِلْمُ‮ ‬نَافِعٌ‮ ‬ and the verbal noun, like when say: هيَهَاتَ‮ ‬الْـمَزَارُ‮ ‬ and a verb: جَاء الْـحَقُّ‮ ‬وَزَهَقَ‮ ‬الْبَاطِلُ.

إعْرَابُ‮ ‬الْـمُسْنَدِ‮ ‬إِلَيّهِ‮ ‬  (Inflection of the Subject)

The rule for مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬إِلَـيْهِ‮ ‬ (subject) is that it is always in the case of rafʿ if occurs without a governor, like when you say: فَازَ‮ ‬الْـمُجْتَهِدُ‮ . ‬الْـحَقُّ‮ ‬مَـنْصُورُ‮ . ‬كَـانَ‮ ‬عُـمْرُ‮ ‬عَـادِلاً, unless it occurs after the particle إِنَّ and its sisters. As for when that occurs, the rule is that مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬إِلَـيْهِ‮ ‬ (subject) should be in the case of naṣb, like when you say: إِنَّ‮ ‬عُمْرَ‮ ‬عَادِلٌ‮ .‬

إعْرَابُ‮ ‬الْـمُسْنَدِ‮ ‬ (Inflection of the Predicate)

The rule for مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬(predicate) is that it is always in the case of rafʿ also, like when you say: السَّبِقُ‮ ‬فَائِزٌ‮ . ‬إِنَّ‮ ‬الْحَقَّ‮ ‬غَالِبٌ, ‮ ‬unless it occurs after the particle كَـانَ and its sisters.‮ ‬As for when that occurs, the rule is that مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬إِلَـيْهِ‮ ‬(subject) should be in the case of naṣb, like when you say:‮  ‬كَـانَ‮ ‬عَلِيٌّ‮ ‬بَابَ‮ ‬مَدِينَةِ‮ ‬الْعِلْمِ.

If the مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬ (predicate) is a past tense verb, then it is always fixed in its construction on the vowel fatḥah, like: انْـتَصَرَ, unless the waaw of the of the third person plural, fixed in its construction on ḍammah is affixed to the end of it, like: انْـتَصَرُوا‮ ‬or when the past tense verb has affixed to its end, a doer pronoun fixed in its construction on sukuun, like: انْـتَصَرْتُ‮ . ‬انْـتَصَرْتُمْ‮ . ‬انْـتَصَرْنَا.

If the مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬ (predicate) is a present tense verb, then it is always in the case of rafʿ, like: يَـنْـصُرُ, unless it is preceded by a particle of naṣb, in which case it will be in the case of naṣb, like when you say: لَـنْ‮ ‬تَـبْلُغَ‮ ‬الْـمَجْدَ‮ ‬إِلاَّ‮ ‬بِالْـجِدِّ,‮ ‬or it is preceded by a particle of jazm, in which case it will be in the case of  jazm, like when you say:  ((لَـمْ‮ ‬يَلدْ‮ ‬وَلَمْ‮ ‬يُولَدْ)), and if it is preceded by one of the nuuns used for emphasis, it is constructed on fatḥah, like  when you say: يَجْتَحِـدْنَ‮ ‬and‮ ‬يَجْتَحِـدَنَّ, or if it is preceded by the nuun of femininity, it is constructed on sukuun, like when you say: الْفَتيَاتُ‮ ‬يَجْتَحِدْنَ.

If the مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬ (predicate) is a command tense verb, it is always constructed on sukuun, like: أُكْـتُبْ, unless it is weak at the end, then is fixed in its construction on the dropping of the last letter, like when you say: إِسْـعَ‮ ‬and أَدْعُ‮ ‬and إِمّـشِ, or if the alif of the dual doer or the waaw of the plural doer or yaa of the second person doer is affixed to it, then the command tense verb is constructed with the dropping of nuun, like when you say:  أُكْـتُبَا‮ ‬ and‮ ‬أُكْـتُبُوا‮ ‬and‮ ‬أُكْـتُبِي.

الْفَضْلَةُ‮ ‬وَإعْرَابُهَا‮ ‬ (The Additional/Surplus Word in a Sentence and the Inflection of It )

الْـفَـضْلَة‮ ‬ (The word that is used in addition to the words normally used) is any noun that is used to complete the meaning of a sentence, and it is not a principle or support word for the sentence. That is to say, it is not مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬ (predicate) or مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬إِلَـيْهِ‮ ‬ (subject), like  أُكْـتُبْ‮ ‬ when you say:  آَرْشَـدَ‮ ‬الأَنبِيَاءُ‮ ‬النَّاسَ, and so آَرْشَـدَ is مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬(predicate) and الأَنبِيَاءُ is مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬إِلَـيْهِ‮ ‬ (subject)‮ ‬and النَّاسَ is الْـفَـضْلَة‮ ‬ (the word that is used in addition to words normally used). That is because النَّاسَ is noun that is used to complete the meaning of a sentence. This type of noun is referred to as الْـفَـضْلَة (the additional word), because it is an increase of  a word to مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬(predicate) or مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬إِلَـيْهِ‮ ‬(subject).  In the Arabic language الْـفَـضْل (surplus /additional amount) means الزِّيَادَة‮ ‬(increase/ addition/more than what is needed).

The rule in regards to الْـفَـضْلَة is that it is always in the case of naṣb when it occurs, like when you say: يَحْتَرَمُ‮ ‬النَّاسُ‮ ‬العُلَمَاءَ‮ . ‬أَحْسَنْتُ‮ ‬إِحْسَانًا‮ . ‬طَلَعْتُ‮ ‬الشَّمْسُ‮ ‬صَفِيَةً‮ . ‬جَاءَ‮  ‬التَّلاَمِيذُ‮ ‬إِلاّ‮ ‬عَلِيًّا‮ . ‬سَفَرْتُ‮ ‬يَوْمَ‮ ‬الْـخَمِيسِ‮ . ‬وَجَلَسْتُ‮ ‬أَمَامَ‮ ‬الْـمِنْـمبَرِ‮ . ‬وَقَفَ‮ ‬النَّاسُ‮ ‬احْتِرَامًا لِلعُلَمَاءِ, unless it occurs after the particle of jarr or as  the second member of an iḍaafah construction, then the rule is that الْـفَـضْلَة is in the case of jarr, like when you say:  كَتَبْتُ‮ ‬بِالْقَلَمِ‮ ‬and‮ ‬قَرَأْتُ‮ ‬كَُتُبَ‮ ‬التَّارِيخِ.

A noun is not permitted to be both فـضْلَة (a surplus word) and عْـمْدَة (a support word). However, it is permitted to be in the case of rafʿ and naṣb, like in the case when الْـمُستَثْنَى (the exclude now) is part of a negative statement in whichالْـمُستَثْنَى مِـنْهُ‮ ‬ ‬(the noun from which another noun is excluded) has been mentioned like when you say:مَـا جَـاءَ‮ ‬أَحَـدٌ‮ ‬إِلاَّ‮ ‬سَـعِيدٌ‮ ‬وَإِلاِ‮ ‬سَـعِيدًا.‮ ‬ If you take in to account the meaning of this sentence, you could put what comes after إِلاَّ in the case of rafʿ, in order to trace it back to the action, because there is no arriver if it is traced back to‮ ‬أَحَـدٌ. The arrival is traced to the noun سَـعِيد and connected to it. If you consider the expression another time, you can also put سَـعِيد in the case of naṣb, because when it is expressed it is also فَـضْلَة (a surplus word), because the sentence has a subject and predicate without it.

If الْـمُستَثْنَى مِـنْهُ is mentioned and the statement is affirmative, then the  noun  that comes after إِلاَّ must be in the case of naṣb, because it is فَـضْلَة (an additional word), like when you say: جَـاءَ‮ ‬الْقَوْمُ‮ ‬إِلاَّ‮ ‬سَـعِيدًا.

If الْـمُستَثْنَى مِـنْهُ is dropped from the statement, it should be put in the case of rafʿ, like when you say: مَـا جَـاءَ‮ ‬إِلاَّ‮ ‬سَـعِيدٌ, because it is مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬إِلَـيْهِ‮ ‬(subject), and it should be put in the case of naṣb, like when you say: مَـا رَأَيْتُ‮ ‬إِلاَّ‮ ‬سَـعِيدًا, because it is فَـضْلَة (a additional word), and it should be put in the case of jarr like when you say: مَـا مَرَرْتُ‮ ‬إِلاَّ‮ ‬بِسَـعِيدٍ, because it is occurs after a particle of jarr.

الأَدَاة‮ ‬ (The Auxiliary Particle)

الأَدَاة‮ ‬ (The auxiliary particle) is a word which is inserted between two parts of a sentence or between the parts and الْـفَـضْلَة (additional words) or between two sentences, like the conditional particle, the interrogative particle, particle of specification, particle of desire, particle of hope/anticipation, the particles that cause the present verb to be in the cases of of naṣb and jazm, and the particles of jarr and others.

