Risālah Ibn Abī Zayd – Chapter One: About What the Tongue Should Articulate and About What the Heart Should Believe In Regards to the Obligatory Matters of the Religion

Risālah ibn Abī Zayd al-Qayrawaanī

The Risālah : A Treatise on Mālikī Fiqh by ʿAbdullah ibn Abī Zayd al-Qayrawānī (310/922 -386/996)

Translated by Alhaj Bello Mohammad Daura, MA (London) (Including commentary from ath-Thamr ad-Dānī by al-Azharī)

CHAPTER 1: The Chapter About What the Tongue Should Articulate and About What the Heart Should Believe In Regards to the Obligatory Matters of the Religion

The obligatory matters of the deen that the tongue should give expression to and in which the heart should believe.

This chapter clarifies what should be expressed in words and what hearts should believe. It contains about a hundred items of creed, which can be divided into three basic categories: that which must be believed about Allah Almighty, that which is impossible in respect of Allah, and that which is permissible in respect of Him.These are matters which all those who are legally responsible must believe.

1.1 Beliefs regarding Allah

1.1a Tawhid – His Oneness and Disconnection from creatures (tanzih)

These obligatory tenets include believing in the heart and expressing with the tongue that Allah is One God with no god other than Him, nor any likeness to Him, nor any equal to Him.

[Belief is expressed on the tongue and confirmed by sincerity in the heart and action with the limbs. Thus it is composed of all three aspects. Nonetheless, simple belief in the Oneness of Allah will save a person from being in the Fire for all eternity.

The belief that Allah is One is the fundamental basis of Islam, and when Divine Unity is expressed, the name “Allah” must be used. It is not permissible to say, “There is no god but the Almighty” or use any other names except Allah. Nothing at all resembles Him or is equal to Him.]

[Al-Kalbi mentions that the clear evidence for this is found in four ayats: “If there had been any gods except Allah in heaven or earth, they would both be ruined” (21:22); “Say: ‘If there had been other gods together with Him as you say,they would have sought a way to the Master of the Throne'” (17:42); “Allah has no son and there is no other god accompanying Him, for then each god would have gone off with what he created and one of them would have been exalted above the other” (23:91); and “But they have adopted gods apart from Him which do not create anything. They are themselves created.” (25:3)

1.1b. Lack of Associates

He has had no child. He had no father. He has no wife. He has no partner

[See Qur’an 112: “Say: He is Allah, One with no other, Allah the Everlasting Sustainer of all. He has not given birth and was not born and there is no one is equal to Him,” and”And say: ‘Praise be to Allah Who has had no son and Who has no partner in His Kingdom and Who needs no one to protect Him from abasement.'” (17:111). He is totally unique. If he were to have a wife or partner, that would imply need, and He is absolutely beyond need.]

1.1c. Lack of Temporality

There is no beginning to His firstness nor any end to His lastness.

[His existence does not begin with firstness so that there is a point at which He could be said to begin nor does He have a point at which He could be said to end. He exists eternally, out of time, before time and after time.]

1.1d. Ineffablity and Indefinablity

Those who try to describe Him can never adequately do so nor can thinkers encompass Him in their thought. Real thinkers may derive lessons from His signs but do not try to think about the nature of His Essence. “But they do not attain any of His knowledge except what He wills.” (2:254)

[It is impossible to grasp His true description, let alone His Essence. Thinkers must learn through the Signs which indicate the splendour of His Power, but must not attempt to reflect on the nature of His Essence because the Prophet said, “Reflect on His creation, but do not reflect on His Essence.”]

1.1e. His Footstool

“His Footstool embraces the heavens and the earth, and their preservation does not tire Him. He is the Most High, the Magnificent” (2:254)

[He has full control and authority over all creation, high and low, and His preservation of them is no burden for Him.]

1.1g. His Attributes

The All-Knower and the All-Aware, the Arranger and the All-Powerful. The All-Hearer and the All-Seeing. The High and the Great. He is over His Glorious Throne by His Essence.

[He has knowledge of all things, and complete power and authority over all things. His hearing and vision is connected to all things in existence.]

1.1g. His Knowledge

He is everywhere by His knowledge. He created man and He knows what his self whispers to him and He is nearer to him than his jugular vein. No leaf falls without him knowing of it nor is there any seed in the darkness of the earth, nor any fresh thing nor any dry thing, that is not in a clear book.

[He knows our inner dialogue and thoughts. He is closer to man that his jugular vein, which is his physical body, and so He is closer to man than his own physicality. “We created man and We know what his own self whispers to him, and We are nearer to him than his jugular vein.” (50:16) In addition to the universal scope of His knowledge, He knows the precise details, like each individual leaf which falls – and it only falls by His will and in accordance with His knowledge. Everything is encompassed by His knowledge, dead or alive, growing or dormant. “The keys of the Unseen are in His possession. No one knows them except for Him. He knows everything in the land and sea. Not a leaf falls without His knowing it. There is no seed in the darkness of the earth, and no wet thing or dry thing, but that it is in a Clear Book.” (6:59)]

1.1h. Mastery Oover All Creation

He is firmly established on His throne and has absolute control over His kingdom. [No one knows the true interpretation of this expression. Imam Malik was asked about it and said, “‘Firmly established’ is known but ‘how’ is not known.” Nothing is hidden from Him and His control is absolute. “He then established Himself firmly on the Throne.” (10:3, etc.)]

1.1i. His Names and Attributes

[He has the most beautiful names and the most sublime attributes and He has always had all these names and attributes. He is exalted above any of His attributes ever having been created or any of His names having been brought into temporal existence.

He is described by the best and noblest of the meanings of His Names. He has attributes like power, will, height, and so forth. He is high exalted over any imperfection or lack. These Names have always been His and will remain His. Thus neither His names nor His attributes are created. They are simply His. “To Allah belong the Most Beautiful Names” (7:180)]

1.1j. His Speech and Manifestation

He spoke to Musa with His speech which is an attribute of His essence and not something created. He manifested Himself to the mountain and it disintegrated through exposure to His majesty.

[Allah spoke to Musa with His timeless words and Musa actually heard His timeless speech.”When Musa came to Our appointed time and his Lord spoke to him, he said, ‘My Lord, show me Yourself so that I may look at You!’ He said, ‘You will not see Me, but look at the mountain. If it remains firm in its place, then you will see Me.’ But when His Lord manifested Himself to the mountain, He crushed it flat and Musa fell unconscious to the ground.” (7:143)]

1.2 Belief in the Qur’an

The Qur’an is the speech of Allah, not something created which must therefore die out, nor the attribute of something created which must therefore come to an end.

[The Qur’an is the speech of Allah which is not created and is timeless, outside of temporal time. Hence it will not end as creatures must end, but will abide endlessly.]

1.3 Belief in the Decree (Qadar)

1.3a. The Prior Decree of Good and Evil

Also included is belief in the Decree both the good of it and the evil of it, the sweet of it and the bitter of it. All of this has been decreed by Allah, our Lord. The way things are decided is entirely in His hand and the way they happen is according to His decree. He knows all things before they come into existence and they take place in the way He has already decided.

[It is necessary to believe that all things, good and evil, are decreed by Allah and nothing escapes His will and thus only what He wills occurs in His kingdom. All things and their being brought into existence from the concealment of nonexistence to the domain of manifestation in their myriad aspects and forms – long and short, at one time rather than one, in one place rather than another. All of that occurs and issues directly from His Decree according to His knowledge and dependent on His will.]

1.3b. Prior Knowledge

There is nothing that His servants say or do which He has not decreed and does not have knowledge of. “Does not He who creates know, when He is the Subtle and the Aware.” (67:14)

[He knows everything which happens before it happens. It only occurs in accordance with His knowledge of it.]

1.3c. The Prior Predisposition of People

He leads astray whoever He wills and in His justice debases them and He guides whoever He wills and in His generosity grants them success. In that way everyone is eased by Him to what He already has knowledge of and has previously decreed as to whether they are to be among the fortunate or the miserable.

[Every man has prior disposition to what Allah already knows about him being happy or wretched because Allah only created man according to His knowledge. See Qur’an 14:4, 3:160, etc.]

1.3d. Exaltedness of Allah’s power

He is exalted above there being anything He does not desire in His kingdom, or that there should be anything not dependant on Him, or that there should be any creator of anything other than Him, the Lord of all people, the Lord of their actions, the One who decrees their movements and the time of their death.

[The power of Allah is so immense and vast that there is nothing which is not directly under his authority and subject to His will. All things – might and abasement, wealth and poverty, pious actions and all things are subject to His will and power.]

1.4 Belief in the Messengers and Muhammad

1.4a. The sending of Messengers

He has sent Messengers to them in order that they should have no argument against Him.

[The first of the Prophets was Adam and the last was Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. One must believe and accept that Allah sent the Messengers to those who are legally responsible, i.e adult and sane, and they conveyed the Message. The wisdom of sending the Messengers is that it removes any excuse which creatures might offer about not having heard the Message.]

1. 4b. The Final Messenger

He sealed this Messengership, warning, and Prophethood with his Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, whom He made the last of the Messengers – “A bringer of good news and a warner, calling to Allah by His permission and an illuminating lamp.

[Revelation, which is warning and prophethood, which is informing about what Allah has said, reaches its end with the Prophet Muhammad. There will be no Prophets after him. He brings the good news that whoever follows him will be happy and whoever does not will be punished. He calls to Allah, conveying tawhid to the legally responsible, and fighting the unbelievers. He is an illuminating light because his Shari’a is a light which guides the bewildered –whoever follows it and proceeds along the Straight Path will emerge from the darkness of disbelief to the light of belief.]

1.4c. Divine Guidance through the Book

He sent down on him His Wise Book and by means of him He explained his upright deen and guided people to the Straight Path.

[One must believe and affirm that Allah revealed to His Prophet Muhammad a Book containing judgement and wisdom to which no falsehood at all comes. Allah opened and expanded the Straight deen of Islam through His Prophet. Thus He manifests its judgements and clarifies it on the tongue of His Prophet. Allah only sent down the revelation to us so that it would be clear to people. The guidance of Muhammad is the sun of knowledges, the source of right guidance and the fount of certainty which guides people to the Straight Path.]

1.5. Belief in the Resurrection and Judgement

1.5a. The Last Hour

Also part of what must be believed is that the Hour is coming – there is no doubt about it .

[Cf. 40:59.This must be confirmed and believed and the one who denies that the Final Hour will come is an unbeliever. However, but only the All-Knower of the Unseen knows when it will come. ]

1.5b. Resurrection of the Dead

It must be believed that Allah will raise up all who have died: “As He brought them into existence the first time so they will be brought back again;”

[It must be believed that He will bring the dead back to life after they were dead and bring them back for the Gathering. There is no disagreement among Muslims that it will occur, but there is disagreement about whether He will bring them back from absolutely nothing or from dissolution through a reconstitution of their parts.]

1.5c. Divine Reward: Multiplication of Good Actions

It must be believed that Allah, glory be to Him, multiplies the reward of the good actions of His believing servants.

[It must be believed that Allah will multiply good actions for the believers according to sincerity and degrees of humility, so that multiplication can be from ten to 700, in other words, a great deal. Ibn Hanbal transmitted that Allah multiplies the good action a thousand thousand times. This means the reward for doing them. The “good action” is what is praised in the Shariʿa, and what is the opposite of that is a “bad action”, which is what the Shariʿa considers reprehensible.]

1.5d. Pardoning Wrong Actions

He pardons them for their major wrong actions by virtue of their repentance (tawba) and forgives them for their minor wrong actions by virtue of their avoidance of the major wrong actions.

[Part of His bounty to His believing servants is that if anyone does any major wrong actions and then repents and makes amends, He will pardon Him by His favour and generosity. Small wrong actions are expiated by avoiding major ones.]

1.5e. Those who do not repent are subject to His will

Those who do not repent of their major wrong actions become subject to His will. “He does not forgive anything being associated with Him, but He forgives anything other than that to whoever He wills.”

Those believers who commit major wrong actions and die without repenting of them are subject to the Will of Allah. If He wishes, He will forgive them out of His favour. If He wishes, He will punish them out of justice. He may forgive everything except for associating others with Him.]

1.5f. Deliverance from the Fire because of belief

Those He punishes with His Fire, He will remove from it because of any belief they have and by this He will cause them to enter His Garden. “Whoever does an atom’s weight of good will see it.” (99:7)

[It must also be accepted that if Allah wills that the rebels among the believers be punished in the Abode of Punishment, their punishment will be commensurate with what they have brought on themselves by their evil deeds and then mercy will envelop them and they will emerge from the Abode of Punishment and enter the Abode of Peace. Whoever has the weight of atom of belief in his heart will not be in the Fire forever. Thus belief is a reason for not being forever in the Punishment and a reason for entering the Garden with Allah’s pardon and mercy.]

1.5g. The Intercession of the Prophet

Any of the community of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, who have committed major wrong actions and for whom he intercedes, will be brought out of the Fire by his intercession.

[The intercession of the Prophet and others must be affirmed. He is singled out for mention because he is the first intercessor and by the intercession of our Prophet the people of major wrong actions of his community of unifiers will emerge from the Fire. The Mu’tazilites deny intercession, based on the lack of permission to pardon and overlook wrong actions, but we defer to transmitted evidence and they hold to merely logical evidence. Transmitted evidence is more sublime and radiant.]

1.6 The Afterlife: the Garden and the Fire

1.6a. The Garden

Allah has created the Garden and has made it ready as an everlasting abode for His friends (awliya’). He will honour them in it with the vision of His Noble Face. This is the same Garden from which He sent down Adam, His Prophet and Khalif, to the earth, which was as it had already been decreed in His foreknowledge.

[Allah has created the everlasting abode of the Garden for the believers in which they will have no toil or fatigue, but will be rejoicing and will be blessed by contemplation of His Face. See 75:23.]

1.6b. The Fire

He has created the Fire and has made it ready as an everlasting abode for those who disbelieve in him and deny His signs and Books and Messengers and He keeps them veiled from seeing Him.

[He created the Fire as an eternal abode of punishment for those who deny and reject Him and ignored the evidence which indicates the existence and oneness of the Creator and denied His revealed Books and Messengers. They will abide in the hatred resulting from disbelief and will be veiled from seeing their Lord on that day.]

1.7 Details of the Resurrection

1.7a The Coming of Allah and the Angels

Allah, may He be blessed and exalted, will come on the Day of Rising together with the angels, rank upon rank. [It is confirmed by transmission that on the Day of Resurrection Allah will come with angels in ranks.

[It is confirmed by transmission that on the Day of Resurrection Allah will come with angels in ranks. That must be believed, and its knowledge comes from the Lawgiver. Malik and others say about this ayat (89:22) and others that they are read as they have come without qualification. We take what they say literally butdo not compare it to any creature.]

1.7b. Presentation of Peoples

All the different peoples are confronted with their accounts and their punishment or reward.

[All the different peoples will come to present themselves so that their states was be investigated and reckoning taken for their actions. The actions of those who present themselves for the Reckoning will have their good and bad actions enumerated. The believer will be called to account with graciousness and favour and the hypocrite and unbeliever with evidence and justice. So Allah Almighty will say to the believer, “I veiled it for you in the world and I forgive it for you on the Day of Rising.” The unbelievers will be reckoned in front of of witnesses and those who they denied will be summoned to their Lord, “The curse of Allah on wrongdoers.”]

1.7c. The Balance

The balances will be set up to weigh people’s actions – “Whoever’s actions are heavy in the balance – they are the successful.”

[See 21:47; 101:6. The balances will be set up to manifest justice so that no one will be wronged even the weight of a mustard grain. Allah will bring all the person’s actions, even to an atom’s weight, on the Day of Resurrection. Whoever has his balance heavy will be successful and achieve a happiness after which there will be no misery. Whoever has his balance light will be wretched and will have no happiness after his wretchedness.]

1.7d. The Books of Actions

People will be given pages on which their actions are recorded – “Whoever given his book in his right hand will be given an easy accounting and whoever is given his book behind his back – they will burn in a Fire.” (84:7-13)

[Nations will be given their pages which contain their actions. When they are given them, Allah will create knowledge in them and they will understand what they contain. If someone is given his book in his right hand, that indicates that he is one of the people of the right hand and happiness. If someone is given his book in his left hand, that is an indication that he is one of the people of misery.” The receiving of the books should actually be put before the balance and weighing of acting because the weighing is after the Reckoning and the Reckoning is after receiving the Books.]

1.7e. The Sirat

The Bridge (sirat) is true and people will cross it according to their actions. Those who cross it, and achieve safety from the Fire, do so at different speeds, while the actions of others cast them to their destruction in the Fire.

[There is a great deal of description of the Sirat and it is said that it is finer than a hair and sharper than a sword. Al-Qarafi, on the other hand, says that it is wide with two paths on it, one to the right and one to the left. The people of happiness travel on the right and the people of wretchedness on the left.

There are ropes on it and each rope leads to one of the levels of Jahannam and Jahannam lies between the creatures and the Garden. The Sirat is set up over Jahannam, and none of the people of the Garden enters the Garden until he has crossed over the Sirat.

People will cross over the Sirat according to the disparity in their actions and avoidance of the things forbidden by Allah. Some will pass over like lightning. Some will escape the hooks, some will be scratched but released, and some will be caught by the hooks and tipped into the Fire of Jahnnam.]

1.7f The Basin

Also included is belief in the Basin (hawd) of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, which his community will come down to drink from after which they will never feel thirst again. But those who make any changes or alterations in the dîn will be driven from it.

[It is necessary to believe in the Basin of the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace. He will drive away from it those who alter things, like the apostates and those of his followers who follow him with the best will drink from it when they leave their graves thirsty. Whoever drinks from it will never feel thirst again.]

1.8 Belief

1.8a. Definition of Belief

Belief consists of what you say with the tongue, what you believe sincerely in the heart, and what you do with the limbs.

[Belief is articulation of the shahada, belief in the truthfulness of the Messenger and what he brought in the heart and then acting according to the judgements of the Shari’a, like praying and fasting. Someone with all of these three is a believer. If someone believes that belief does not consist of these three and imagines that what the author said was due to his inclination to what belief obliges because there is consensus that someone who believes with his heart, speaks with his tongue and acts with his limbs is a believer. If he does not believe that belief consists of these three, he takes it as a preface to the words which follow:]

1.8b Increase and Decrease of Belief

It increases when your actions increase and decreases when they decrease. So it is through actions or the lack of them that increase and decrease in belief occurs.

[It increases according to actions and decreases according to actions. This increase and decrease is in relation to its fruits. This is the school of the early and laster people of the community, and this is the final position taken in the matter by Malik. He first had said that it increases and does not decrease. Applying the name”belief” to action is agreed upon. The Almighty says, “Allah would not let your belief go to waste,” which referred to the prayers they did facing Jerusalem.]

1.8c. The intention and following the Sunna

The statement of belief is not complete without action. Neither the statement nor action are complete without intention. And neither the statement nor intention are complete unless they are in accordance with the sunna.

[Actions and words are according to intentions. The intention is the fulcrum upon which actions are based, and so a man should only base his actions on the pure Sunna and Straight Shari’a and follow the Rightly-guided khalifs.]

1.8d. Islam and Wrong actions

No Muslim becomes an unbeliever (kafir) through wrong actions.

[It must be believed that no Muslim who commits a wrong action becomes an unbeliever as long as he believes. The same applies to someone who commits acts of disobedience while he nevertheless believes that the Shari’a forbids them. If someone does something such shows that he lacks belief, like throwing a copy of the Qur’an into the rubbish, then he is an apostate. We are not discussing him. The Prophet said, “Whover faces our qibla and eats our sacrifices is truly a believer.” The Kharijites were heretics when they said that every sin is a major wrong action and every major wrong action removes actions and the one who does that is an unbeliever. The Mu’tazilites said that every major wrong action renders actions void and the one who commits it is between two stations, and he is not called a believer or an unbeliever. He is called a deviant (fasiq).]

1.8e. Martyrs

Martyrs (shuhada’) are alive, receiving their provision in the presence of their Lord.

[It is obligatory to believe that the marytrs, those who fought the unbelievers and were killed in the way of Allah to elevate the word of Allah, are alive and delighting in the Presence of their Lord because of the privileges they have been granted, one of which is that they will be secure from the Greatest Terror on the Day of Rising. See Qur’an 3:169.]

1.8f. In the grave: the spirits of the fortunate

The spirits of the fortunate remain in bliss until the day they are raised again.

[The souls of the fortunate will remain in bliss until the Day of Rising seeing their place in the Garden. When one of them dies, he is shown his place in the Garden morning and evening.]

1.8g. In the grave: the spirits of the miserable

The spirits of the miserable are tormented until the Day of Judgement.

[The souls of the wretched are punished by seeing their place in the Fire and other punishments.]

1.8h. The questioning in the grave

The believers are tried and questioned in their graves. “Allah makes those who believe firm by giving them firm words in the life of this world and the next world.”

[ This refers to the questioning by the two angels in the grave. The dead person will be placed in his grave and people will leave him and then two angels come and sit with him and ask him, “Who is your Lord? What is your deen? Who is your Prophet?” The believer will reply, “My Lord is Allah. My deen is Islam, My Prophet is Muhammad,” and his grave will be wide for him. When the unbeliever is in the grave and is asked these questions, he will reply, “I do not know,” and so he will be dealt a blow from an iron hammer and will scream so that all creatures except men and jinn will hear him. Also reported is the constriction of the grave, which is the pressing on the sides of the body of the dead person and none is safe from that except the one whom Allah grants an exception – they include Fatima bint Asad, the mother of ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib, because of the blessing of the Prophet going into her grave, and whoever recites Surat al-Ikhlas in his final illness.”]

1.9 The Angels

1.9a. The Recording Angels

People have recording angels over them who write down their actions. Nothing people do escapes the knowledge of their Lord.

[Men and jinn, believers and unbelievers, free and slave, have recording angels who write down their actions, even the permissible ones and the groan in illness, and even the actions of the heart, like all the thoughts which occur to it. Allah has given the heart a token by which it can distinguish between the good and bad action. The source for the knowledge of that is the words of the Almighty, “Standing over you are guardians, noble, recording. They know everything you do,” (82:10-12) and the words of the Prophet, “The angels of the day and night succeed one another.” There is consensus on that. None of the actions are hidden from Allah. That is part of the subtlety of Allah regarding His slaves since they know that Allah has recording angels who record their actions and that will prevent them from acts of disobedience and the proof will be established against them when they reject and deny.]

1.9b. The Angel of Death

The angel of death seizes people’s spirits by the permission of his Lord.

[Allah has delegated an angel called ‘Azra’il to take the spirits of creatures, men, jinn and other birds and all animals who have a spirit. The Almighty says, “Allah takes back all selves at the time of their death,” (39:42) and He says, “Then when death comes to one of you, Our messengers take him,” (6:61) however the outward appearance differs from this. The action is ascribed to Allah because He is the one who does it in reality, and the attribution of taking the spirits is to the Angel of Death because he does it directly by the permission of Allah. Taking is ascribed to the angels who are messengers because they assist the Angel of Death in taking the spirits.]

1.10 Authorities

1.10a The Best generation

The best generation are those who saw the Messenger of Allah, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and believed in him. Then those who followed them and then those who followed them.

[The best generation is those who were alive in the time of the Prophet Muhammad, may Allah bless him and grant him peace, and believed in him, respected and helped and followed the Light which was sent down with him and the suns of his prophethood shone on them and they won and chose the virtue of being a Companion. Their generation is the best generation. This is in accordance with his words, “The best of you is my generation and those who follow them and then those who follow them.]

1.10b. The best Companions

The best of the Companions (Sahaba) are the rightly-guided khalifs. Firstly, Abu Bakr, then ‘Umar, then ‘Uthman, then ‘Ali, may Allah be pleased with all of them.

[Not all the Companions had the same degree, but they varied in their degrees of excellence. The Rightly-guided Khalifs are the best and in order of excellence they were Abu Bakr, then ‘Umar, then ‘Uthman, then ‘Ali, may Allah be pleased with all of them.]

1.10c. Respect for all the Companions

None of the Companions of the Messenger should be mentioned except in the best way and silence should be maintained concerning any disagreements that broke out between them. They are the people who are most worthy of being considered in the best light possible and the people whose opinions should be most respected.

[One should avoid getting embroiled in the quarrels between them and one must always take the best interpretation in holding an opinion regarding them. They must always be thought about in the best possible light.]

1.10d. Those in authority

Obedience to the leaders of the Muslims, both their rulers and their men of knowledge, is obligatory.

[It is obligatory to obey the Imams of the Muslims who are in authority who are responsible for the best interests of the Muslims. If they command what is correct, it is obligatory to obey, and if they forbid the reprehensible, it is obligatory to refrain. It is only obligatory to obey the scholars who act by their knowledge and command the correct and forbid the reprehensible and preserve the limits of Allah. The evidence for the obligation is the words of the Almighty, “Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those in command among you.” (4:58) The one who transgresses is not obeyed because the Prophet said, “There is no obedience due to a creature which involves disobedience to the Creator.” (Ibn Hanbal & al-Hakim)]

1.10e. The Salaf

It is also obligatory to follow the Right-acting Companions, to tread in their footsteps and ask forgiveness for them.

[It is obliged to follow the righteous Salaf who are the Companions, in their words and actions, whether it is learned from them or by derivation and ijtihad. Similarly one must pray for forgiveness for them.]

1.10f. Avoiding Disputation

It is also obligatory to avoid wrangling and argumentation regarding the deen..

[It is necessary to avoid wrangling and arguments about the deen. Wrangling is to deny the truth after it is clear. Argumentation is to quarrel with the people of innovations. That is forbidden because it could lead to attacking the Companions and cause doubt in the heart. If the aim of the argument is to set forth the truth without obduracy, then it is permitted.]

1.10g. Avoiding Innovations

…and to avoid every new thing which people have introduced into it.

[Avoid innovations because the Prophet said, “If anyone innovates something in this business of ours which is not part of it, it is rejected.” This is applied to innovations which did not occur in his time and which the Shari’a indicates are unlawful, according to some. Some believe that innovation is what did not occur in this time, whether the Shari’a indicates that it is unlawful, obligatory, recommended, disliked or permitted. Innovations are found in all five categories. This is what is stated by Ibn ʿAbdu’s-Salam, al-Qarafi and others.]

May Allah bless and give much peace to our Master Muhammad, His Prophet, and his family and his wives and his descendants.