The rule for الأَدَاة‮ ‬(the auxiliary particle) is that its end stays in one condition, because it is fixed in its construction at the end.

When الأَدَاة‮ ‬ (the auxiliary particle) it is a noun, it can be the مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬إِلَـيْهِ‮ ‬ (a subject), like when you say: مَـنْ‮ ‬مُجْتَهِـدٌ؟, and  it can be the مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬ (predicate) ‮ ‬like when you say: خَـيْرُ‮ ‬مَالِـكِ‮ ‬مَا أَنْفَقْتَهُ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬سَـبِيل الْمُصْلَحَة الْعامَة, and  it can be فَـضْلَة (an additional word), like when you say:  احْترِمِ‮ ‬الَّذِي‮ ‬يَطْلُبُ‮ ‬الْعِلمَ،‮ ‬اتق شَرَّ‮ ‬مَنْ‮ ‬أَحْسَنْتَ‮ ‬إِلَيْهِ.

Sometimes, the inflection ofالأَدَاة‮ ‬ (the auxiliary particle) is the case of rafʿ, naṣb and jarr due to its location in the sentence.

and The Meaning of الْـكَلاَمُ(Speech) in the Arabic Language

Section 2 – الْـمْتَعَدِّي‮ ‬ (The Transitive Verb) ‮ ‬واللاَّزِم(and Intransitive Verb)


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Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 5 – الإِعْرَاب (Inflection) and الْبنَاء (The Fixed Construction)

Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 5 – الإِعْرَاب (Inflection)

and الْبنَاء (The Fixed Construction)

When words are arranged in a sentence, you will find among them words which change at the end due to their different roles in the sentence, and because of the different types of governors which precede them or the governing factors that affect them. You will also find among words in a sentence, words which do not change at the end because of the different types of governors which precede them or the governing factors that affect them.  The first type of word mentioned above is said to be‮ ‬مُـعْرَب‮ ‬(inflectional) and the second type is مَـبْنِيًا‮ ‬(non-inflectional). Changing the end of a word because of the different types of governors or governing factors is called إِعْـرَاب‮ ‬(inflection), while not changing the end of a word because of the different types of governors or governing factors is called بنَاء (fixed construction).

الإِعْـرَاب (Inflection) is a marked change which a governor causes to occur at the end of the word, and so the in of the word can be in the case of rafʿ, naṣb, jarr or jazm, depending on the purpose for the governor.

الْـبنَاء (The Fixed Construction) requires that the end of a word remains in one  unchanged condition even when the governors that precede it are different.

الْـمُعْرَب (The Inflected Word) and الْـمَبْنِي (The Word Fixed in its Construction)

الْـمُعْرَب (The Inflected Word) is the word which is changed at its end because of the different types of governors that precede it or the governing factors that affect it, like:

الأََسْمَاءُ‮ ‬وَالأَرْضُ‮ ‬وَيَكْتُبُ

الْـمُعْرَب is also the present tense verb which does not have نون التوكيد‮ ‬or ‮ ‬نون السوة‮ ‬and  الْـمُعْرَب is also most nouns except for a few.

الْـمَبْنِي (The Word Fixed in its Construction) is the word that is required to remain in a fixed condition, in spite of the different governors that precede it, like when you say:

هَذَهِ،‮ ‬أَيْنَ،‮ ‬مِنْ،‮ ‬كَتَبَ،‮ ‬أُكْتُبْ

الْـمَبْنِيَّاتُ‮ ‬(Words Fixed in their Construction) include all الْـحُـرُوف (the particles), الْـفِعْلُ‮ ‬الْـمَاضِـي (the past tense verb), فِـعْلُ‮ ‬الأَمْـرِ‮ ‬ (the command tense verb) without exception. الْفِعْلُ‮ ‬الـمُضَارِعُ‮ ‬إِذَا اتَّصِلتْ‮ ‬بِهِ (the present tense verb when) نُونُ النِسْوَةِ (the nuun used for emphasis) or نُـونُ‮ ‬النِسْوَةِ (the nuun of the feminine plural doer pronoun), and some nouns. They originate as particles, verbs fixed in their construction and inflective nouns.

The Kinds of الْبَنَاء‮ ‬ ‬(Fixed Construction)

الْـمَبْنِي‮ ‬ is either a word that is required to carry sukuun at its end, like when you say: أُكْـتُبْ and لَـمْ or ḍammah like when you say: حَـيْثُ and كَـتَبُوا or fatḥah like when you say: كَـتَبَ and أَيْـنَ or kasrah like when you say: هَـؤُلاَءِ and kasrah on the baa in the prepositional phrase بِـسْمِ‮ ‬الله. At time the previously mentioned are expressed by saying: مَـبْنِي‮ ‬عَـلَى السّكون‮ ‬(fixed in construct on the sukuun) or مَبْنِي‮ ‬عَلَى ضَمَّة (fixed in construct on the ḍammah) or مَبْنِي‮ ‬عَلَى  (fixed in construct on the fatḥah) or مَبْنِي‮ ‬عَلَى‮ ‬(fixed in construct on the kasrah). Therefore is  based on four signs: sukuunḍammahfatḥah, and kasrah.

Knowing which vowel the nouns and particles are constructed upon is according to generally accepted usage and sound transmission. Words fixed in their construction include: the word which is construct on the ḍammah, the word which is construct on the fatḥah and the word which is construct on the kasrah, but there are no known general rules for the construction of words on these vowels.

The Kinds of الإعْرَابُ‮ ‬(Inflection for Words)

There are four Kinds of الإعْـرَابُ (inflection for words): rafʿ, naṣb, jarr and jasm.

The inflected verb is changed at its end by the case of  rafʿ, naṣb and jasm like when you say:  يَكْتُبُ‮ ‬،‮ ‬لَنْ‮ ‬يَكْتُبَ‮ ‬،‮ ‬لمْ‮ ‬يَكْتُبْ .

The inflected noun is changed at its end by the case of  rafʿ, naṣb and jarr like when you say: وَاشْتَغلعتُ‮ ‬بِالعِلْمِ‮ ‬النَّافِعِ‮ ‬،‮ ‬رَأَيْتُ‮ ‬الْعِلْمَ‮ ‬نَافِعًا‮ ‬،‮ ‬العِلْمُ‮ ‬نَافِعٌ. From this we can see that the cases of rafʿ and naṣb are used in both inflected verbs and nouns, while  the case of jasm is used with the inflected verb exclusively, and he case of jarr is used with the inflected nouns exclusively.

The Signs for the الإعْرَابُ‮ ‬ (Inflection for Words)

The Sign of الإعْـرَابُ‮ ‬is either a vowel, a letter or the dropping of a vowel or letter.

There are three vowels of inflection: ḍammahfatḥah, and kasrah.

There are four letters of inflection: alifnuun, waaw and yaa.

The dropping as a sign of inflection is either the dropping of a a weak letter at the end of the present tense verb or the dropping of the letter nuun from the end of the  present tense verb.

The Signs of الرَّفْع‮ ‬ (The Case of Rafʿ)

الرَّفْـع‮ ‬(The case of rafʿ) has four signs: ḍammah, waaw, alif, and nuun. Ḍammah is the main or primary sign. The example of the use of these signs for the case of rafʿ is as follows: يُحَبُّ‮ ‬الصَّادِقُ‮ ‬and‮ ‬أَفْـلَحَ‮ ‬الْـمُؤْمِنُونَ‮ ‬and‮ ‬لِيُننْفِقْ‮ ‬ذُو‮ ‬سَـعة مِـنْ‮ ‬سَـعتِهِ‮ ‬and‮ ‬التِلْمِذَانِ‮ ‬الْـمُـجْتَهِدَان‮ ‬and تَنْطِقُونَ‮ ‬بِالصِّدْقِ.‮  ‬

The Signs of النَّصْب‮ ‬(The Case of Naṣb)

النَّصْب‮ ‬(The case of naṣb) has five signs: fat-ḥah, alif, yaa, kasrah and the dropping of nuun. Fat-ḥah is the main or primary sign. The example of the use of these signs  for the case of naṣb is as follows: جَانِبُ‮ ‬الشَّرِّ‮ ‬فَتَسْلَمََ‮ ‬أَعْطِ‮ ‬ذَا‮ ‬الْـحَقِّ‮ ‬حَقُّهُ‮ ‬and‮ ‬يُحِبُّ‮ ‬الله الْـمُتَقِيـنَ‮ ‬and‮ ‬كَانَ‮ ‬أَبُو عُبَيْدَة عَامِر بِن الـجَرَّاح وَخَالِد بن وَلِيد فَائدِيـنَ‮ ‬عَظِمِيـنَ‮ ‬and  أُكْرِمُ‮ ‬الْفيَاتِ‮ ‬الْـمُجْتَهِدَاتِ‮ ‬and‮ ‬لَنْ‮ ‬تَنَالُوا‮ (‬تَـنَالُـونَ‮) ‬الْـبِرَّ‮ ‬حَـتَّى تُـنْفَقُوا‮ (‬تُـنْفَقُوانَ‮) ‬مِـمَّا تُـحِبُّونَ. In the last example, the nuun is dropped when the present tense verb is precede by the particle of naṣb.