Published in: on November 30, 2020 at 01:00  Leave a Comment  

Matn al-Akhḍarii an English Translation

mukhtassar-al-akhdari
Matn Al-Akhḍarī

مُقَدِّمَةُ الْكِتَابِ (The Introductory Chapter) from Matn al-Akhdarii

The Section about الطَّهَارَة – At-Ṭahaarah (Purity) from Matn al-Akhdarii

Sections About the Obligatory, Prophetic and Meritorious Acts of Wuḍuu’ from Matn al-Akhḍarii

Section: نَـوَاقـضُ‏ الْـوُضُـوء (Nawaaqiḍu-l-Wuḍuu’ [The Nullification of Wuḍuu’]) from Matn al-Akhḍarii

Section About Ghusl: Its Obligatory, Sunnah and Meritorious Actions from Matn al-Akhḍarii

The Section About التَّيَمُّم At-Tayammum (Dry Ablution) from Matn al-Akhḍarii

The Sections About الْـحَيْض Al-Ḥayḍ (Menstruation) and النَّفَاس An-Nafaas (The Blood Of Parturition [Child Birth]) from Matn al-Akhḍarii

The Section About الأَوْقَاتُ‏ الصَّلاَةِ Al-Awqaatu-ṣ-Salaah [The Times Of Prayer] from Matn al-Akhḍarii

The Section Concerning شُرُوطُ‏ الصَّلاَة (The Conditions of Ṣalaah) from Matn al-Akhḍarii

Section الصَّلاَّةُ‏ الـْـمَفْرُوضَـة (Aṣ-Ṣalaatu-l-Mafruuḍah [The Obligatory Prayer]) from Matn al-Akhḍarii

Section فصل قُـضَاءُ‏ مَـا فِـي‏ الذِّمَّةِ‏ مِـنَ‏ الصَّلَوَات (Making Up What is Owed from Prayers [That Have Passed]) from Matn al-Akhḍarii

A Chapter About السَّهْو (as-Sahw [Forgetfulness During Prayer] from Matn al-Akhḍarii

Published in: Uncategorized on November 20, 2020 at 15:25  Leave a Comment  

Matn Al ʿIzziyyah: an English Translation

Click on the following links in order to read the chapter for the each topic:

Chapter 1 Concerning Purity – Section:

  1. The Characteristics of the Water Used for Minor and Major Ablution From Matn al ʿIzziyyah

2. The Difference Between Pure and Impure Substances from Matn al ʿIzziyah

3. The Status of Substances That Come in Contact with the Body or Come from the Body both Externally and Internally from Matn al ʿIzziyah

4. The Removal of Impurity from the Garment of the Worshipper, His Body and His Prayer Area and What is Excusable in Regards to Blood and Festering Matter from Matn al ʿIzziyah

5. The Obligatory Actions of Wuḍuu’ from Matn al ʿIzziyah

6. The Sunnah Actions of Wuḍuu’ from Matn al ʿIzziyah

7. The Meritorious Actions of Wuḍuu’ from Matn al ʿIzziyah

8. الإسْـتِنجَاءُ ([Istinjaa’] Cleansing Oneself of Impurity), الاِسْـتِبْرَاءُ ([Istibraa’] Ridding Oneself of Impurity) from Matn al ʿIzziyah

9. (The Proper [Adaab] Manners for Urinating and Defecating from Matn al ʿIzziyah

10. نَوَاقِضُ الوُضُوء (The Nullification of Wuḍuu’) from Matn al ʿIzziyah

11. The Things That Make Ghusl [Major Ablution] Necessary from Matn al ʿIzziyah

12. التَّيَمُّمُ at-Tayammum (Dry ablution) from Matn al ʿIzziyyah

13. فَصْلٌ فِي الْـمَسْحِ عَلَى الْـخُفَّيْـنِ (Wiping over the Leather Socks) from Matn al ʿIzziyah

14. الْـحَيْضُ (The Blood of Menstruation) and النَّفَاسُ (The Blood of Parturition [Childbirth]) from Matn al ʿIzziyah

Chapter 2 – Concerning الصَّلاةِ (Prayer) – Section:

  1. الصَّلاَةُ‮ ‬الْـمَفْرُوضةُ‮ ‬ (The Obligatory Prayers) from Matnu-l-ʿIzziyah

This is not the complete text, but rather, its a work in progress. In shaa’a-l-laah, there will be more sections add over time.  

Get full Arabic text by clicking on link: Arabic Text

 Explanation of Matn Al īzziyyah click link: Audio

Published in: Uncategorized on November 20, 2020 at 03:22  Leave a Comment  

THE IDEA OF ISLAMIC TRADE

By Shaykh ʿUmar Vadillo

What is Islamic Trade?

Islamic Trade is trade conducted under Islamic Law. The most important prerequisite for the existence of trade is the existence of the Islamic Market. A key characteristic of Islamic Trade is its openness to everyone. It restores a natural right to the individual, which is, the right to trade: everyone has access to trade for free in a fitting venue, such as the traditional Open/Islamic Markets. This right has rapidly disappeared with the malls, supermarkets and hypermarkets, and has become the privilege of few. For example, the five largest supermarkets in Britain control two thirds of all retailing.

Trade cannot exist in a regime in which supermarkets control retailing. You cannot trade as an individual in a supermarket, you can only trade if there is a market-place available. This is why trading needs markets and why trading becomes monopolistic distribution if there are supermarkets instead of market-places.

Islamic Trade is opened to all: Muslims and non-Muslims.

Allah has presented trade in parallel to usury by saying: Allah has permitted trade and forbidden usury. This is like saying usury is the illness and trade is health. To restore health is not enough while suppressing the illness, we need to promote health (good eating, exercise), a healthy body. To promote trade is the effective way of eliminating our dependence in usury. Promoting Islamic Trade will be a positive way to present Islam to millions of victims of capitalism. Islamic Trade will be a way of calling millions of non-Muslims to Islam.

Another aspect of Islamic Trade: the Guilds

Islamic Trade is a complete recipe to stimulate and encourage independent entrepreneurship. An Islamic society is not a society of employees. We know through the literature that Muslims lived and worked organised in guilds. Belonging to a guild was the norm in Muslim societies. Businesses were created in collaboration with other members of a trade with the support and infrastructure of a guild organisation. The conditions to create an independent business were all favourable. The relationship employer/employee was replaced by master/apprentice. There was not a class of employees in the days of the guilds. Guilds were eliminated and a new set of privileges and monopolies were put in place. Today free competition and free access to the market do not exist for all. Islamic Trade guarantees equal rights for all. Islamic Trade will decisively contribute to the re-establishment of the guilds, challenging the system of the modern corporation based on one owner and 14,000 employees. It will encourage new models of open production processes (guilds), where production is open to thousands of free small owners who are associated.

This is also part of the wider framework of the Islamic Trade Initiative. Concerning this matter, it is important to point out that especially since the beginning of the 1990s, quite a few corporations have partially understood the benefits of dividing their production processes into smaller units. Instead of one pyramidal structure with one source of decision, they saw the benefit of many autonomous units working in collaboration while competing among each other. Thus, Toyota now claims that there is not one Toyota but two thousand Toyotas. Asea Brown Boveri, the Swedish-Swiss engineering giant, has subdivided itself into 1,300 independent companies and 5,000 autonomous profit centres. Their prosperous success is forcing others to adapt to the same principle. The policies of decentralisation, though they seem a step in the right direction, are limited because they have all been designed by corporate staff. Corporate staff could not suggest the ultimate step which would be to eliminate the corporation altogether, or in other words to give total independence to the autonomousworkshops. That could only happen if the small workshop could have an access to the customer identical to that of Toyota itself. To make that step we need open distribution networks and free market-places for all. These are all part of Islamic Trade.

Islamic Trade can transform money, transform production and distribution, create a new formulation of contractual law and, perhaps the most important, open trading to all in society. Islamic Trade consists of new procedures, mechanisms and institutions based on justice. But Islamic Trade is not a moral proposition, it is existential reality. It does not judge your inner convictions but only your outward behaviour and the effects of your behaviour.

The Foundations of Islamic Trade

consist of five main elements:

•The Open Market-place — a market-place open to all

•The Open Production Process—a production accessible to all

•The Open Distribution Network—a distribution accessible to all

•The Free Medium of Exchange—a medium of exchange freely chosen by all

•The Islamic Business Contracts—the contracts that guarantee 

What is the Islamic Market?

Soon after his arrival in Madinah al-Munawwara, the Prophet of Islam, salallahu alayhi wa sallam, created two institutions, a mosque and a market. He made clear by his statements and explicit injunctions that the market-place was to be a space freely accessible to everybody, with no divisions (such as shops) and where no taxes, levies or rents could be charged.

The Market is like a Mosque: …

The Messenger of Allah, salallahu alayhi wa sallam, said: 

“Markets should follow the same Sunna as the mosques: whoever gets his place first has a right to it until he gets up and goes back to his house or finishes his selling. (suq al-muslimin ka-musalla l-muslimin, man sabaqa ila shay’in fa-huwa lahu yawmahu hatta yada‘ahu.)”.

(Al-Hindi, Kanz al-’Ummal, V, 488, no. 2688)

It is a sadaqa, with no private ownership …

Ibrahim ibn al-Mundhir al Hizami relates from Abdallah ibn Ja’far, that Muhammad ibn Abdallah ibn Hasan said, “The Messenger of Allah, salallahu alayhi wa sallam, gave the Muslims their markets as a charitable gift (tasaddaqa ‘alal-muslimina bi-aswaqihim).”(Ibn Shabba, K. Tarikh al-Madinah al-Munawwara, 304)

With no rent charged … Ibn Zabala relates that Khalid ibn Ilyas al-’Adawi said, “The letter of ‘Umar ibn ‘Abd al-‘Aziz was read out to us in Madinah, saying that the market was a sadaqa and that no rent (kira’) should be charged on anyone for it.” (As-Samhudi, Wafa al-Wafa, 749)

With no taxes levied on it …Ibrahim ibn al-Mundhir relates from Ishaq ibn Ja’far ibn Muhammad, from Abdallah ibn Ja’far ibn al-Miswar, from Shurayh ibn Abdallah ibn Abi Namir, that Ata’ ibn Yasar said, “When the Messenger of Allah, salallahu alayhi wa sallam, wanted to set up a market in Madinah, he went to the market of Bani Qaynuqa’ and then came to the market of Madinah, stamped his foot on the ground and said, ‘This is your market. Do not let it be lessened (la yudayyaq), and do not let any tax (kharaj) be levied on it.’” (Ibn Shabba, K. Tarikh al-Madinah al-Munawwara, 304)

Where no reservations or claims can be made …Ibn Zabala relates from Hatim ibn Isma’il that Habib said that ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab [once] passed by the Gate of Ma’mar in the market and [saw that] a jar had been placed by the gate and he ordered that it be taken away. … ‘Umar forbade him to put any stones on the place or lay claim to it [in any way] (an yuhajjir ‘alayha aw yahuzaha). (As-Samhudi, Wafa al-Wafa, 749)

And where no shops can be constructed. Ibn Shabba relates from Salih ibn Kaysan …that …the Messenger of Allah, salallahu alayhi wa sallam, …said: ‘This is your market. Do not build anything with stone (la tatahajjaru) [on it], and do not let any tax (kharaj) be levied on it.’” (As-Samhudi, Wafa al-Wafa, 747-8)

Abu r-Rijal relates from Isra’il, from Ziyad ibn Fayyad, from one of the shaykhs of Madinah that ‘Umar ibn al Khattab,

radiya’llahu ‘anhu, saw a shop (dukkan) which someone had

newly put up in the market and he destroyed it. (Ibn Shabba, K. Tarikh al-Madinah al-Munawwara, 750)

Without the Market-Place there is no Trade

The first thing is that we need to distinguish between trade and monopolistic distribution. Supermarkets do not allow trade to happen, no one can go there to trade. The products that arrive at the supermarket have already been bought by the supermarket. The goods come from a warehouse that distributes them to the network of supermarkets throughout the nation. The goods arrive at the warehouse from producers or other warehouses, from where the goods were originally bought. This is not trade, this is monopolistic distribution. The clearest evidence that trade has disappeared is that there are no caravans any more. Caravans are the institution of trade. There cannot be caravans if there is nowhere to go to sell. If there are no markets there will be no caravans. Therefore if there are no markets there is no trade. To recreate trade we need to recreate Islamic or Open Markets.

Islamic Trade generates “New Wealth”

Trade is in itself a source of wealth.

Rasulullah, salallahu alayhi wa sallam, said: “9/10 of the provision comes from trade”. That is like saying that 9/10 of the generation of wealth comes from trade. If this is so important to us, it is obvious that its defence is proportionally important. Considering that trade is no longer possible without market-places, we can conclude that we have eliminated 9/10 of our provision. To re-establish trade must be considered a priority of every responsible government, and this primarily means the establishment of networks of Islamic Markets.

We are unfortunately living at a time in which people do not regard trade as something important. The result of this is that economists have concluded that traders should be eliminated from the economy in favour of distributors: supermarkets are encouraged while old markets are closed down.

Another result of this philosophy is that real traders are thrown into the streets with no infrastructure to support them (street  markets), while bankers (usurers) sit in palaces. The reverse of this is the Islamic way. ‘Umar ibn al-Khattab, radiallahu ‘anhu, considered the traders that came to Madinah his guests.

Consequently, all Islamic cultures have treated traders with great esteem. They built for them palaces in which to trade. See for example, the markets of Istanbul, Samarkand or Isfahan. In the past our traders were in palaces while the usurers were in the streets chased by the police. Today the reverse is the norm.

Traders are a source of wealth for us and adequate infrastructure should be given to them. This is what the Islamic market provides for them.

The important thing is that the Islamic Dinar associated to Islamic Trade can generate new wealth with those people in society whom economists reject. The Islamic Dinar can generate a new wealth with the rejects of the present economy, that is, the real economy. The fate of the Islamic Dinar and the Real Economy are bound together through Islamic Trade.

The Islamic Trade Bloc

The implementation of Islamic Trade has its maximum political reality in the establishment of an Islamic Trade Bloc. The establishment of the Islamic Trade Bloc will have three conditions:

1.It must be based on the use of the IGD as currency rather than the creation of yet another paper currency.

2.It must be introduced gradually and should be offered as a choice to the Muslim community

3.It must be accompanied by the establishment of a trading infrastructure based on Islamic Markets.

The Core Mechanism of an Islamic Trade Bloc

Definition

The minimum mechanism that can guarantee a sustainable and continuous growth of the use of the Islamic Dinar as currency consisting of three elements, i.e. the Payment System, the Market Network and Investment (qirad). All three elements enhance trade and synergise one another.

Published in: Uncategorized on October 17, 2020 at 00:36  Leave a Comment  

Open Markets In Islam

Markets in Madina were public institutions (awqaf). The Islamic cities were, above all, a market-city. The importance of the Suq in the formation and development of the Muslim city cannot be underestimated. Muslim cities were founded on the combination of a Great Market and a Great Mosque. This combination was the heart of every city. Ottoman developers called this combination the Imaret. The Imaret is the distinctive feature of every Islamic city.

Soon after his arrival in Madina al-Munawwarah, the Prophet of Islam, salla’llahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, created two institutions, a mosque and a market. He made clear by his statements and explicit injunctions that the marketplace was to be a space freely accessible to everybody, with no divisions (such as shops) and where no taxes, levies or rents could be charged.

The Market is like a Mosque: …

The Messenger of Allah, salla’llahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, said: “Markets should follow the same sunnah as the mosques: whoever gets his place first has a right to it until he gets up and goes back to his house or finishes his selling. (suq al-muslimin ka-musalla l-muslimin, man sabaqa ila shay’in fa-huwa lahu yawmahu hatta yada‘ahu.)”.

(Al-Hindi, Kanz al-’Ummal, V, 488, no. 2688)

It is a sadaqa, with no private ownership …

Ibrahim ibn al-Mundhir al Hizami relates from Abdallah ibn Ja’far, that Muhammad ibn Abdallah ibn Hasan said, “The Messenger of Allah, salla’llahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, gave the Muslims their markets as a charitable gift (tasaddaqa ‘ala l-muslimina bi-aswaqihim).”

(Ibn Shabba, K. Tarikh al-Madinah al-Munawwarah, 304)with no rent charged …

Ibn Zabala relates that Khalid ibn Ilyas al-’Adawi said, “The letter of Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz was read out to us in Madinah, saying that the market was a sadaqa and that no rent (kira’) should be charged on anyone for it.”(As-Samhudi, Wafa al-Wafa, 749) with no taxes levied on it …

Ibrahim ibn al-Mundhir relates from Ishaq ibn Ja’far ibn Muhammad, from Abdallah ibn Ja’far ibn al-Miswar, from Shurayh ibn Abdallah ibn Abi Namir, that Ata’ ibn Yasar said, “When the Messenger of Allah, salla’llahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, wanted to set up a market in Madinah, he went to the market of Bani Qaynuqa’ and then came to the market of Madinah, stamped his foot on the ground and said, ‘This is your market. Do not let it be lessened (la yudayyaq), and do not let any tax (kharaj) be levied on it.’”

(Ibn Shabba, K. Tarikh al-Madinah al-Munawwarah, 304)

where no reservations or claims can be made …I

bn Zabala relates from Hatim ibn Isma’il that Habib said that Umar ibn al-Khattab [once] passed by the Gate of Ma’mar in the market and [saw that] a jar had been placed by the gate and he ordered that it be taken away. … Umar forbade him to put any stones on the place or lay claim to it [in any way] (an yuhajjir ‘alayha aw yahuzaha).

(As-Samhudi, Wafa al-Wafa, 749)

and where no shops can be constructed.

Ibn Shabba relates from Salih ibn Kaysan …that …The Messenger of Allah, salla’llahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, …said: ‘This is your market. Do not build anything with stone (la tatahajjaru) [on it], and do not let any tax (kharaj) be levied on it’”

(As-Samhudi, Wafa al-Wafa, 747-8)

Abu r-Rijal relates from Isra’il, from Ziyad ibn Fayyad, from one of the shaykhs of Madinah that Umar ibn al Khattab, radiya’llahu ‘anhu, saw a shop (dukkan) which someone had newly put up in the market and he destroyed it.

(Ibn Shabba, K. Tarikh al-Madinah al-Munawwarah, 750)

Open Markets versus SupermarketsOpenness and competition can only be granted not only if the legal conditions permit them to exist, but also if the infrastructural and practical conditions support them too.

For example, we cannot speak of full and fair competition in Britain when 80% of all retailing is controlled by 4 supermarkets. These supermarkets have driven out tens of thousands of small shops and small manufacturers throughout Britain. The same phenomenon is taken place across Europe. All sectors of industry are consolidating in fewer and fewer hands. The number of players is diminishing and the SME’s are suffering. The key concern behind the national protectionist measures that resist further integration in the EU single market is the effect that it will have in their small business. Carrefour is now the second largest retailer in the world, just behind Walmart.

Suqs in the Muslim City Suqs were an integral part of every city. The number of suqs varied considerably from one city to another. Cairo had 145, Aleppo 77, Baghdad, Damascus and Algiers only around 50. Within the central zone the markets were located, broadly, in decreasing order of importance: the markets for goldsmiths and money changers (sagha), for spices (‘attarin), and for the cloths (suq al-qumash) normally occupied the area closest to the center. The division of activities in Tunis around the Zaytuna, is specially significant in this regard.

The basic element of these central quarters was the shop (dukkan). In the large covered markets, the space of the dukkan was divided into two parts:

• the selling area which belonged to the suq and was free. It was the visible frontal part of the dukkan that connected to the passages of the suq;

• the storage area which belonged to the services of the suq which had to pay a rent. It was located in the back or on the top of the selling area.

An Example: The Grand Bazaar of IstanbulThe construction of the future Grand Bazaar’s core started during the winter of 1455/56, shortly after the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople. The construction of the initial Bedesten ended in the winter of 1460/61, and the building was endowed to the waqf of the Aya Sofya Mosque. Over the centuries the market was made bigger and new sections were added.

According to a 1890 survey, in the Bazaar were active 4,399 shops, 2 Bedesten, 2195 rooms, 1 Hamam, one mosque, 10 Medrese, 19 fountains (among them two Şadırvan and one Sebil), one Mausoleum and 24 Han.

The full extension of the market complex is 30.7 hectares, protected by 18 gates, there are 3,000 shops along 61 streets, the 2 Bedesten, 13 Han or caravanserais (plus several more outside).

Bazaar’s merchants were organized in guilds. In order to establish a new one, it was only necessary to have enough traders of the same good.

The ethics of trade in the Market until the Tanzimat age (half of the 19th century) was quite different from the modern one: indifference to profit, absence of envy in the successes of other traders and a single and correct price were peculiar traits of the Ottoman bazaar during its golden age. The reason for such behavior lies partly in the ethics of Islam, and partly in the guild system which provided a strong social security net to the merchants. Afterward, the westernization of the Ottoman society and the elimination of the waqf and the guilds caused the introduction of the new practices that we see today.

Shaykh Umar Ibrahim Vadillo

June 2, 2014

Published in: Uncategorized on October 12, 2020 at 13:56  Leave a Comment  

TGIF (Thank God Its Friday Khuṭbah Series)

Khutbah: Be Allah’s People 

Delivered by: Abu Modibbo

Date: Friday 18 Shawwal 1427 November 10, 2006                                          Norwich, England 

بسم اللّه الرحمن الرحيم
الحـمد الله الَّذي ابْتَدَأَ الاِنْسَـانَ بِنِعْـمَـتِهِ وَصَـوَّرَهُ فِي الأرْحَـامِ بِحِكْمَـتِـهِ وَأَبْرَزَهُ إِلَى رِفْـــقِــهِ وَمَـــا يَسَّـرَهُ لَهُ مِـن رِّزْقِــهِ وَعَـلَّـمَـهُ مَـــا لَمْ يَكُنْ يَـعلَمْ وَكَانَ فَضْلُ اللّهُ عَليْهِ عَظِيمًا وَنَبَّهَهُ بِآثَرِ صَـنْعَتِهِ وَآعْذَرَ إِلَيْهِ عَلَى أَلْسِنَةِ الـْمُـرْسَلِينَ الـْخِـيَـرَةِ مِنْ خَلْقِـهِ فَـهَـدَى مَنْ وَفَّقَـهُ بِفَـضْلِهِ وَأَضَلَّ مَنْ خَـذَلَهُ بِعَـدْلِهِ وَيَسَّـرَ الـْمُـومِِنِينَ لِلْيُـسْـرَى وَشَـرَحَ صُـدُورَهُمْ لِلذِّكـرى فَـآمَنُوا بِاللهِ بِأَلسِنَتِـهِمْ نَاطِقِينَ وَقُلُوبِهِمْ مُخْلِصِينَ وَبِمَـا أَتَتْهُمْ بِهِ رُسُلُهُ وَكُـتُبُهُ عَـامِـلِينَ وَتَعَـلَّمُوا مَـا عَلَّمَهُمْ وَوَقَفُـوا عِنْدَمَا حَدَّلَهُمْ وَاسْـتَغٌنَوا بِمَا أَحَلَّ لَهُمْ عَـمَّ احَرَّمَ عَلَيْهِمْ أَمَّا بَعدُ: 

Praise belongs to Allah who caused the human being to come into existence by His grace and formed and shaped him (the human being) in the wombs by His wisdom and brought him out to His kindness and what He facilitated him with of His sustenance and taught him what he did not know. 

Allah’s favor was greatly upon him. Allah instructed him through the signs of His creation and forgave him through the tongues of the chosen messengers from among His creation. 

He whom He (Allah) caused to succeed, He guided him aright out of His kindness, and he whom He had forsaken, He cause him to go astray out of His justice. 

He made it easy for the believers to prosper and He opened their hearts to the Remembrance. They believed in Allah with a speech that was clear and their hearts were pure. They acted by what came to them from His messengers and His books. They learned what He taught them and they stayed within the bounds which he had set for them. They were satisfied with that which He made lawful for them and they were not in need of that which He made unlawful for them. 

As for what comes next:

اشـهــد أن لا إله إلاّ اللّهُ وحـده لاَ شــريك له و أشـهـد أنّ مــحـمّـدًا عــبـده رسوله

I bear witness that there is no god except Allah who is Alone without partners for Him, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and His messenger.

يَا أيَّهَا المسلمون: اتّقَوا اللهَ حق َّ تقَاته وَ لا تَمُوتن إِلاّ وَ أَنْتْمْ ُ مُسلمونَ 

Oh Muslims, guard your duty to Allah with a true guarding and do not die unless you are Muslims. 

قال الله في كتابه الكريم  بسم اللله الرحــمن الرحيم 

Allah has said in His Noble Book: 

الَّذِينَ يَتَّبِعُونَ الرَّسُولَ النَّبِيَّ الأُمِّيَّ الَّذِي يَجِدُونَهُ مَكْتُوباً عِندَهُمْ فِي التَّوْرَاةِ وَالإِنْجِيلِ يَأْمُرُهُم بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَيَنْهَاهُمْ عَنِ الْمُنكَرِ وَيُحِلُّ لَهُمُ الطَّيِّبَاتِ وَيُحَرِّمُ عَلَيْهِمُ الْخَبَآئِثَ وَيَضَعُ عَنْهُمْ إِصْرَهُمْ وَالأَغْلاَلَ الَّتِي كَانَتْ عَلَيْهِمْ فَالَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ بِهِ وَعَزَّرُوهُ وَنَصَرُوهُ وَاتَّبَعُواْ النُّورَ الَّذِيَ أُنزِلَ مَعَهُ أُوْلَـئِكَ هُمُ الْـمُفْلِحُونَ ١٥٧:٧ 

“Those who follow the Messenger, the Ummii Prophet, about whom they have found (something) written in the Torah which they possess and the Ingiil (Gospel), He commands them to do al-Maʿ ruuf (good) and he prohibits them from al-Munkar (evil). He makes lawful for them at-Tayyibaat (all that is good and lawful) and he makes unlawful for them al-Kabaa’ith (all that is harmful and unlawful) for them. He rid them of their burden and the shackles which were on them. So those who believe in him, and honor him and help him and follow the Light which has been sent down with him, it is they who will be successful. 7:157 

As it can be seen, this ayat clearly indicates that the successful ones in this Earth are those who believe in the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ)  (that is to say his prophethood and his Sunnah) and who give honor and help to him and follow the Light (meaning the Light of the Holy Qur’an) which has been sent down with him. 

Who else can this verse be referring to, as being “the successful ones” except Muslims? Therefore, this ayat is a call for a full commitment to Islam and the abandonment of every way other than Islam in order to succeed. 

Allah سبحان رتعالى has said,

وَ مَن يَبْتِغِ غَيْرِ الإِسْلامِ دِينًا فَلَن يُقْبَلَ مِنْهُ وَ هُوَ فِي الاخِرَةِ مِنَ الخَْسِرِينَ 

“Whoever seeks other than Islam as a diin (social transaction), it will never be accepted from him, and in the Hereafter, he will be among the losers.” 3:85 

And therefore, if the Muslims are calling the disbelievers to Islam with the attitude of “I’m OK you’re OK”, then in reality, then what are they really saying to the disbelievers: “It is OK if you don’t become Muslim as long as you believe in God and be a good person?” 