The Signs of الـجَرّ‮ ‬(The Case of Jarr)

الـجَـرّ‮ ‬(The case of jarr) has three signs: kasrah, yaa and fat-ḥah. Kasrah is the main or primary sign. The example of the use of these signs for the case of jarr is as follows: تَـمَسَّكْ‮ ‬بِالفَضَائِلَ‮ ‬and‮ ‬أَطِعْ‮ ‬أَمْرَ‮ ‬أَبِيكَ‮ ‬and‮ ‬الْـمَرْءُ‮ ‬بِأَصْغَريْهِ‭:‬‮ ‬قَلْبُهُ‮ ‬ولِسَانُهُ‮ ‬and‮ ‬تَقَرَّبْ‮ ‬مَنَ‮ ‬الصَّادِقِيـنَ‮ ‬and‮ ‬وَانْأَ‮ ‬عَنَ‮ ‬الكَادِبِيـنَ‮ ‬and‮ ‬لَيْسَ‮ ‬فَاعِلُ‮ ‬الْـخَيْرِ‮ ‬بِأَفْضَلِ‮ ‬مِنَ‮ ‬السَّاعِي‮ ‬فِهِ.

The Signs of الـجَزْم‮ ‬(The Case of Jazm)

الـجَـزْم‮ ‬(The case of jazm) has three signs: sukuun, the dropping of a a weak letter at the end of the present tense verb, and the dropping of nuun. Sukuun is the main or primary sign. The example of the use of these signs for the case of jazm is as follows: مَنْ‮ ‬يَفْعَلْ‮ ‬خَيْرًًا‮ ‬يَجِدْ‮ ‬خَيْرًا‮ ‬ and ‮ ‬مَنْ‮ ‬يَزَرَعْ‮ ‬شَرًّا‮ ‬يَجْنِ‮ ‬شَرًّا‮ ‬and ‮ ‬أَفْعَلْ‮ ‬الْـخَيْرَ‮ ‬تَلْقَ‮ (‬تَلْقَــي‮) ‬الْـخَيْرَ‮  ‬(In the preceding example, the alif maqṣuurah has been dropped when the present tense verb is in the case of jazm, because it is a weak letter), لاَ‮ ‬تَـدْعُ‮ (‬تَـدْعُـو‮) ‬إِلاَّ‮ ‬اللهَ‮ ‬ (In this preceding example, the waaw has been dropped when the present tense verb is in the case of jazm, because it is a weak letter), قَـالُـوا خَـيْرًا تَغْنَمُوا‮ (‬تَغْنَمُونَ‮) ‬واسْكُتُوا‮ (‬اسْكُتُونَ‮) ‬عَنْ‮ ‬شَرِّ‮ ‬تَسْلَمُوا‮ (‬تَسْلَمُونَ‮)‬ا‮. ‬ In the last three examples, the nuun has been dropped because the present tense verb is in the case of jazm.

 
 
 
 
 
 
and The Meaning of الْـكَلاَمُ(Speech) in the Arabic Language
 

Section 2 – الْـمْتَعَدِّي‮ ‬ (The Transitive Verb) ‮ ‬واللاَّزِم(and Intransitive Verb)



Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 4 – الُْـمُرَكَّب (The Composite Structure) and The Meaning of الْـكَلاَمُ (Speech) in the Arabic Language

Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 4 –  الْـمُرَكَّبَات (The Composite Structures),‮ ‬وَأًَنْوَاعُهَا (The Various Kinds) and إِعَرَابُهَا (The Ways They Are Inflected)

The composite structure consist of two or more words for the purpose of conveying information whether that information is complete or not1.

There are six kinds of composite structures in Arabic:

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الإسْنَادِي‮ ‬أَوِ‮ ‬الْـجُمْلَة‮ ‬،‮ ‬الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الإضَافِي‮ ‬،‮ ‬الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْبَيَانِي‮ ‬،‮ ‬الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْعَطْفِي‮ ‬،‮ ‬الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْـمَزْجِيُّ‮ ‬،‮ ‬الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْعََددَدِي

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الإسْنَادِي‮ ‬(The Supportive Composite Structure)2 ‮ ‬أَوْ‮ ‬الْـجُمْلَة‮ ‬(or the Sentence)

الإسْـنَادِي is the composite construct in which one phrase is supported by another.

الإسْـنَاد is the composite construct in which one phrase is used to make a judgement observation or statement about another, like حكم علي‮ ‬زهير بالإجْـتِهَاد the observation or statement that Zuhayr has the skill of independent judgement].، when you say: زُهَـيْرٌ‮ ‬مُجْتَهِـدٌ‮ ‬ (Zuhayr is a mujtahid [has the skill of independent judgement]).

The judgement or observation that is made about a person, place, thing or idea being judged is called الْـمُسْـد‮ ‬ (The predicate).

The person, place, thing or idea being judged, or observed is called الْـمَسْـدُ‮ ‬إِلَـيْهِ‮ ‬ (The subject).

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الإسْـنَادِي is also called الْـجُـمْلَة ‘the sentence’, and it consists of مُـسنَدٌ (a predicate) and مُسنَدٌ‮ ‬إِلَىْهِ (subject), like when you say: الْـحُلْمُ‮ ‬زيْنٌ‮ ‬ (The dream is beautiful) and يُـفْلِحُ‮ ‬الْـمُجْتَهِـدُ‮ ‬(The mujtahid is successful).  الْـحُـلْمُ (The dream) is مُـسنَدٌ‮ ‬إِلَىْهِ and زيْـنٌ (beautiful) has been ascribed to it.  ‬الْـحُـلْمُ has been judged to be beautiful. and therefore زيْـنٌ is مَسْـدٌ‮ ‬ (a predicate) for الْـحُـلْمُ.

Likewise, فلاح‮ ‬ (success) has been ascribed to الْـمُجْتَهِـدُ‮ ‬ (The mujtahid. Therefore, يُـفْلِحُ isمَسْـدٌ‮ ‬ (a predicate) and الْـمُجْتَهِـدُ is مُسْـدٌ‮ ‬إِلَـيْهِ‮ ‬ ( a subject).

الْـمَسْـدُ‮ ‬إِلَـيْهِ‮ ‬ (The subject) can be الْفَاعِلُ (the doer noun), نَـائِـبُهُ (the noun standing in the place of the doer), الْـمُبْتَدَأُ (the subject noun), اسْمُ‮ ‬الْفِعْلِ‮ ‬النَّاقِص (the noun of the defective verb), اسْمُ‮ ‬الاحْرُفِ‮ ‬الَّتِي‮ ‬تَـعْمَلُ‮ ‬عَمَلَ‮ ‬لَيْسَ‮ ‬ (the noun of the particles that functions like the verb laysa), اسْـمُ‮ ‬إِنَّ‮ ‬وأَخْوَاتِهَا (the noun of the particle إِنَّ and its sisters), اسْم لاَ‮ ‬النَّافِيَة لِلْـجِنْس (the noun of the particle لاَ which negates the exist of any kind or species of a thing).

The example of الْفَاعِلُ (the doer noun) is like when you say: جَاءَ‮ ‬الْـحَقُّ‮ ‬وَزَهَقَ‮ ‬البَاطِلُ‮ ‬ (The truth came and falsehood died). الْـحَقُّ and البَاطِلُ are  الْفَاعِلان (the doer nouns).

The example of  نَـائِـبُ‮ ‬الْـفَاعِـلِ (the noun standing in the place of the doer) is like when you say: يُعَاقِـبُ‮ ‬الْـعَاصُـون وَيُـثَابُ‮ ‬الطَّائِـعونَ‮ ‬ (Those who are sinful are punished, and those who are obedient are rewarded). الطَّائِـعونَ and الْـعَاصُـون are نَـائِـبُ‮ ‬الْفَاعِـلِ (the noun standing in the place of the doer).

The example of  الْـمُبْتَدَأُ (the subject noun) is like when you say: الصَّبْرُ‮ ‬مِـفْتَاحُ‮ ‬الْفَرَحِِ‮ ‬(Patience is the key to happiness).

The example of  اسْمُ‮ ‬الْفِعْلِ‮ ‬النَّاقِص (the noun of the defective verb) is like when you say:  كَانَ‮ ‬الله عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا‮ ‬ (Allah is All Knowing and Wise).

The example of اسْمُ‮ ‬الاحْرُفِ‮ ‬الَّتِي‮ ‬تَـعْمَلُ‮ ‬عَمَلَ‮ ‬لَـيْسَ‮ ‬ (the noun of the particles that functions like the verb laysa) is like when you say: مَـا زُبَـيرٌ‮ ‬كَسُولاً‮ ‬ (Zubayr is not lazy) and تَعِزُّ‮ ‬فَلاَ‮ ‬شَيْءٌ‮ ‬عَلَى الأَرْضِ‮ ‬بَاقِيًا‮ ‬ and‮ ‬لاَتَ‮ ‬سَاعَةَ‮ ‬مَنْدَمِ‮ ‬and‮ ‬إِنْ‮ ‬أَحَدٌ‮ ‬خَيْرًا مِنْ‮ ‬أَحَدٍ‮  ‬إِلاَّ‮ ‬بِالْعِلمِ‮ ‬وَالْعِلْمِ‮ ‬الصَّالِحِ

The example of ‮ ‬ اسْـمُ‮ ‬إِنَّ‮ ‬وأَخْوَاتِهَا(the noun of the particle إِنَّ and its sisters)‮‬ is like when you say:‮ ‬إِنَّ‮ ‬اللهَ‮ ‬عَـلِيمٌ‮ ‬بِـدَاتِ‮ ‬الصُّدُورِ‮ ‬ (Surely Allah knows what is inside of  the hearts).

The example of  اسْـم لاَ‮ ‬النَّافِيَة لِلْـجِنْس (the noun of the particle لاَ which negates the exist of any kind or species of a thing) is like when you say: لاَ‮ ‬إِلــاـهَ‮ ‬إِلاَّ‮ ‬اللُهَ.

الْـمُسْـد‮ ‬ (The predicate) can be الْفِعْلِ (the verb) and اسْمُ‮ ‬الْفِعْلِ (the noun of the verb) andخُبْرُ‮ ‬الْـمُبْتَدَأِ‮ ‬ (the predicate of the subject)‮ ‬and‮ ‬خَبْرُ‮ ‬الْفِعْلِ‮ ‬النَّاقِصِ‮ ‬(the predicate of the defective verb)‮ ‬and خَـبْرُ‮ ‬الاحْـرُفِ‮ ‬الَّتِي‮ ‬تَـعْمَلُ‮ ‬عَـمَلَ‮ ‬لَـيْسَ‮ ‬ (the predicate of the particles that functions like the verb laysa)‮ ‬and خَـبْرُ‮ ‬إِنَّ‮ ‬وأَخْـوَاتِـهَا‮ ‬ (the predicate of the particle إِنَّ and its sisters).

الْـمُسْـد‮ ‬ (The predicate) is الْفِعْلِ (the verb) like when you say: قَدْ‮ ‬أَفْـلَحَ‮ ‬الْـمُؤْمِنِينَ, (The believers are successful), and the predicate is characteristics which are derived from the verb like when you say: الْـحَقُّ‮ ‬أأَبْـلَجُ‮ ‬(the truth clear/apparent), and الْـمُسْـد‮ ‬(The predicate) is  also a defective noun which has the meaning of derived characteristics  like when you say: الْـحَقُّ‮ ‬نُـورٌ‮ ‬(The truth is light) and الْقَائِمُ‮ ‬بِهِ‮ ‬أَسَدٌ‮ ‬(The one who stands with it/him is a lion). The meaning of the first example is that الْـحَقُّ‮ ‬مُـضِيءٌ‮ ‬(The truth is bright/luminous), while the  meaning of the second example is that الْقَائِمُ‮ ‬بِهِ‮ ‬شُجَاعٌ‮ ‬أَسَدٌ‮ ‬(The one who stands with it/him is like a lion).

الْكَلاَمُ (Arabic Speech)3

Arabic speech is an informative sentence that gives the listener complete information by itself.  like when you say: رَأْسُ الْحِكْمَةِ مَخَافَةُ اللهِ‮ ‬ (The highest wisdom is fear of Allah), and فَازَ الْـمُتَّقُونَ ‬(The believers were victorious), and   مَنْ صَدَقَ نَجَا‮ ‬ (He who is truthful is will be saved)

If the sentence structure does not convey complete meaning or information to the listener by itself, then it can’t be called الْكَلاَمُ (Arabic speech), for example: إِنْ‮ ‬تَجْتَحِـدْ‮ ‬فِـي‮ ‬عِلْمِكَ (If you apply yourself to your knowledge). This is a sentence structure that doesn’t convey completely informative, because the result of this conditional clause has not been expressed nor is it known. Therefore as previously mentioned, it cannot be called Arabic speech. However, if the result of the conditional statement is expressed, like when you say: إِنْ‮ ‬تَجْتَحِـدْ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬عِلْمِكَ‮ ‬تَنْجـَحْ‮ ‬ (If you apply yourself to your knowledge, you will succeed), then it becomes كَلاَم (Arabic speech).

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الإضَافِي‮ ‬ (The Construction Which Consist of the Iḍaafah[the Adjoin/Prefixed Nouns])

‮  ‬الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الإضَافِـي‮ ‬( The Iḍaafah  Construction Composite) is the structure which consist of الـْـمُضَاف‮ ‬(The Adjoined/Prefixed Noun) and الـْـمُضَاف إِلَـيْهِ‮ ‬(The Noun Adjoined/Prefixed to It), like when you say: كِتَابُ‮ ‬التِّلْمِيذُ‮ ‬خَاتِـمُ‮ ‬فِصَّةٍ‮ ‬صَوْمُ‮ ‬النِّهَارِ. The for the second member of the iḍaafah construction is that it is always in the case of jarr.

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْبَيَانِي‮ ‬ ( The Composite Structure Which Clarifies the Characteristics of the Noun)

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْـبَيَانِـي‮ ‬(The composite structure which clarifies the characteristics of the noun consist every of two words; the first one is characterized by the second. This construction is of three kinds:

1. مُـرَكَّبٌ‮ ‬وَصْـفِيٌّ (an adjectival composite structure) – It consists of السِّفةُ (the adjective) and الْـمَوْصُـوف (the noun it describes/modifies), like when you say: فَـازَ‮ ‬التِّلْمِيذُ‮ ‬الْـمُجْتَهِـدُ‮ . ‬أَكْرَمْـتُ‮ ‬التِّلْمِيذَ‮ ‬الْـمُجْتَهِدَ‮ . ‬طَلَبْتُ‮ ‬أَخْلاَقِ‮ ‬التِّلْمِيذِ‮ ‬الْـمُجْتَهِدِ

2. مُـرَكَّبٌ‮ ‬تَـوْكِـيدِيٌّ (a composite structure used to emphasize the noun) – It consist of الْـمُؤَكَّدُ (the emphasized noun) and الْـمُؤَكِّدُ (the noun that is used to emphasize) it, like when you say: جَاءَ‮ ‬الْقَومُ‮ ‬كُلُّهُمْ‮ . ‬أَكْرَمْـتُ‮ ‬الْقَومَ‮ ‬كُلَّهُمْ‮ . ‬أَحْسَنْتُ‮ ‬إِلَى الْقَومِ‮ ‬كُلِّهُمْ

3. مُـرَكَّبٌ‮ ‬بَلَدِيٌّ (a substitutive composite structure) – It is a structure that consist of‮ ‬الْـبَدَلُ (the substitute noun) and الْـمُبْدَلُ‮ ‬مِـنْهُ‮ ‬(the noun that has been replaced by it [the substitute noun]), like when you say:  جَاءَ‮ ‬خَلِيلٌ‮ ‬أَخُوكَ‮ . ‬رَأَيْت خَلِيلاً‮ ‬أَخَاكَ‮ ‬‮.‬‮ ‬مَرَرْتُ‮ ‬بِخَلِيلٍ‮ ‬أَخِيكَ‮.‬

The rule for the second noun of مُـرَكَّبٌ‮ ‬بَلَدِيٌّ (a substitutive composite structure) is that it follows the noun that precedes in its case of inflection.

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْعَطْفِي‮ ‬ (The Conjunctive Composite Structure)

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْعَطْفِي‮ ‬(The conjunctive composite structure) consists of الـْـمَعْطُوفِ (the noun that has been joined) and الـْمَعْطُوفِ‮ ‬عَلَيْهِ (the noun that has been joined to it) by placing عَـطْفٌ (a conjunction) between them, like when you say:  يَنَالُ‮ ‬التِلْمِيذُ‮ ‬والتِّلمِيذَةِ‮ ‬الْـحَمْدَ‮ ‬وَالثَّنَاءَ‮ ‬إِذَا ثَابِرًا عَـلَى الدَّرْسِ‮ ‬وَالإِجْـتِهَادِ.‮ ‬The rule for الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْـعَطْفِي‮ ‬(The conjunctive composite structure)  is that the now that comes after عَـطْفٌ (a conjunction) follows  the noun that precedes in its case of inflection.

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْـمَزْجِيُّ‮ ‬ (The Composite Compound Structure)

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْـمَزْجِـيُّ‮ ‬(The composite compound structure) is two words that are constructed as one, like: بَـعْلَبَكَّ (Baalbek), ‮ ‬بَـيْتَ‮ ‬لَـحْـم (Bethlehem),  حَـضْرَمَـوْت‮ ‬(Haḍramut), سِـبَوَيْـهِ‮ ‬(Sibawayhi), صًـبَاحَ‮ ‬مَـسَاءَ‮ ‬(morning and evening), شَـدَرَ‮ ‬مَـدَرَ (dispersed/went in every direction).

If الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْـمَزْجِـيُّ‮ ‬(The composite compound structure)ˇ is a definite noun, then  it is pronounced without vowel ending, like when you say: بَـعْلَبَكّ‮ ‬بُـلْدَةٌ‮ ‬طَـيِّبَة الْـهَوَاءَ‮ ‬.‮ ‬سكَنْتُ‮  ‬بَـيْتَ‮ ‬لَـحْـم‮ ‬.‮ ‬سَـافَرْتُ‮ ‬إِلَى حَـضْرَمَـوْت, unless the second part of the compound word is the word وَيْـهِ, in which case, it is always fixed in its construction at the end on kasrah, like when you say: سِـبَوَيْـهِ‮ ‬عَالِمٌ‮ ‬كَبِيرٌ‮ .‬ رَأَيْتُ سِـبَوَيْـهِ‮ ‬عَالِـمًا كَبِيرًا‮ ‬.‮ ‬قَرأْتُ‮ ‬كِتَابَ‮ ‬سِـبَوَيْـهِ.

If الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْـمَزْجِـيُّ‮ ‬(The composite compound structure)ˇ is a indefinite noun, then both words are fixed in their construction at the end on fatḥah, like when you say: زُرْنِي‮ ‬صًـبَاحَ‮ ‬مَـسَاءَ‮ ‬‮.‬‮ ‬أَنْتَ‮ ‬جَاررِي‮ ‬بَيْتَ‮ ‬بَيْتَ‮.‬‮ ‬

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْعََددَدِي‮ ‬ (The Numerical Composite)

الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْـعََددَيُّ‮ ‬(The numerical composite) are compound structured compound structured composites. They are every two numbers which has an implied conjunction between them, and they are the cardinal numbers: 11-19, and the ordinal numbers: 11th (eleventh) -19th (nineteenth).

As for 21-99, they are not among الْـمُرَكَّباتُ‮ ‬الْـعََددَيَّةُ‮ ‬(the numerical composites), because the conjunction is expressed, rather they are الْـمُرَكَّباتُ‮ ‬الْـعَطْفِيَّة‮ ‬(conjunctive composite structures).

It is necessary that both parts of الْـمُرَكَّبُ‮ ‬الْـعََددَيُّ‮ ‬(The numerical composite) be affixed with fatḥah at the end, even if it is in the case of raf, like when you say: جَـاءَ‮ ‬أَحَـدَ‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬رَجُلاً, ‮ ‬or in the case of naṣb, like when you say:  رَأَيْـتُ‮ ‬أَحَـدَ‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬كَـوْكَـبًا, ‮ ‬or in the case of jarr ‮ ‬like when you say:‮ ‬أَحْـسَنْتُ‮ ‬إِلى أَحَـدَ‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬فَـقِيرًا, or sometime both of  its parts are fixed in their construction on fatḥah and standing in the place of a noun in the case of rafʿ, naṣb of jarr, except إثْـنَيْ‮ ‬عَشَـرَ. In this case, the first part is inflected with alif of the dual form like when you say:  جَـاءَ‮ ‬إثْـنَا عَشَـرَ‮ ‬رَجُلاً, and it is the cases of  naṣb and jarr with yaa of the dual form like when you say:  أَكْـرَمْـتُ‮ ‬إثْـنَيْ‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬فَـقِيرَةً‮ ‬بِإثْـنَيْ‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬دِرْهَـمًا. The second part of this numerical construct is fixed in its construction with fatḥah at the end. There is no situation in which it is inflected, and of course the nuun has been dropped from the dual form of the first part.

There is no number in which number العشَـرَة (ten) is formed from the noun pattern (فاعل). This noun pattern is used to form first part of the ordinal numbers الْـحَادِي‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬(eleventh) to الْـحَادِي‮ ‬عَشَـرَ (nineteenth). Both parts of these number are fixed in their construction on fatḥah at the end, like when you say: جَـاءَ‮ ‬الرَّابِعَ‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬and رَأَيْتُ‮ ‬الرَّابِعَةَ‮ ‬عَشَـرَةَ‮ ‬and مَرَرْتُ‮  ‬بِالْـخَامِسَ‮ ‬عَشَـرَةَ. This is the rule, unless the first part of the ordinal number composite ends with yaa. In that case, the first part of the numerical composite should be fixed in its construction on sukuun, like when you say: جَـاءَ‮ ‬الْـحَادِي‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬والْثَانِي‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬ and رَأَيْتُ‮ ‬الْـحَادِي‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬والْثَانِي‮ ‬عَشَـرَ and مَرَرْتُ‮  ‬بِالْـحَادِي‮ ‬عَشَـرَ‮ ‬والْثَانِي‮ ‬عَشَـرَ.

حُكْمُ‮ ‬الْعَدَدُ‮ ‬مَعَ‮ ‬الْـمَعْدود‮ ‬ (The Rules for the Number  and the Enumerated Noun)

If the number is وَاحد (one)  or  إثْـنَيْـن (two), then the rule is that the masculine noun is enumerated with  the masculine number, and the feminine noun is enumerated  with the feminine number, like when you say: رَجُـلٌ‮ ‬وَاحِـدٌ‮ ‬and‮ ‬اِمْـرَأَةٌ‮ ‬وَاحِدَةُ‮ ‬and‮ ‬رَجُـلَانِ‮ ‬اثْنَانِ‮ ‬and‮ ‬اِمْـرَأَتَانِ‮ ‬اثْنَتَانِ.

If the numbers are from الثلاثة (three) to العشَـرَة (ten), then the masculine noun is enumerated with the feminine number, and the feminine is enumerated with the masculine number, like when you say: ثَلاَثَةُ‮ ‬رِجَالٍ‮ ‬and‮ ‬ثَلاَثَةُ‮ ‬أَقْلاَمٍ‮ ‬for the masculine and وَثَلاَثُ‮ ‬نِسَاءٍ‮ ‬and ثَلاَثُ‮ ‬أَيَدٍ‮ ‬for the feminine.

This is unless the number ten is part of a numerical composite. In that case, the number ten should be in the same gender as the noun being enumerated, then you say: ثَلاَثَةَ‮ ‬عَشَرَ رَجُـلاً‮ ‬for the masculine and‮ ‬ثَلاَثَةَ‮ ‬عشرَةَ‮ ‬اِمْـرَأَةًfor the feminine.

If a number is formed on the noun pattern (فاعل), then it should be in the same gender as the noun being enumerated, whether or not the number is alone or part of a numerical composite, like when you say: : الْبَابُ‮ ‬الرَّابِعُ‮ ‬for the masculine‮ ‬and‮ ‬الْبَابُ‮ ‬الرَّابِعَ‮ ‬عَشَرَ‮ ‬and‮ ‬الصُّفْحَتُ‮ ‬الْعَاشِرَةُ‮ ‬and‮ ‬الصُّفْحَتُ‮ ‬التَّاسِعةَ‮ ‬عَشْرَةَ‮ ‬for the feminine.

The sheen in the words عشرة and عشر carry fatḥah when it enumerates a masculine noun and sukuun when it enumerates a feminine noun, and so you should say: عَشَرَةُ‮ ‬رِجَالٍ‮ ‬and‮ ‬وَأَحَدَ‮ ‬عَشَرَ رَجُـلاً‮ ‬for the masculine and وَ‮ ‬عَشْرَ‮ ‬نِسَاءٍ‮ ‬and ثَلاَثُ‮ ‬إِحْدَى عَشْرَ‮ ‬اِمْـرَأَةً‮ ‬for the feminine.

Footnotes:

1 The composite structure which doesn’t convey complete information can be الْـجُمْلَةُ نَاقِصة الإِفَادَةِ (the sentence structure/clause which doesn’t convey complete information), can consist of any kind of subordinate clause / dependent clause which does not express a complete thought or idea, and therefore can’t stand alone), The example of this is when you express الشَّرْط‮ ‬ (the conditional statement) without completing your speech with جَوَابُ‮ ‬الشَّرْط‮ ‬ (the result of the conditional statement), like when you say: إِذَا جَاءَ‮ ‬إِلَى بَيْتِي‮ ‬ (If he comes to my house …).

 The composite structure which doesn’t convey complete information can also be a phrase, like: جَـرٌّ‮ ‬وَمَجْـرُرٌ (a prepositional phrase), عِبَارة ظَرفِيَّة (adverbial phrase), عِـبَارة فِعلِيَّة (verbal phrase),  فِـعْل مرَكّـب (phrasal verb),   بَدَلٌ ومُبْدَل (appositive phrase), عَـطْف وَمَـطْعُوف (conjunctive phrase), صِـفّة وَمَـوصُـوف (adjectival phrase) or‮ ‬وَمُـصَاف إِلَـيْه (iḍafah construction)  مُؤَكِّدٌ ومُؤَكَّدٌ the emphasizing word and the emphasized word), مَرْكَّب مُزْجي (compound word),مَرْكَّب عَدَدي (the numerical structure),عَدَد ومَعْدُود (a number and what is enumerated).