If that is the case, why bother doing daʿwah (calling non-Muslims to Islam) at all and why do those who do daʿwah in this manner bother becoming a Muslim himself if he was following another diin (social transaction) before becoming Muslim? It should be that when one becomes Muslim, he realizes there is nothing else; that Islam is the only way. 

Our daʿwah must be a presentation of Islam as the only alternative to every other behavior; especially those behavioral patterns that are hated by Allah and His Messenger (ﷺ). Muslims must look to the Prophet (ï·º) for the balanced way and the best methodology for calling non-Muslims to Islam. Again Allah سبحان رتعالى has said,

قُلِ اِن كُنتُمْ تُحِـبـُّـونَ اللَّهَ فَاتَّبِـعُـونِي يُحْبِـبْكُمُ اللَّهُ وَيَغْـفِـرْ لَكُمْ ذُنُوبَكُم وَاللهُ غَفُورٌ ر َّحِيم 

Say if you love Allah then follow me, and Allah will forgive you for your sins. Allah is ever forgiving and Most Merciful. 3:31 

There is no question that Muslims must understand the environment in which they live and its social pattern and that the Muslims through their daʿwah must address the pressing concerns of the environment in which they live. 

That said, however, the Muslims in each locale cannot carry on a method of daʿwah that is completely opposite to the commands of Allah in order to reach the people of that locale. Their method of daʿwah should be in compliance first and foremost with the Sunnah of the Prophet (ﷺ) and based on the command of Allah in the Holy Qur’ān wherein He says: 

… وَلْتَـكُنْ مِنكُمُ و أُمَّةٌ يَدْعُونَ إِلَى الخَْيْرِ وَ يَأَمَرُونَ بِالْـمَعْرُوفِ وَ يَنْهَونَ عَنِ الْـمُنْكَرِ … ١٠٤:٣ 

“…and let there come forth from you a community inviting to goodness, enjoining right conduct while forbidding wrong reprehensible actions…” 3:104. 

From this verse we can see that the daʿwah (calling non-Muslims to Islam) must contain a call to good and upright action and an uncompromising admonition and prohibition against wrong. 

True daʿwah must cause the disbeliever to know that Islam is the very opposite of kufr and the only example of correct behavior. 

No behavior in kufr should be so tolerable that a Muslim finds himself behaving in a similar fashion nor should a Muslim keep the company of disbelievers for the purpose of friendship or worldly gain at the expense of compromising his or her Islamic principles. 

Allah has said, he is not accepting any other diin (social transaction) accept Islam; He has clearly outlined the reason for this in the following ayat wherein He has said: 

 هُوَ الَّذِي أَرْسَلَ رَسُولَهُ بِالْهُدَى وَدِينِ الْحَقِّ لِيُظْهِرَهُ عَلَى الدِّينِ كُلِّهِ وَلَوْ كَرِهَ الْمُشْرِكُونَ ٣٣:٩ 

He, it is Who has sent His Messenger with the Guidance and the Religion of Truth so that He may cause it to prevail over all (other) diin (social transaction)s however much (the people who associate partners with Allah) may be adverse. 9:33 

A Muslim must not merely be a believer. He must be a hater of disbelief (kufr) and what it does to the human spirit. The Muslim must strive hard against disbelievers and be compassionate with his brother. This is from the commands of Allah. Therefore, Muslims have no alternative but to hear and obey. 

Allah has said in His Noble Book: 

مُـحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ اللهِ الَّذِينَ مَـعَهُ أَشِـد َّآءُ عَلَى الْكُفَّـارِ رُحَمَـاءُ بَيْنَهُمْ … سورة الفتح ٢٩:٤٨ 

Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah and those who are with him are fierce with towards the disbelievers and merciful to one another … 48:29 

This of course does not mean that Muslims should go around indiscriminately attacking non-believers physically or verbally abusing them. 

For Allah has mentioned the best method of daʿwah, 

اُدْعُ إِلَى سَبِيلِ رَبِّكَ بِالحِْكْمَةِ وَالْـمَوْعِـظَةِ الْـحُسْنَةِ وَجَادِلْهُم بِالَّتُي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ إِن َّ رَبُّكَ هُوَ أَعْـلَمُ بِمَن ضَل َّ عَنْ سَبِيلِهِ ے وَهُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِالْـمُهْتَدِينَ ١٢٥:١٦ 

Invite (people) to the Path of Allah with wisdom and fair admonition (preaching) and argue (debate) with them in the best manner. Surely, your Lord knows who is astray from His Path and He knows those who are rightly-guided. 16:125 

Allah has said, 

وَ أَن َّ هَذَا صِرَطِي المُْسْتَقِيمَ تَبِعُوهُ وَلاَ تَتَّبِعُوا السُّبُلَ فَتَـفَـرَّقَ بِكُمْ عَنْ سَبِيلِهِ وَض ََّاكُمُ بِهِ لَعل َّكُم تَت َّقُونَ 

Surely, this is My Straight Path, so follow it and do not follow (other) paths; for they will separate you from His path. This has been ordained for you so that you would guard your duty. 6:1 

What is found in Kitaabu-l-laah (the Book of Allah) is the Path of Allah and it is Siraatu-l-Mustaqiim (the Straight Path) and the Sunnah of His Messenger Muhammad (ﷺ)  is the best example of adaab (good manners) that one should have while journeying on that Siraat. 

Allah has said in His Noble Book: 

لَقَدْ كَانَ لَكُمْ فِي رَسُولِ الل َّهِ أُسوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ لمَِنْ كَانَ يَرْجُو اللهَ وَالْيَوْمَ الاَخِرِ وَ ذَكَرَ اللهَ كَثِيرًا سورة الاحزاب ١٢:٣٣ 

“For you in the Messenger of Allah is Uswatun Hasanatun (an excellent example) for those who hope for Allah and the Last day and dhakara-l–laaha kathiiraa (who remembers Allah much).” 33:12 

The excellent example spoken of here is the Sunnah or what is known as- Sunnatu-l-Muhammadiyyah (the Way of Muhammad (ﷺ). The Sunnah is an exemplary form of behavior and is a term that is never used in a negative sense. The Sunnah is a positive example – the best example. The best of the  Prophet’s Sunnah is ُأَخْـلاَقُــه (his character). His Akhlaaq is the foundation upon which the rest of his Sunnah sits. It is the nucleus, the heart, the driving force behind the rest of his Sunnah. It is the best part of his Sunnah because it was the love of his character and his disposition which cause the people to love his Sunnah. Allah has said in His Noble Book regarding the matter of the character of Muhammad (ﷺ) 

وإِنَّكَ لَعًَلَى خُلُقٍ عَظِيم

“You possess a mighty character.” 

It has been reported that the Prophet (ﷺ) said “I have come to perfect noble character. This was a major part of his mission – to build men and women of equal worth in character. He did not come to police people and abuse people about there shortcomings. The proof of this is in an ayat where Allah said: 

فَــبِــمَــا رَحْــمَــةٍ مِّنَ اللهِ لِنتَ لَهُمْ لَـوْ كُنْتَ فَظ َّا غَـلِيظَ الْقَلـبِ لاَنْقَــضُــواْ مِنْ حَولِكَ فَاعْفُ عَنْهُمْ وَاسْتَغْفِرْ لَـهُمْ وَشَاوِرهُمْ فِي الأَمْرِ فَإِذَا عَزَمَتْ فَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَى اللهِ إِن َّ يُحِب ُّ الـْمُتَوَكِّلينَ 

“And by the mercy of Allah, you dealt with them gently. And if you had been hard-hearted towards them, they would have dispersed from around you. So excuse them and ask forgiveness for them and consult with them in matters, then when you have made a decision, put your trust in Allah. Surely Allah loves those who place trust (in Him)” 3:159 

It is not sufficient just to say Kitaab wa Sunnah ( كــتــاب وسنّة). It better to teach Kitaab wa Sunnah) by presenting to the people a living example of the Book and the Sunnah which emanates from one’s self. 

Allah has said in His Noble Book: 

أَتَامُرُونَ الن َّاسَ بِالْبِر ِّ وَتَنْسَوْنَ أَنْفُسَكُمْ وَأَنْتُمْ تَعْلُونَ الْكِتَابَ أَفَلاَ تَعْقِلُونَ من سورة البقرة ٤٤:٢ 

Do you enjoin right conduct (correct behavior) upon the people while you forget yourself and you recite the Book? Do you not have sense? 2:44 

Islam is organic. Organic means to develop in a natural way, It is a diin (social transaction) or way of life base on سنة اللّه [Sunnatu-l-laah (the Natural Law of Allah)]. 

Kufr is inorganic – unnatural. It is a diin (social transaction) base on social engineering, manipulation, tyranny and injustice and alteration of سنة اللّه (Allah’s Sunnah). 

And so the building of the Muslim Community is the building of الْفِطْرَة (natural disposition) and أحــــلاق الحــــسـنى (the good character). And according to the people of knowledge, this is accomplished by the individual Muslim being mindful of سنة االلّه [Sunnatu-l-laah (the bounds that Allah has placed upon man) so that he remains within Allah’s commands and prohibitions and he turns to Allah in repentance before Allah becomes displeased with him. 

The Muslim must control the six organs: the eyes, the ears, the tongue, the heart, the stomach and the private parts. 

For example the fuquhaa have said: 

وَ يَجِبُ عَلَيْـهِ حِـفْظُ لِسَانِهِ مِـنَ الَفَحْـشَـاءِ وَالْكَلاَمِ الْقَبِـيحِ وَ أَيْمَـانِ الطَّلاَقِ وَ انْتِهَارِ الْـمُْسْلِمِ وَ إِهَاَتِهِ وَ سَبِّهِ وَ تَخْوِيفِهِ فِي غَيْرِ حَق ٍّ شَرْعِيّ

It is obligatory for him (meaning the Muslim) to guard his tongue from foul and disgraceful speech, pronouncement of unwarranted divorce, and from rebuffing, humiliating, insulting and intimidating a (fellow) Muslim without (having) a legitimate reason. 

وَ يَجِبُ عَلَيْـهِ حِـفْظُ بًصَـرِهِ مِنَ الـنَّظَرِ إِلَى الحَْـرَامِ وَ لاَ يَحِل ُّ لَهُ أَنْ يَنْظُرَ إِلَى مُسْلِمٍ بِنَظْرَةِ تُؤْذِيهِ إِلاَّ أَنْ يَكُونَ فَاسِقٍا فَيَجِبُ هِجْرَانُهُ 

He must guard his vision from looking at (what) is unlawful. It is unlawful for him to look at (another) Muslim with a harmful glance unless that Muslim is a transgressor. In such case, his disassociation from him would becomes obligatory. 

يَجِبُ عَلَيْـهِ حِفْظُ جَمِـيعِ جَوَارِحِـهِ مَا اسْتَطَاعَ وَ أَنْ يُحِبُّ لِل َّـهِ وَ يَبْغَضَ لَهُ وَ يَرْضَى لَهُ وَ بَغْضَبَ لَهُ 

He must guard all of his limbs, as much as possible, (from haraam acts). (He must) love for the sake of Allah, hate for (Allah’s) sake, be pleased for His sake and be angry for His sake. 

وَ يَأْمَرَ بِالمَْعْرُوفِ وَ يَنْهَى عَنَ المُْنْكَرِ 

He is obligated to command good deeds and to prohibit evil reprehensible ones. 

وَ يَحْـرُمُ عَلَيْــهِ الْكَذِبُ وَ الْغَـيٌـبَـةُ و النَّمِـيـمَـةُ وَ الْكِبْـرُ وَ الْـعُـجْبُ وَ الرِّيَاءُ وَ السَّمْـعَةُ وَ الحَْسَـدُ وَ الْبَغْضُ وَ رُؤْيَةُ الْفَضْلِ عَلَى الْغَـيْرِ وَ الْهَمْـزُ و اللَّمْزُ وَ الْعَبَثُ وَ الس ُّخْرِيَةُ وَ الزِّنَى 

Lying, slander, defamation, arrogance, conceit, hypocrisy, (seeking) reputation, envy, hatefulness, selfish pre-occupation with one’s good deeds done for others, defamatory insinuation (that is to say defaming someone by subtle hints), mockery and scorn (of others), adultery, 

وَ النَّظَرُ إِلَى الأَجْنَبِـيَّةِ وَ التَّلَـذ ُّذُ بِكَلاَمِهِ وَ أَكْلُ الأَمْـوَالِ النَّاسِ بِغَيْـرِ طِيبِ نَفْسٍ وَ الأَكْلُ بِالش َّفَاعَةِ أَوْ بِالدِّينِ تَأْخِيرُ الصَّلاَةِ عَنْ أَوْقَاتِهَا 

looking at a female who is unlawful (to him) and finding pleasure in her speech, consuming the property or wealth of someone else, who has not willingly turned it over, subsisting by acts of intercession or borrowing and delaying the prayer beyond its prescribed time (are all unlawful for the Muslim). 

وَ لاَ يَحِلُّ لَهُ صَحُبَةُ الْفَاسِقِ وَ لاَ مُجَالَسَةُ لِغَيرِ ضُرُورَةٍ 

It is (equally) unlawful for him to keep the company of he who transgresses the bounds (of Allah) or to sit with him without having the necessity to do so. 

وَ لاَ يَطْلُبُ رِضَــاءَ المَْخْلُوقِينَ بِسَــخْطِ الخَْـالِقِ قَـالـض سُـبْـحَـانَهُ وَ تَـعَـالَى: وَالل َّهُ وَ رسُولُهُ أَحَق ُّ أَنْ يَرْضَوْهُ إِنْ كَانُواْ مُومِنِينَ .١ 

He should not seek the pleasure of he who has been created by (invoking) the anger of the Creator. Allah glory be to Him has said, “…while Allah and His messenger, it is more appropriate that they please Him if they are believers 9:62. 

وَ قَالَ عَلَيْهِ الصَّلاَةُ وَ السَّلاَمُ  لاَ طَاعَةَ لمَِخْلُوقٍ فِي مَعْصِيَةِ الخَالِقٍ 

And he (the Messenger of Allah) (ﷺ) has said, “No obedience is owed to that which has been created for the sake of disobedience to the Creator. 

وَ لاَ يَحِل ُّ لَهُ أَنْ يَفْـعَلَ فِـعْـلاً حَـت َّى يَعْلَـمَ حُكْمَ الل َّهِ فِـيـهِ وَ يَسْـأَلَ العُلَمَـاءَ وَ يَقْتَـدِي بِالمُْت َّبِعِينَ لِسُن َّةِ مُـحَم َّدٍ صَل َّى الل َّهُ عَلَيْـهِ وَ سَل َّمَ وَ ال َّذِينَ يَدُل ُّونَ عَلَى طَاعَةِ الل َّهِ وَ يُحَذ َّرُونَ مِنْ ات ِّبَاعِ الش َّيْطَآنِ من سورة التوبة أَيَة ٦٢ 1 

It is unlawful for him to perform an action until he knows Allah’s judgment concerning it. He should ask the ʿulamaa and he should follow the example of those who follow the Sunnah of Muhammad (ﷺ) and those who show obedience to Allah and who are on guard against following Shaytaan. 

وَ لاَ يَرضَى لِنَفْسِـهِ مَا رَضِيَهُ الـمُفْلِسُـونَ الَّذِينَ ضَاعَتْ أَعْمَارُهُمْ فِـي غَيْرِ طَاعَةِ اللهِ تَعَالَى فَيَا حَسْرَتَهُمْ وَ يَا طُولَ بُكائِهِمْ يَومَ الْقِيَامَةِ 

He should not desire for himself that which those who have been brought to ruin desired (for themselves) – those whose lives have been wasted as a result of disobedience to Allah the Most High. Oh! What grief will be theirs and how lengthy will their tears be on the Day of Rising. 

أَقُولُ‏ قَوْلِي‏ هَذَا وَأَسَْتَغْفِرُ‏ ا‏للهَ‏ لِي‏ وَلَكُمْ‏ وَلِسآئِرِ‏ الْمُسْلِمِينَ‏ فَاسْتَغْفِرُوهُ‏ إنَّهُ‏ هُوَالْغَفُورُ‏ الرَّحِيمُ

I am making these statements while seeking Allah’s forgiveness for me, you and the rest of the Muslims, and so they should seek His forgiveness; for He is Forgiving and Merciful. 

Khutbah – Part 2 

اشـهد أن لا إله إلاّ الـلّهُ وحده لاَ شـريك له و أشـهـد أنّ محـمّـدًا عبـده و رسوله 

I bear witness that there is no god but Allah who is Alone without partners, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and his messenger.

يَا أي ُّهَا المسلمون: اتّقَوا اللهَ حق َّ تقَاته وَ لا تَمُوتن إِلاّ وَ أَنْتْمْ ُ مُسلمونَ قال الله في كتابه الكريم  بسم اللله الرحــمن الرحيم: 

Oh Muslims, guard your duty to Allah with a true guarding and do not die unless you are Muslims.

Allah has said in His Noble Book: 

وَ مَـآ ءَاتاكُـمُ الرَّسُـولُ فَــخُـذُوهُ وَ مَــا نَهَـاكُمْ عَـنْهُ فَـانتَــهَـواْ … مـن سـورة الحشر ٧:٥٩ 

“Whatever the Messenger brings to you take it and whatever he prohibits for you to refrain from it …” 59:7 

م

… إِن يَشَأْ يُذْهِبْكُمْ وَيَسْتَخْلِفْ مِن بَعْدِكُم مَّا يَشَاءُ كَمَا أَنشَأَكُم مِّن ذُرِّيَّةِ قَوْمٍ ءَاخِرِينَ 

“….If He wills he can destroy you, and in your place make who He wills as your successors, as He raised you from the seed of another people.” 6:133 

again Allah says: 

… إِنْ تَتَوَلُّو يَسْـتَبْدِلْ قَوْمًا غَيْرَكُمْ ثُمَّ لاَ تَكُونُوا أَمْثَالَكُم … ٣٨:٤٧ 

“…And if you turn away, then he can exchange you with another people and they will not be like you .” 47:38 

Islam itself is the fitrah (natural disposition) of the entire creation. Islam means submission. When Islam is practiced correctly, As-Salaam (the Peace that comes as a result of submission) prevails. As-Salaam is not As-Sulḥ the peace that comes after war – for no one can make war with Allah. 

Allah says in His Noble Book:: 

… وَ السَّلاَمُ عَـلَى مَنِ اتَّبَعَ الْـهُدَى … ٤٧:٢٠ 

“ The Peace (The Peace coming from Allah) be upon those who follow the Guidance.” 20:47 

If we want peace in our individual lives and peace in our community life  and peace in the Muslim Ummah, then we must come to realize, Peace only comes to those who follow the guidance. 

Islam and Salaam only can be established as a result of guidance from Allah who is As-Salaam (the Ones Who’s essence is Peace). 

Therefore the Islamic society cannot be built on any other social model or pattern of behavior, It must be built on principles that are based on Allah’s Guidance 

There is an exact model, an exact blueprint, an exact pattern which has been left for us to follow by our beloved Prophet (ﷺ) . That model or pattern is not based on the establishment of an empire or the organizational structures of the Christians, the Jews, or the freemasons. 

Islam and kufr (disbelief) cannot be integrated. Islam is one system and kufr is another. Therefore, it is up to the Muslims to draw a clear line of demarcation between their religious, moral, social, ideological, political, and economic behavior and that of the disbelievers. This line of demarcation must first be drawn in the mind of every Muslim. Each Muslim should be able to distinguish and comprehend in his or her mind that Allah is not accepting any other diin (social transaction) accept Islam as He has clearly indicated in the Holy Qur’ān. 

If the Muslim is not convinced about this matter then he will not be able to convince the disbeliever about it. Allah has said in his Noble Book:

لَقَدْ جِئْنَاكُم بِالْحَقِّ وَلَكِنَّ أَكْثَرَكُمْ لِلْحَقِّ كَارِهُونَ ٧٨} أَمْ أَبْرَمُوا أَمْراً فَإِنَّا مُبْرِمُونَ ٧٩} أَمْ يَحْسَبُونَ أَنَّا لَا نَسْمَعُ سِرَّهُمْ وَنَجْوَاهُم بَلَى وَرُسُلُنَا لَدَيْهِمْ يَكْتُبُونَ ٨٠} ٤٣: ٧٨-٨٠

Surely We have brought the Truth to you, but most of you hate the Truth. Or have they plotted a plan? And so We (too) are plotting. Or do they think We do not hear their secrets and their private counsel? And Our messengers (angels) are with them – recording. 43:78-80 

فَذَرْهُمْ يَخُوضُوا وَ الْـيَلْعَبُوا حَتَّى يُلاَقوا يَومَهُمُ الَّذِي يُعَدُونَ ٨٣:٤٣ 

So leave them alone to speak nonsense and play until they encounter their day which has been promised (to them). 43:83 

So we can not establish Islam by means of kaafir structures because those structures are established on Shaytaans rules of misconduct rather than on the correct code of conduct that has been established by Allah and His Messenger. 

Our system, our way, our organization, our body politic our business practice, our diin (social transaction) is the Kitaabu-l-laah (the Book of Allah) and the Sunnah of His Prophet (ﷺ) . 

وَ أَن َّ هَذَا صِـرَطِي المُْسْتَـقِـيمَ تَبِـعُوهُ وَلاَ تَت َّـبِـعُوا الس ُّـبُلَ فَـتَـفَـر َّقَ بِكُمْ عَنْ سَبِيلِهِ وَض ََّاكُمُ بِهِ لَعل َّكُم تَت َّقُونَ 

Surely, this is My Straight Path, so follow it and do not follow (other) paths; for they will separate you from His path. This has been ordained for you so that you would guard your duty. 6:153 

The Prophet (ﷺ) established the Madinan model. The Madinan model is not an empire because it is local. It does not exceed the proximity. It remains the “little community” in the sense of trust and relationships. It is because of this trust and very special personal relationships that there is no need for organizational structure in the kaafir sense, but there is an organizational structure in the way of the Kitaab (the Book of Allah) and the Sunnah Muhammadiyyah (the Exemplary Way of Behaving as demonstrated by Muhammad. (ﷺ) . 

In the Madinan model, the people are not held together by a man made structural law, but rather they are held together by a natural law which emanates out of the Book of Allah called Sunnatu-l-laah and the Sunnah of His Prophet (ﷺ) . 

In the Madinan model men are made and women are made.  

What is Madinah? It is the city of the Prophet Muhammad who through his Sunnah established an abode of safety in it. It is the place where the best example of Islamic life flourished. Out of the social pattern of the first three generations of that city came the best men and women in behavior. 

The Prophet (ﷺ) by his example not only molded the character of men but he also caused them to unite for the pleasure of Allah. He taught them to “want for their brother what they wanted for themselves. He (ﷺ) said, 

لا يومن أحدكم حتّى يحبّ لأخيه ما يحبّ لنفسه 

“Not one of you believes until he wants for his brother what he wants for himself.” In this saying, he has connected concern for your brother with belief. 

And the prophet also left us with a higher standard to achieve beyond being brothers – for the Prophet did not consider the men around him as just his brothers. 

He referred to them as his اصحاب [As-haab (Companions)]. Like what has been recorded when the men who accompanied him to the grave asked, “are we not your brothers?” and the Prophet بَلْ أنْـتُمْ أَصْـــحَــــابِي “On the contrary, you are my companions. 

And so the way of Muhammad (ﷺ) in Madinah was not built on empire an organizational structure. It was built on keeping company, good relationship, trust, wanting for one’s brother what wants for one’s self and companionship and camaraderie. 

There is a narration in Sahiih al-Bukhaarii which shows the nature of the Islamic society where its people were اصحاب [Aṣ-ḥaab (Companions)]. 

It was narrated by Ibraahiim bin Sa’d from his father from his grand-father  ʿAbdu-r-Rahmaan bin ʿAuf who said,  “When we came to Madinah as immigrants, the Messenger of Allah(ﷺ) .ʿ alayhi wa Sallim established a bond of brotherhood between me and Saʿd bin Rabiiʿ said to me I am the riches among the Ansaar, so I will give you half of my wealth and you may look at my two wives and whichever of the two you choose, I will divorce her and when she has completed the prescribed waiting period you may marry her. ʿ Abdu-r-Rahmaan said, ‘I am not in need of all of that. (Then he said), ‘Is there a marketplace where trade is practiced?’ Saʿ d bin Rabiiʿ said the market of Qaynuqaa’u .ʿAbdu-r-Rahmaan went to that market the following day and brought some yogurt and butter… ” B34:6 

Establishing a Madinan society which is the model Islamic society begins with the establishment of bonds of trust and love between the Muslims and by doing this, we establish a dynamic which immediately empowers the Muslim. Our statement to the disbelievers both those who are in authority and those who aren’t is “we absolutely reject your social pattern because we prefer the Sunnah of Muhammad (ﷺ) and we reject the idea of kaafir political dominance over Islam.” 

Allah has mentioned about Himself, that He ُيُد َّبِـر (Organized) everything in the heavens and the Earth. Allah has said in His Noble Book: 

يُدَّبِرُ اْلاَمْرَ مِنَ الس َّمَاءِ إِلَى الاَرْضِ 

He organizes (or puts in order) (every) affair from the heavens to the earth… 32:5 

We must ask, “What are the parameters and terms of our relationship with each other? “ The answer to this question is what will determine – and Allah is the Best Knower – the success or failure of this venture that we have all embarked upon called Islam. 

In other words, how we deal with each other; how we treat each other will determine our success or failure. Islam as has been mentioned is base on community, and community is base on relationships between people – like the relationship between the bricks in a building. 

مُّحَمَّدٌ رَّسُولُ اللَّهِ وَالَّذِينَ مَعَهُ أَشِدَّاء عَلَى الْكُفَّارِ رُحَمَاء بَيْنَهُمْ … ٤٨: ٢٩  

Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah and those who are with him are fierce with towards the disbelievers and merciful to one another … 48:29 

In the Muwatta of Imaam Maalik, it has been related that: 

Yahyaa reported to me from Maalik from Ibn Shihaab from ʿUrwah ibn Zubayr that Aaʿishah the wife of the Prophet (ﷺ) said, “The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) did not choose a matter, except that he chose the easier of them as long as it was not a wrong action. If it was a wrong action, he was the furthest of people from it. The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ)  did not take revenge for himself unless the limits of Allah were violated. Then he took revenge for it for Allah.”