جَـرٌّ‮ ‬وَمَجْـرُرٌ (a prepositional phrase) is like when you say: فِي‮ ‬الْبَيْت (in the house)

عِبَارة ظَرفِيَّة  (adverbial phrase) is like when you say:  وَرَاءُ‮ ‬الْـمَسْجِد (behind the masjid)

عِـبَارة فِعلِيَّة (verbal phrase) is like when you say:أَخَذَ‮ ‬يَضْرِبُ (He began to beat)

فِـعْل مرَكّـب (phrasal verb) is like when you say: جَاء بِـ (He brought)

عِبَارة مِن الْبدَل (appositive phrase) is like when you say: الأُسْتَاذُ‮ ‬خَالِدٌ (professor Khālid) or خَالِدٌ‮ ‬،‮ ‬أُسْتَاذُنَا‮ ‬ (Khālid, our professor)

عَـطْف وَمَـطْعُوف (conjunctive phrase)‮ ‬is like when you say:  وَالرَّجُلُ (and the man)

صِـفّة وَمَـوصُـوف (adjectival phrase)‮ ‬is like when you say:  الدَّارُ‮ ‬الْبَيْدضَاءُ (the white house)

‮ ‬مُـصَاف وَمُـصَاف إِلَـيْه (iḍafah construction) is like when you say: وَلِيُّ‮ ‬اللَّه (the friend of Allah)

مُؤَكِّدٌ ومُؤَكَّدٌ (emphasizing word and an emphasized word) is like when you say:  القَومُ ، كُلُّهُم

مَرْكَّب مُزْجي (compound word)  is like when you say: بَعْلَبَكّ (Baalbek),  بَيْتَ لَحْم (Bethlehem)

,مَرْكَّب عَدَدي (numerical structure) is any number from أحَدَ عَشَرَ to  تِِِسْعَةَ عَشَرَ

عَدَد ومَعْدُود (a number and what is enumerated) is like when you say: رَجُلٌ وَاحِدٌ

2 The composite structure which conveys complete information is called الْـمُوَكَّب الإِسْنَادِي (the composite structure which consist of a person or thing that is the subject of discussion and things that are said about him or it.).  This composite structure is also called الْـجُـمْلَة‮ ‬(the sentence [a group of words joined together to express a complete thought]).  It is for this reason the grammarian Ibn Ājurruum, the author of ‘al Ajurruumiyyah’ has said:

3اَلْكَلاَمُ‏‮ ‬‬هُوَ‏‮ ‬‬اللَّفْظُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُرَكَّبُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُفِيدُ‏‮ ‬‬بِالْوَضْعِ‏‮ ‬ (Speech is informative composite expression which is articulated according to conventional Arabic rules).

The Meaning of الْـكَلاَمُ (Speech) in the Arabic Language

الْـكَلاَمُ (Speech) is informative composite expression which is articulated according to conventional Arabic rules.  Undoubtedly, Arabic speech is constructed on four things.   They are that it (Speech) is لَـفْظـًا (expressed), مُرَكَّبًا (composite  [composed of two or more parts]), مُفِيدًا (informative), and مَوْضُوعًا بِالْوَضْعِ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَرَبِيِّ (regulated by conventional Arabic rules).  And so the meaning of its being لَـفْظًا is that Arabic speech is expressed vocally by using some of الْـحُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الأَبْجَدِيَّة (the letters of the Arabic alphabet) – like when you say: مُحَمَّدٌ (Muhammad) and عَـلِيٌّ (Alī) and ذَهَـبَ (He went).  Each word from these three words is vocalized by using some of‮ ‬الْـحُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الْهَجَائِيَّةُ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَرَبِيَّة (the letters of the Arabic alphabet).

As for the meaning of its being مُـرَكَّبًا , Arabic speech is composed of two or more words – like عَبْدُاللَّهِ‏ ‬(Abdullah) and إِذَا جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬مُحَمَّدٌ (if Muhammad comes) and طُلُوعُ‏‮ ‬‬الشَّمْسِ (the rising of the sun). Each expression from these expressions is مُرَكَّّبًا (composed of two or more parts) without being مُفِيدًا (informative).

As for the meaning of its being مُـفِيدًا , it is when the silence of the speaker becomes sufficient, wherein the listener does  not  expect  to  hear  anything  else.  If  you  say: إِذَا جَـاءَ‏‮ ‬‬مُحَـمَّدٌ (If Muhammad comes), this expression is not مُـفِيدًا (informative), because it does not convey complete information to the person being spoken to – [that is to say, the one who heard it].

However, if you say: ‏‮ ‬‬إِذَا جَاءَ‏‮ ‬‬مُحَمَّدٌ‏‮ ‬‬إِلَى بَيْتيِ‏‮ ‬‬فَاَكْرِمْهُ (If Muhammad comes to my house, I will honor him.), This statement is completely informative and enough.  The person who hears it does not expect more than this.

As for the meaning of الْكَلاَم (speech) being مَوْضُوعًا بِالْوَضْعَ‏‮ ‬‬الْعَرَبِيِّ (regulated by conventional Arabic rules), it occurs in three cases:

The first case is the expressions that are used in الْـكَلاَم that have been constructed by the Arabs to define the essence of a person – like when you say: مُحَـمَّدٌ   (Muhammad) and the expressions used in الْـكَلاَم which the Arabs have constructed to define the nature of a place – like when you say: مَسْجِـــدٌ (masjid [place of prostration]) and the expression used in الْـكَلاَمُ that the Arabs have constructed to define the nature of a thing – like when you say: كِـتاَبٌ  (book).  Each of these expressions is called إِسْمًا (a noun).

The second case is the expressions used in الْـكَلاَمُ which the Arabs have constructed to define the occurrence of something in one of three time periods.  They are الْـفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬الـمَاضِـي (the past tense verb) – that is to say, the expression which shows an occurrence that occurred before the time of the conversation – like when you say: ذَهَـبَ (he went), and الْفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمُضَارِعُ (the present tense verb) – that is to say, the expression which shows the occurrence of a thing during the time of the conversation or soon after it – like when you say: يَـذْهَـبُ (he is going), and the ‏ ‬فِعْلُ‏ ‬الأَمْرِ (the command tense verb) that is say, the expression which  shows the occurrence of a thing that is being sought after the time of the conversation – like when you say: إِذْهَبْ (go).

The third case is the expressions used in الْـكَلاَم that have been constructed by the Arabs – wherein the purpose of a word is not completely understood until one of these expressions is  placed next to the word.  They are like when you say: هَـلْْ and مِـنْ and لَـمْ. So when you say: هَـلْ‏‮ ‬‬ذَهَـبَ‮ ‬(did he go) and مِنْ‏‮ ‬‬الـْمَسْجِـدِ‮ ‬(from the masjid) and لَـمْ‏‮ ‬‬يَخْرُجْ (he did not leave), the purpose of these three expressions (هَـلْ and مِـنْ and لَـمْ) was not completely understood until they were placed next to another word.  Each of these three expressions is called حَرْفًا (a letter [particle]).‏ ‬

And so, الإِسْـمُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْـفِعْلُ‏‮ ‬‬وَالْـحَـرْفُ are the three cases of الْـكَلاَم which the Arabs have regulated with conventional Arabic rules.

تَنْبِيهA Further Note:

We have said that الكلام (speech) according to the Arabic grammarians is  constructed on four things.   They are that it is لفظًا (expressed), مركّـبًا (composite [composed of two or more parts]), مفيدًا ( informative), and موضوعًـا بالوضع العربي (regulated by conventional Arabic rules).

The view which is held by the linguist concerning الكلام (speech) departs from the view which we have said is held by the grammarians about it.  In the view of the linguist, الكلام (speech) can be one word by itself – like: زَيْـدٌ or more than one word like: قَامَ‏‮ ‬‬زَيْـدٌ; or whatever causes understanding whether it expressed or not – like what is written; or الكلام (speech) can be what is indicated by way of motion or gesture.  Something indicated by way of motion or gesture is like when I say to you: أَوَصَـلْتَ‏‮ ‬‬أَمْـسًًا (Did you arrive yesterday?) and you nod your head up and down to me and so, it is understood by me that you are saying نَعَمْ (Yes).

The view of the the fuquhaa’ concerning الكلام (speech) also departs from the view of the grammarian.  In the view of the fuquhaa’, الكلام (speech) is what nullifies the salaat [because of the utterance of]  a letter that is understood  [which does not belong in the salaat] – like (the letter qaaf – ق) or (ayn – ع) or two letters like: من and عن even if they are not understood, [the salaat is still nullified].