Allah in his Noble Book:

إِنَّ اَللهَ لاَ يَظْلِمُ مِـثْـقَـالَ ذَرَّةٍ وَ إن تَكُ حَـسَنَــةٌ يُضَــعِـفْـهَـا و يُوتِ مِن لَّدُنْهُ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا ٤٠:٤ 

“Surely! Allah is not unjust even the weight of an atom and if there is a good deed, He multiplies it and gives a great reward (to its doer) from Him. 4:40 

and again: 

يَوْمَئِذٍ يَصْدُرُ النَّاسُ أَشْتَاتًا لِّيُرَوَ اعْمَالَهُمْ وَ يَعْمَلْ مِثْقَالَ ذَرَّةٍ خَيْرًا يرَهُ 

A Day mankind will proceed in scattered groups so that they can be shown their deeds and who does good the weight of an atom shall see it …. 99:7 

And so we should not seek peoples faults to the minute detail especially since our Lord looks for our good down to the minute detail. 

We should not act as if we know it all and thereby condemn people to hell by our small knowledge. A case in point is a hadith that has come to us about Amiru-l- Muminiin ʿUmar: 

There is Hadith about ʿUmar as a case in point: 

It has also been reported in Sahiih Al-Bukhaariy from ʿUmar that he said: 

حَدَّثَنَا سَعِيدُ بْنُ عُفَيْرٍ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي اللَّيْثُ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي عُقَيْلٌ، عَنِ ابْنِ شِهَابٍ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي عُرْوَةُ بْنُ الزُّبَيْرِ، أَنَّ الْمِسْوَرَ بْنَ مَخْرَمَةَ، وَعَبْدَ الرَّحْمَنِ بْنَ عَبْدٍ الْقَارِيَّ، حَدَّثَاهُ أَنَّهُمَا، سَمِعَا عُمَرَ بْنَ الْخَطَّابِ، يَقُولُ سَمِعْتُ هِشَامَ بْنَ حَكِيمٍ، يَقْرَأُ سُورَةَ الْفُرْقَانِ فِي حَيَاةِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَاسْتَمَعْتُ لِقِرَاءَتِهِ فَإِذَا هُوَ يَقْرَأُ عَلَى حُرُوفٍ كَثِيرَةٍ لَمْ يُقْرِئْنِيهَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَكِدْتُ أُسَاوِرُهُ فِي الصَّلاَةِ فَتَصَبَّرْتُ حَتَّى سَلَّمَ فَلَبَّبْتُهُ بِرِدَائِهِ فَقُلْتُ مَنْ أَقْرَأَكَ هَذِهِ السُّورَةَ الَّتِي سَمِعْتُكَ تَقْرَأُ‏.‏ قَالَ أَقْرَأَنِيهَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم‏.‏ فَقُلْتُ كَذَبْتَ فَإِنَّ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَدْ أَقْرَأَنِيهَا عَلَى غَيْرِ مَا قَرَأْتَ، فَانْطَلَقْتُ بِهِ أَقُودُهُ إِلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم فَقُلْتُ إِنِّي سَمِعْتُ هَذَا يَقْرَأُ بِسُورَةِ الْفُرْقَانِ عَلَى حُرُوفٍ لَمْ تُقْرِئْنِيهَا‏.‏ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏”‏ أَرْسِلْهُ اقْرَأْ يَا هِشَامُ ‏”‏‏.‏ فَقَرَأَ عَلَيْهِ الْقِرَاءَةَ الَّتِي سَمِعْتُهُ يَقْرَأُ‏.‏ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏”‏ كَذَلِكَ أُنْزِلَتْ ‏”‏‏.‏ ثُمَّ قَالَ ‏”‏ اقْرَأْ يَا عُمَرُ ‏”‏‏.‏ فَقَرَأْتُ الْقِرَاءَةَ الَّتِي أَقْرَأَنِي، فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏”‏ كَذَلِكَ أُنْزِلَتْ، إِنَّ هَذَا الْقُرْآنَ أُنْزِلَ عَلَى سَبْعَةِ أَحْرُفٍ فَاقْرَءُوا مَا تَيَسَّرَ مِنْهُ ‏”‏‏.‏

“I heard Hishaam bin Hakiim read Suuratu-l-Furqaan during the Prophet’s (ﷺ) time. While I listened to his reading, I noticed that he was reading it (the Suurah) in a number of ways different from the one that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) had not taught me to read the Qur’ān. I almost interrupted his prayer, but I checked myself until he finished. When he did, I seized him by the collar and asked, ‘Who taught you the way you have just read the Suurah?’ To which he replied that it was the Prophet (ﷺ) who (taught him). I then retorted, ‘You are a liar! By Allah, that is not the way the Prophet has taught me to read it.’ Thereafter I took him straight to the Prophet (ﷺ) to whom I said. ‘Oh Messenger of Allah, I have heard this man read Suuratu-l-Furqaan in a way, unlike the way I have learned from you.’ The Prophet (ﷺ) requested that I release the man. When I did, the Prophet (ï·º) asked Hishaam to recite the Suurah – which he did in the very way that I heard him do it. When Hishaam finished, the Prophet (ﷺ) approvingly said, ‘That is the way it was revealed.’ Then he asked me to let him hear my way of reading the same Suurah. When I read it the only way I had learned it from him, he (ﷺ) said, ‘That is the way it was revealed.’ The Prophet (ﷺ) then said, ‘Verily the Qur’ān has been revealed in seven ways. Read from it (the way) which is easiest.’” (Bukhaariy 6:514) 

Now remember we’re talking about ʿUmar al-Khaṭṭaab about whom the Prophet (ﷺ) said in the hadith found in Bukhaarii: 

عن أَبِي هُرَيْرَة رَضِيَ الـلّهُ عنه قـال  قـال النَّبِي ُّ صلى الله عليـه و سلم لَقَـدْ كَـانَ فِـيـمَـنْ كَـانَ قَـبْلَكُمْ مِـنْ بَنِي إِسْـرَائِلَ رِجَـالٌ يُكَــل ِّمُـونَ مِنْ غَـيْــرِ أَنْ يَكُونُواْ أَمنبيَاءَ فَإِنْ يَكُنْ مِنْ أُم َّتِي مِنْهُمْ أَحَدٌ فَعُمَرُ 

Reported from Abu Hurayrah is that he said, “The Prophet (ﷺ) said, “Those who came before you from among the Bani Israa’iil were men who were inspired with guidance although they were not prophets. And if there is any such person from among my Ummah, it is ʿUmar. [B. 5:37] 

And ʿUmar is the one – about whom the famous Mufassir Jalaalu-d-diin (social transaction) as-Suyuuti wrote in his book ‘Taariikhu-l-Kulafaa’ saying: “The agreement of ʿUmar with subsequent confirming revelations – Some of them make them amount to more than twenty. 

Mujaahid said that ʿUmar used to hold a view (concerning a matter) and the Qur’ān would be revealed with confirmation of it ʿAli said: In the Qur’ān are some of the views of .ʿUmar.

Ibn ʿUmar said, “When people said one thing and ʿUmar said another, the Qur’ān would be revealed with the like of what ʿUmar said. 

So who are we in comparison to ʿUmar ibn al-Khataab. The above-mentioned hadith shows that he hadn’t heard it all. What makes us think in the infant stages of our development that we have heard it all, or at least enough of this matter call Islam that we can’t make severe judgments on people without the guidance of Qaadiis (judges), Fuqahaa (scholars of Islamic Law), or ʿ Ulamaa’ (scholars of the diin (social transaction)), just because we have read a couple of hadith. 

It took 23 Years for the Prophet to establish the diin (social transaction). But with us sometimes it only takes 23 minutes or less of conversation before we are condemning people to the hell calling them deviants or worst. 

Allah says: 

 يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا يَسْخَرْ قَومٌ مِّن قَوْمٍ عَسَى أَن يَكُونُوا خَيْراً مِّنْهُمْ وَلَا نِسَاء مِّن نِّسَاء عَسَى أَن يَكُنَّ خَيْراً مِّنْهُنَّ وَلَا تَلْمِزُوا أَنفُسَكُمْ وَلَا تَنَابَزُوا بِالْأَلْقَابِ بِئْسَ الاِسْمُ الْفُسُوقُ بَعْدَ الْإِيمَانِ وَمَن لَّمْ يَتُبْ فَأُوْلَئِكَ هُمُ الظَّالِـمُونَ ٤٩: ١١

“Oh you who believe, let not a group of people scoff at another group of people. It may be that the latter group is better than the former nor let not women scoff at other women, it may be that the latter is better than the former nor defame one another nor insult one another with nicknames. How bad it is to have a name for evil after having Belief. And those who do not repent, these are they who are transgressors.” 49:11 

حدتني مالك عن عبد الله بن د ينار عن عـبد الله بن عمر أنّ رسول اللّه قال من قال لأخيه كافر فقد باء بها أحدُهم 

It was related to me from Maalik from ʿAbdallah bin diin (social transaction) and from Abdallah bin Umar that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said, “He who says that his brother is a kaafir, one of them is deserving of it (literally “one of them comes back with it”). 

Again in another Hadith: 

حــدتـني مــالـك عن سُــهَـــيّل بن أبي صـــالح عن أبـيــه عن أبـي هريرة أن َّ رسول اللّه صَل َّى الل َّهُ عَلَْهِ وَ سَل َّم قـال إذا سـمـعت الرّجلَ يقـول: هَلَكَ الناس فـهـو أَهْلَكُهُمْ 

It was related to me from Maalik from Suhayl bin Abii Saalih from his father from Abii Hurayrah that the Messenger of Allah said, “If you hear the man say, ‘the people are damned (meaning to the Hellfire), (Know) that he is the most damned one among them.

Shaykh ʿUthmaan bin Fuudii in his book Bayaan Wujuubu-l-Hijrah ʿalaa-l-ʿIbaad said in the section on “A Quality That Makes It Easy For The Commander Of the faithful and Others to Be Friendly with All People, 

“When you find a man hunting for people’s faults class him with the fly. A fly lands on the body and looks for a place where there is blood and uncleanness, brush him off, and pay no more attention to him than you would a fly.” 

“ If you afflicted by a slanderer who separates friends class him with the family of the skunk which is an animal whose smell is unbearable. The Arabs say when friends break up, A skunk has broken wind in there midst and so they dispersed. Just as people drive away this animal when it approaches them and prevent it from getting in among them so also should a slanderer be driven from among them or they should move away from him.” 

Khibr (Pride, Elitism) is one of the sicknesses of our time. Khibr (Pride Elitism) is based on finding the good one’s self. The elitist choose themselves as the elect of men or are raised up by other men while the elect of Allah are elevated by Him . Elitism causes men to say “I”. I did this and I did that, I am this and I am that, I have this and I have that.. And a group of people who say “we” in the say context are just as bad. 

Allah said in His Noble Book: 

وَ مَا رَمَيتَ إِذْ رَمَيْتَ وَ لَكِن َّ اللهَ رَمَى ٨:١٧ 

“And you Did not throw when you threw, but Allah threw.” 8:17 

again Allah says: 

“…We elevate by degrees whom We please…” 6:83 

We must overcome elitism. Every group believes that it has the Mahdi coming from their ranks. This prevents us from listening to or finding truth wherever it may be found. It is good to take a stand for something as a principle. A man who stands for nothing fall for anything. But it is not always wise to take to rigid a stand on a matter especially when you are a baby in knowledge. 

As for fault finding, if you want a good nights sleep, find the good in others and the blame in yourself. Do not seek the faults of others, because it leads to restless days and sleepless nights. When we seek the faults of others, we expose our biggest fault. We should ask Allah to protect the people from the exposure of their faults and short comings to the mercilessness of human beings, and to protect us as well from seeking out the faults of others. We should ask Allah to show us the goodness in others and the blame / faults in ourselves. If So and so comes to you with bad news or the news that another person was talking ill of you, then say to him or her, “Did you have to be the Shaytaan that would bring me this bad news?” 

For Allah has said, 

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِن جَاءكُمْ فَاسِقٌ بِنَبَأٍ فَتَبَيَّنُوا أَن تُصِيبُوا قَوْماً بِجَهَالَةٍ فَتُصْبِحُوا عَلَى مَا فَعَلْتُمْ نَادِمِينَ ٤: ٦

“Oh you who believe, If a rebellious evil person comes to you with news, verify it, unless you harm people in ignorance and afterward regret what you have done.” 49:6 

Allah has said, 

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اجْتَنِبُوا كَثِيراً مِّنَ الظَّنِّ إِنَّ بَعْضَ الظَّنِّ إِثْمٌ وَلَا تَجَسَّسُوا وَلَا يَغْتَب بَّعْضُكُم بَعْضاً أَيُحِبُّ أَحَدُكُمْ أَن يَأْكُلَ لَحْمَ أَخِيهِ مَيْتاً فَكَرِهْتُمُوهُ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ تَوَّابٌ رَّحِيمٌ ٤٩: ١٢

“Do not spy or backbite one another. Would one of you love to eat the flesh of his dead brother. You should abhor that. And fear Allah Who is the One to Whom repentance is made and He is the Merciful.” 49:12 

And so those who harm believing men and women undeservingly, they bear the guilt of slander and manifest sin. 

We must not look at the fiṭnah between brothers as an ongoing soap opera – not being able to wait to see the next episode. Nor should we join sides of any party of fiṭnah. Our duty is to extinguish the flames of fiṭnah in order to save the community from perishing in the fires of that fiṭnah. 