The view of the mutakallimuun, that is to say the scholars of tawhiid also depart from that of the grammarians concerning الكلام (speech).  In the view of the mutakallimuun, الكلام (speech) is an expression about the meaning established by Allah which is voided of any letter or sound. .Allah has said in His Noble Book:

“It is He Who has sent down the Book to you from Himself with verses (ayāts) that are clear and these are the foundation of the Book while others are not so clear.” 3:6

Allah then says in the same (chapter and verse) concerning these ayāts:

”And  no ones knows their explanation except Allah.” 3:6

Therefore, in the view of the mutakallimun, their explanation exist with Allah as الكلام (speech), even though He سبحان و تعالى has chosen not to reveal to us a  verse, a single letter or a single sound concerning it.

 
 

Section 2 – الْـمْتَعَدِّي‮ ‬ (The Transitive Verb) ‮ ‬واللاَّزِم(and Intransitive Verb)


Published in: on August 22, 2010 at 19:00  Leave a Comment  

Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 3 – The Verb and the Particle

الْفِعْلُ‮ ‬ (The Verb/Action)

The Arabic verb is a word which demonstrates the occurrence of something in time like:   جَـاءَ‮ ‬،‮ ‬يَجِئُ‮ ‬،‮ ‬جِئْ.  The time periods in which the verbs occur are three:

a) the past tense which shows that something has already happened;

b) the present tense which show the occurrence of something now;

c) the command tense which shows that an order has been given for action to be done immediately or in the near or distant future.

Among the signs of the verb are:

‮ ‬قَـدْ‮  ‬، سَ‮  ‬،‮ ‬سَـوْفَ  ،  تَـاءُ‮ ‬التأْنِـيث السَّكِنَةِ‮  ‬،‮ ‬ضَمِيرُ‮ ‬الْفَاعِلُ‮  ‬،‮ ‬نُونُ‮ ‬التَّوْكِيدِ

like when you say:

قَـدْ‮ ‬قَامَ‮ ‬،‮ ‬قَـدْ‮ ‬يَقُومُ‮ ‬،‮ ‬سَيَذْهَبُ‮ ‬،‮ ‬سَوْفَ‮ ‬يَذْهَبُ‮ ‬،‮ ‬قَامَتْ‮ ‬،‮ ‬قُمْتُ‮ ‬،‮ ‬قُمْتِ‮ ‬،‮ ‬لَيَكْتُبَـنَّ‮ ‬،‮ ‬لَيَكْتَبَْـنَ،‮ ‬اكْتُبَـنَّ‮ ‬،‮ ‬اكْتَبْـنَ

الْـحَرْفُ (The Particle/Letter)

The particle  like: ‮ ‬هَـلْ‮ ‬،‮ ‬فِـي‮ ‬،‮ ‬لَـمْ‮ ‬،‮ ‬‮ ‬عَـلى‮ ‬،‮ ‬إِنَّ‮ ‬،‮ ‬مِنْis a word which shows the meaning of another which follows it, but unlike the noun and verb, it does not have signs which distinguishes it.

الـْحُـرُوفُ (the particles) are divided between:

a) those which commonly govern both verbs and nouns, like حَـرْفَـا الاِسْـتِفْهَامِ (the two particles of interrogation) and حُـرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـعَطْفِ (the conjoining particles);

b) those  particles which govern nouns  exclusively, like حُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـجَرِّ (the prepositions) and الْـحُـرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـمُشَـبَّهَةُ‏‮ ‬‬بِـاْلفِعْلِ (the particles which resemble the verb [that is to say إِنَّ‏‮ ‬‬وَ‏‮ ‬‬أَخْوَاتِـهَا -([ إِنَّ and its sisters]);

c) those particles which govern verbs exclusively, like حُـرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الشَّرْطِ (conditional particles), حُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬النَّصْبِ‏‮ ‬‬لِلْمُضَارِعِ (the particles that cause the present tense verb to be in the case of naṣb), and حُرُوفُ‏‮ ‬‬الْـجَزْمِ (the particles that cause the present tense verb to be in the case of jazm).  All of these particles will be discussed in greater detail in the coming chapters.

and The Meaning of الْـكَلاَمُ(Speech) in the Arabic Language

Section 2 – الْـمْتَعَدِّي‮ ‬ (The Transitive Verb) ‮ ‬واللاَّزِم(and Intransitive Verb)


Published in: on August 3, 2010 at 15:51  Leave a Comment  

Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 2 – The Noun

الإِسْمُ (The Noun / Name)

The noun is a phrase that names something and defines its meaning without indicating when it occurred in time, like  ٌخَـالِـدٌ ,فَرَس  and  ٌعُـصْفُور.  Information about the noun becomes clearer through its signs, like when it is prefixed with الْ like الـرَّجُـل or suffixed with tanwiin, like فَـرَسٍ or preceded by حرف النداء (the particle of address), like أَيُّـهَا النّاسُ or حرف‮ ‬الجر (preposition) like:

اِعْتِمدْ‮ ‬على مَنْ‮ ‬تُبُق بِهِ.

Nouns can either be مَعْرِيف (specific) or نَكَرَة (non-specific).  The sign of a مَعْرِيف (specific noun) is الْ (the definite article) placed in the front of the noun like when you say: الـْمَسْجِـدُ and الْـبَيْتُ.   The sign of a نَـكَرَة (non-specific noun) is the placement of تَـنْوِينٌ (tanwiin) on the last letter of the noun, like when you say شَجَرَةٌ and كَبِيرُ.  The proper names can also be affixed with الْ and تَنْوِين like when you say: حَـسَنٌ and الـْـحَسَنُ.  This الْ however does not cause the proper name to become definite because it in itself is specific/definite by its nature.

From the above discussion, we can see that الْ and تَـنْوِينٌ are two signs  from among the signs which demonstrate that a word is a noun.

أَدَاة التَّعْرِيف (The Sign for Definiteness / Specification: الْ)

Any common or non-specific noun which has الْ prefixed to its front becomes a specific noun or definite noun.

التَّنْوِينُ (Tanwiin)

The word تَّنْوِينُ (tanwiin) is a verbal noun; its closes meaning in English is ‘nuunation’ – that is to say that an Arabic noun has had the sound of the letter ن (nuun) placed on its last letter an therefore that letter has been ‘nuunated’ or ‘nuunized’ depending which way one chooses to anglicize this word.

The sign of تَـنْوِين (tanwiin) is the doubling of the short vowel signs and they become fat-ḥatayn, ḍammatayn, and kasratayn – like when you say ــً (an),‮ ‬ــٍ (in) and ــٌ (un) depending on the role the word is playing in the sentence.

تَّنْوِين (Tanwiin) as previously mentioned occurs as a sign of the noun, therefore تَّنْوِين (tanwiin) is one of the ways to determine whether or not a word in an Arabic sentence is a noun – like when you say: حَدَثَنِي‮ ‬رَجُلٌ‮ ‬عَنْ‮ ‬مُجَاهِدٍ‮ ‬خَاضَ‮ ‬مَعْرَكَةً‮ ‬دَامِـيَّةً‮ ‬(A man told me concerning Mujaahid that he rushed to a bloody battlefield.)  In this sentence, every word which has تَّنْوِين (tanwiin) affixed to end is a noun. Its divisions are two: خَظًّا‮ ‬and وَقْعًا.

There are three kinds of تَّنْوِين (tanwiin):

1. تَّنْوِينُ‮ ‬التَّمْكِين  is affixed to the fully declinable inflected nouns and because of this it is also called تَنْوِينُ‮ ‬الصرف (the tanwiin of the declinable noun), like when you say: رَجُـلٌ and كِـتَابٌ.

2. تَّنْوِينُ‮ ‬التَّنْكِير‮ ‬(Tanwiin of the Indefinite Noun) is affixed to the nouns fixed in their construction, like the noun that belongs with the verb and the closed proper name, i.e. (وَيْه) which is divided between the definite and indefinite.  The noun that has tanwiin affixed to it is considered to be indefinite, while the noun which does not have tanwiin affixed to it is considered to be definite, like: صَـهْ وصَهٍ‮ ‬ومَهْ‮ ‬ومَهٍ‮ ‬وإِيهِ‮ ‬وإِيهٍ and like when you say مَرَرْتُ‮ ‬بسَبَوَيْهِ‮ ‬وسَـبَوَيْهٍ‮  ‬آخَر  (I passed by Sabawayhi and Sabawayhin).

When you say: صَـهْ, what you are seeking from the person to whom you are speaking is that ceases the conversation he is involve in, and if you say to him: مَـهْ, what you desire from him is that he completes the conversation he is involved in, and when you say: إِيهِ, you want to add more to the conversation.

As for when you say to him: ومَـهٍ وإِيهٍ وصَـهٍ with tanwiin affixed to the end, you desire that he either ceases every conversation, completes every conversation or add to every conversation.

3. تَّنْوِينُ‮ ‬الْعِوَض (tanwiin of substitution) which is of three kinds:

a)  تَّنْوِينُ‮ ‬الْـعِوَض (tanwiin of substitution) which is affixed to the end of the noun that is the substitute for the sentence when the noun that is being used as a substitute for the sentence replaces the sentence- like that which Allah the Most High has said: وَأَنْتُمْ‮ ‬حِينَئِذٍ‮ ‬تَنْظُرونَ () that is to say: حِينَ‮ ‬إِذْ‮ ‬بَلَغْتَ‮ ‬الرُّوحَ‮ ‬الْـحُلْقُوم تَنْظُرونَ ().  And so you drop the sentence: بَلَغْتَ‮ ‬الرُّوحَ‮ ‬الْـحُلْقُوم‮ ‬and bring its substitute.

b) تَّنْوِينُ‮ ‬الْعِوَض (tanwiin of substitution)which is affixed  to every noun that has been substituted for the noun that is construct with it in an idaafah – like when you say: كُـلٌّ‮ ‬قَـائِـمُ that is say: كُـلُّ‮ ‬إِنْسَانٍ‮ ‬قَـائِـمٌ‮.‬  And so you drop إِنْـسَانٍ and replace it with the substitute noun that has tanwiin affixed to its end.

The words بَـعْدٌ and أَيُّ are similar to كُـلٌّ – like the statement of Ru’yah bin Mujaaj: دَايَنْتُ‮ ‬أَرْوَى وَالدُّيُون نَقَضَ‮    ‬فَمعلت بَعْضًا وَأَدْتُ‮ ‬بَعْضًا‮  ‬and أي‮ ‬أي‮ ‬امرئ.

c) تَّنْوِينُ‮ ‬الْـعِوَض (tanwiin of substitution) is affixed to the noun which is a substitute for the particle جَـوَارٍ and غَـوَاشٍ and similar to these are the broken nouns that are not fully declinable, and so تَّنْوِينُ‮ ‬الْـعِوَض (tanwiin of substitution) stands in the place of what has been dropped – like when you say: هؤلاء ضَـوارٍ and مَـرَرْتُ‮ ‬بِـضَوَارٍ, and so the letter ى has been replaced by تَّنْوِينُ‮ ‬الْـعِوَض (tanwiin of substitution) because the root word is ضَـوَارِي, however it is not تَّنْوِينُ‮ ‬التَّمْكِين () because it is not fully declinable.

 
  
 
 
and The Meaning of الْـكَلاَمُ(Speech) in the Arabic Language
 

Section 2 – الْـمْتَعَدِّي‮ ‬ (The Transitive Verb) ‮ ‬واللاَّزِم(and Intransitive Verb)


Published in: on August 2, 2010 at 19:03  Comments (1)  

Arabic Grammar – Preliminary Matters: Point 1 – Letters, Words and Sentences

Introduction

The Arabic Language and Its Sciences

Language in general: is what every nation of people uses to express by it what they mean or intend. There are many languages and they are different from each other in so far as each particular language is standardized by its agreed upon meaning. That is to say, one meaning which preoccupies the minds of a single nation of people, because each nation of people express themselves with expressions that are different from another.

The Arabic Language is the words that the Arabs use to express their intentions. It (the Arabic Language) has come to us by way of transmission, by way of the Noble Qur’an and Hadith which have preserved it for us, as well as by way of reliable sources from among the prose and poetical works of the Arabs.

The Arabic Sciences

When the Arabs became fearful of the ruination of the Arabic Language after they began intermingle with foreigners, they started to write it down in in dictionaries and they firmly establish its rules in order to preserve it from errors.  These rules or principles are known as the Arabic Sciences.

The sciences of Arabic language are sciences through which the aim is the preservation of the tongue and the pen from mistakes.  They are thirteen sciences: الصَّرْفُ (morphology), الإعراب  (analyzing and parsing sentences / word inflection), الرّسم the basic rules for writing words, الْـمَعَانِـي rhetoric, الْـبَدِيع methaphors, العَرُوض prosidy, الْقَوَافِي  rhyme, قُرْضُ‮ ‬الشِّعْر recitation of poetry, الإنشاء composition and style, الـخِطَابَة speech delivery,  تاريخ الأدب‮ ‬literary history and متن اللغة the core text of the language.  The most import of these is morphology and the analysis and parsing of sentences and words.

Preliminary Matters: Point 1 Letters, Words and Sentences

The first matter undoubtedly is that the Arabic language consists of words and words consists of the letters of the alphabet.  The alphabet in the Arabic language is twenty eight (28).  The first of them is hamzah (أ) and the last of them is yaa (ي) and they are of two (2) kinds Shamsiyyah and Qamariyyah.  Ash-Shamsiyyah is that in which the the laam (ل) of the definite article (ال) is not apparent with the rest of the word, but rather its sound is concealed; and standing in its place is a vowelized letter that is the same as the first letter of the noun to which the definite article is attached.  like when you say: الشَّمْسُ and sometimes pronounce it saying: أَشْشَمْسُ. As for al-Qamariyyah, the sound of the definite article is clearly expressed with it – like when you say: الْقَمَرُ.

There are fourteen (14) Shamsiyyah letters.  They are:

ت ث دذرزس ش ص ض ط ظ ل ن‮

There are fourteen Qamariyyah letters:

‮ ‬اب ج ح خ ع‮ ‬غ‮ ‬ف ق ك م ه و‮ ‬ي

Each of the letters are sound except, alif (ا), waaw (و) and (ي).  They are characterized this way, because change occurs in them in under certain conditions.

الـْحَرَكَاتُ (The Vowels)

There are three vowels which make the pronunciation of the letters possible.  They are ḍammah (ــُـ) which stands in relationship with the letter waaw (و), the fatḥah (ــَـ) which stands in relations with alif (ا), the kasrah (ــِـ), which stands in relations with yaa (ي).  Sukuun (ــْـ) is affixed to every letter except soft alif, because by its nature it is silent and vowelless.

حُرُوفُ‮ ‬اللِّينِ‮    ‬(The Soft Letters = ا, و, ي) and الـْمَدّ (The Letters of Elongation)

حَـرْف الْـعِلَّةِ (the weak letter) is called حَـرْفُ‮ ‬اللِّينِ (the soft letters = ا, و, ي) when it occurs vowelless and coming after it is a sound letter and at the same time it is prceded by a vowel related to it – like found in the words طُـول and حِـيل or unrelated to it like found in the words نَـوْم and خَـيْر.  And in regards to the first case mentioned it is also called حَـرْفُ‮ ‬مَـدِّ (a letter of elongation), because the sound is lengthen with the expression of it. The exception is alif = ا.  It can only be حَـرْفُ‮ ‬مَـدِّ (a letter of elongation), since nothing precedes it except a letter bearing a vowel related to it – like when you say: مَـالَ wherein the alif = ا is  حَرْفُ مَدِّ (a letter of elongation) only.  In the example of  the words طُول and جِيل, the waaw = و and the yaa = ي respectively are each حَـرْفُ‮ ‬مَـدِّ (a letter of elongation) and حُـرُوفُ‮ ‬اللِّينِ (the soft letters), because the sound is lengthen with the expression of them.  In the example of the words نَـوْم and خَـيْر, the waaw = و and the yaa = ي respectively are each حَـرْفُ‮ ‬لِِـينِ (a soft letter) only, because the sound of each of them is not lengthened.

الْكَلَمَةُ (The Word) and الْكَلاَمُ (Speech)

In the Arabic language, الْـكَلِمَةُ (the word) is an expression that demonstrates a singular meaning and in the Arabic language, there are three kinds of words: الاِسْمُ (the noun / name), الفِعْلُ (the verb / action), الحَرْفُ (the particle /  letter).

As for الْكَلاَمُ (speech), it is composed of either two or more words that have a relationship and that conveys complete information in that its speaker upon completion of his statement does not have to say more and the one who is listening does not have to hear more.

When we say الْكَلاَمُ (Speech) here, what we mean is الْكَلاَمُ‮ ‬الْعَرَبِيُّ (Arabic Speech).  As for foreign languages such as Berber and Turkish, they have their own rules and are therefore, they are not considered الْـكَلاَم (Speech) as defined by the Arabs.

As mentioned previously above, الْـكَلاَم (Speech) in the Arabic language is composed of two nor more words such as two nouns – like when you say: الْمَسْجِـدُ قَـرِيبٌ (The masjid is near by) or a verb and noun – like when you say: قَـامَ‮ ‬زَيْـدٌ‮ ‬(Zaid stood up) or الْـكَلاَم (Speech) can consist of more words than this – like when you say: الْمَدِينَةُ‮ ‬بَعِيدَةٌ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬هُنَا (The city is far from here) or ذَهَبَ‮ ‬مُحًمَّدٌ‮ ‬إِلَى كَانُو أَمْسًا (Muhammad went to Kano yesterday).

Each of these of these word constructs is called الـْجمْلَةٌ (the sentence) or the word construct which conveys a complete idea.

 
 
 
 
and The Meaning of الْـكَلاَمُ(Speech) in the Arabic Language
 

Section 2 – الْـمْتَعَدِّي‮ ‬ (The Transitive Verb) ‮ ‬واللاَّزِم(and Intransitive Verb)


Published in: on August 2, 2010 at 15:35  Leave a Comment  
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