Allah has said: 

وَإِن طَائِفَتَانِ مِنَ الْـمُؤْمِنِينَ اقْتَتَلُوا فَأَصْلِحُوا بَيْنَهُمَا فَإِن بَغَتْ إِحْدَاهُمَا عَلَى الْأُخْرَى فَقَاتِلُوا الَّتِي تَبْغِي حَتَّى تَفِيءَ إِلَى أَمْرِ اللَّهِ فَإِن فَاءتْ فَأَصْلِحُوا بَيْنَهُمَا بِالْعَدْلِ وَأَقْسِطُوا إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْـمُقْسِطِينَ ٤٩: ٩

And if two parties of believers fall into fighting, make peace between them: and if one party of them does wrong to the other, You should fight the one which did the wrong until it (the party) returns to the commands of Allah; and if it returns, make peace between the two justly and act equitably. Surely, Allah loves the even handed person. 49:9 

إِنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ إِخْوَةٌ فَأَصْلِحُوا بَيْنَ أَخَوَيْكُمْ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُرْحَمُونَ ٤٩: ١٠

“The believers are brothers, So make reconciliation between your brothers and fear Allah so that you may receive mercy.” 49:10 

Lets strive to be brothers and sisters. And if we achieved that level, then lets us take to the next level of based on what the Prophet said to the men that were with  him when he said أنْتُمْ أَصْحَابِي. It is O.K. for us to be friends, even a righteous cliqueas long as it is for the pleasure of  Allah. 

A case in point is the following hadith which demonstrate the close friendship between he Messenger of Allah (ﷺ), Abu Bakr and ʿUmar ibn al-Khattaab:

حَدَّثَنِي الْوَلِيدُ بْنُ صَالِحٍ، حَدَّثَنَا عِيسَى بْنُ يُونُسَ، حَدَّثَنَا عُمَرُ بْنُ سَعِيدِ بْنِ أَبِي الْحُسَيْنِ الْمَكِّيُّ، عَنِ ابْنِ أَبِي مُلَيْكَةَ، عَنِ ابْنِ عَبَّاسٍ ـ رضى الله عنهما ـ قَالَ إِنِّي لَوَاقِفٌ فِي قَوْمٍ، فَدَعَوُا اللَّهَ لِعُمَرَ بْنِ الْخَطَّابِ وَقَدْ وُضِعَ عَلَى سَرِيرِهِ، إِذَا رَجُلٌ مِنْ خَلْفِي قَدْ وَضَعَ مِرْفَقَهُ عَلَى مَنْكِبِي، يَقُولُ رَحِمَكَ اللَّهُ، إِنْ كُنْتُ لأَرْجُو أَنْ يَجْعَلَكَ اللَّهُ مَعَ صَاحِبَيْكَ، لأَنِّي كَثِيرًا مِمَّا كُنْتُ أَسْمَعُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ كُنْتُ وَأَبُو بَكْرٍ وَعُمَرُ، وَفَعَلْتُ وَأَبُو بَكْرٍ وَعُمَرُ، وَانْطَلَقْتُ وَأَبُو بَكْرٍ وَعُمَرُ‏.‏ فَإِنْ كُنْتُ لأَرْجُو أَنْ يَجْعَلَكَ اللَّهُ مَعَهُمَا‏.‏ فَالْتَفَتُّ فَإِذَا هُوَ عَلِيُّ بْنُ أَبِي طَالِبٍ‏.‏

Ibn ʿAbbaas related “I was standing among the people who were invoking Allah for .ʿUmar ibn al-Khaṭṭaab who was lying (dead) on his bed, a man behind me rested his elbow on my shoulder and said, “(Oh ʿUmar), may Allah grant you His mercy. I always hoped that Allah would keep you with your two companions for I often heard the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) say, “Abu Bakr, ʿUmar and I were together and Abu Bakr, ʿUmar and I did such and such, and Abu Bakr, ʿUmar and I set out.” So I hope that Allah will keep you with both of them. I turned back to see that the speaker was … Alii bin Abii Taalib.”  taken from Al-Bukhaari: The Book of Noble Characteristics of the Companions:كتاب فضائل أصحاب.

إمَّا بَعْدُ

As for what I will say next:

وَإِن َّ خَيْرَ الْقُرُونِ الْقرْنُ ال َّذِينَ رَأَوْ رَسُولَ الل َّهِ وَآمَنُوا بِهِ ثُم َّ ال َّذِينَ يَلُونَهُمْ ثُم َّ ال َّذِينَ يَلُونَهُمْ وَأَفَـضَلَ الص َّحَـابَةِ الْـخُلَفَاءُ الر َّاشِـدُونَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ ِثُم َّ عُـمَرُ ثُم َّ عُثْمَانُ ثُم َّ عَلي ٌّ رَضِيَ الل َّهُ عَنْهُمْ أَجْمَعِينَ و 

The best of the generations were those who saw the Messenger Allah (ﷺ) and believed in him, then those who came after them, then those who came after them. 

Th most honorable of the the Companions are the Khulafaa’ Rashiiduun ( The Rightly Guided Khaliifs): (they are) Abū Bakr, then ʿUmar, then .ʿUthmaan,  and then .ʿAlī may Allah be please with all of them. 

None must speak ill of any of the Companions of the Prophet (ﷺ) nor discuss their mutual disagreements.

نَسْــأَلُ اللهَ سُـبْــحَـانَهُ أَنْ يُوَفِّـقَنَآ لإِتِّبَــاعِ سُنَّةِ نَبِّـِنَا وَ شَــفِـيــعِنَا وَ سَـيِّدِنَا مُحَمَّدٍ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَ سَلَّمَ 

We implore Allah, glory be to Him to grant us success in following the Sunnah of our Prophet (ﷺ) and intercessor and master Muhammad (ﷺ). 

‎إِنَّ‏ ا‏للهَ‏ وَمَلآئِكَتَهُ‏ يُصَلُّونَ‏ عَلَى النَّبِيِّ‏ ،‏ يَآ أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ‏ آمَنُوا صَلُّوا عَلَيْهِ‏ وَسَلِّمُوا تَسْلِيماً

‎اَللَّهُمَّ‏ صَلِّ‏ عَلَى سَيِّدِنَا مُحَمَّدٍ‏ وَعَلَى آلِهِ‏ وَصَحْبِهِ‏ وَسَلِّمْ‏ تَسْلِيماً
‎وَارْضَ‏ اللَّهُمَّ‏ عَنِ‏ الْخُلَفَآءِ‏ الرَّاشِدِينَ‏ أَبِي‏ بَكْرٍ‏ وَعُمَرَ‏ وَعُثْمَانَ‏ وَعَلِيٍّ‏ ،‏ وَسَآئِرِ‏ الصَّحَابَةِ‏ خُصُوصاً‏ اِلْمُهَاجِرِينَ‏ مِنْهُمْ‏ وَالْأَنْصَارِوالتَّابِعِينَ‏ لَهُمْ‏ وَتَابِعِي‏ التَّابِعِينَ‏ وَمَنْ‏ تَبِعَهُمْ‏ إلَى‏ يَوْمِ‏ الدِّينِ‏.

اَللَّّهُمَّ‏ اهْدِ‏ وُلَاةَ‏ أُمُورِ‏ المُسْلِمِينِ‏ لِمَا‏ يُرْضِيكَ‏ ولِاتِّباعِ‏ سُنَّةِ‏ مُحَمَّدٍ‏

‎اَللَّهُمَّ‏ أَعِزَّ‏ الْإسْلاَمَ‏ وَالْمُسْلِمِينَ‏ ،‏ وَاخْذُلِ‏ الْكُفْرَ‏ وَالْكَافِرِينَ‏ ،‏ وانْصُرِ‏ الْمُجَاهِدِينَ‏ فِي‏ سَبِيلِ‏ ا‏للهِ‏ ،‏ واجْعَلْ‏ كَلِمَتَكَ‏ هِيَ‏ الْعُلْىَا‏ ،‏ وَكَلِمَةَ‏ الْكُفْرِ‏ هِيَ‏ السُّفْلَى

‎رَبَّنَا اغْفِرْ‏ لَنَا وَلِإِخْوَانِنَا الَّذِينَ‏ سَبَقُونَا بِالْإِيمَانِ‏ وَلَا تَجْعَلْ‏ فِي‏ قُلُوبِنَا‏ غِلّاً‏ لِّلَّذِينَ‏ آمَنُوا‏ ‏ ص‏ رَبَّنَا إِنَّكَ‏ رَؤُوفٌ‏ رَّحِيمٌ‏
 

رَبَّنَا آتِنَا مِنْ‏ لَّدُنْكَ‏ رَحْمَةً‏ وَهَيِّئْ‏ لَنَا مِنْ‏ أَمْرِنَا رَشَداً

رَبَّنَا آتِنَا فِي‏ الدُّنْيَا حَسَنَةً‏ وَفِي‏ الآخِرَةِ‏ حَسَنَةً‏ وَقِنَا عَذَابَ‏ النَّار

رَبَّنَا هَبْ‏ لَنَا مِنْ‏ أَزْوَاجِنَا وَذُرِّيَّاتِنَا قُرَّةَ‏ أَعْيُنٍ‏ وَاجْعَلْنَا لِلْمُتَّقِينَ‏ إِمَاماً‏

إنَّ‏ الصَّلاَةَ‏ تَنْهَى عَنِ‏ الْفَحْشَآءِ‏ وَالْمُنْكَرِ ولَذِكْرُ‏ ا‏للهِ‏ أَكْبَرُ يَعِظُكُمْ‏ لَعَلَّكُمْ‏ تَذَّكَّرُونَ
‎وَقُومُوا إلَى صَلاَتِكُمْ‏ يَرْحَمُكُمُ‏ ا‏لله

Published in: Uncategorized on August 30, 2020 at 19:11  Leave a Comment  

Malcolmian English: The English Malcolm X Spoke

Malcolmian English: The English Malcolm X Spoke

African Americans should avoid falling into the “trick bag” and “inferiority trap” by accepting the idea that there is “white English” and black English”, and of course black English is in the inferior position and white English stands as its superior. 

Some African Americans, for some reason or another, get caught in a catch 22 over the issue.  That is to say, “they’re damn if they do and they’re damn if they don’t”.Theirs is a negative situation. 

If they don’t speak black English then they are accused of trying to be white, if they do speak so-called black English, they are considered to be illiterate, under-educated, ghetto dwellers, or criminals. 

Another indicator that demonstrates that black English is considered inferior while white English is considered superior is the fact that black people use white English to seek employment or to get into better schools, while white people use black English only to get some “hang” with blacks folks or just simply to sound and act like niggers. Sorry for using that damnable N-word, but you got the point.

As we go deeper into our discussion about this matter, we also find that there seems to be some confusion about the difference between intonation, stress, and accent of a language on the one hand and good grammar, good pronunciation and clear delivery of the language on the other. 

What we some times fail to realize is that language is simply a tool like a computer is a tool. There are no “white” computers and ”black” computer. There are just computers which white people use for their purposes and computers which black people use for theirs.

On the other hand, both white and black people use language to give oral expression to their cultural experiences in forms that are defined sometimes as slang, ebonics, patois or pidgin, broken English, or bad English.  

Blacks, however, are not the only ones who use non-standard forms of English.  White people also have their fair share of slang, patois, pidgin, broken English, and bad English as well. 

Just travel throughout America and the white countries that are part of the British Commonwealth. One can easily find themselves in a conversation with some of the white so-called English speakers from these nations, and wind up saying, “What the hell did he just say?”  At times you won’t even believe that these white Anglo-Saxons are speaking English. 

At the end of the day, there is no white English nor black English, just standard English and dialectal English, whether it emanates from a white source or a black one.

Finally: BE YOURSELF AND LET YOURSELF BE;. FIND YOUR ORBIT GET IN IT AND STAY IN IT.

The Alternative to BEING YOURSELF is trying to become somebody else and thereby, become somebody else’s fool and somebody else’s tool.

I would, therefore, like to suggest that African Americans should start using “Malcolmian English”: The English Malcolm X spoke, as an alternative to black English and white English. The essential qualities of “Malcolmian English” are as follows: intelligent – confident – clear-minded – focused – non-bootlicking – non-compromising – fearless – militantly articulated English.  The most important thing is to speak a form of English that will gain you respect for being yourself. As mentioned above, BE YOURSELF AND LET YOURSELF BE. This is the key to success in this world. 

                                                                                                                                                 

 

Published in: Uncategorized on August 10, 2020 at 22:52  Leave a Comment  

Africa is for the Africans Who Love Her

Image may contain: 1 person, text that says 'have no desire to take all black people back to Africa; there are blacks who are no good here and will likewise be no good there. Muscus Cosney QUOTES'
Image may contain: one or more people, text that says 'asg I have no desire to take all black people back to Africa: there are blacks who are no good here and will ikewise be no 2000 there! Marcas Carvey'
Published in: Uncategorized on August 10, 2020 at 21:55  Leave a Comment  

What؛s in a Name: Is the Creator’s Name Allah or Is His Name God?

What؛s in a Name: Is the Creator’s Name Allah or Is His Name God?

There’s an on going debate among Muslims as to whether or not they should use the word ‘god’ in place of the name Allah both in speech and writing in the English language. This stems from the desire of proponents for the use of the word ‘god’ in place of the name Allah in order to alleviate confusion in the minds of English speaking non-Muslims as to who Allah is in relations to the God of the Christians and the God of the Jews.  

Allah says in His Noble Book:

اللهُ لَا إِلـَـاـهَ إِلّاََََ هُوَ ۖ لَهُ الْأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَىٰ

Allah – there is no god except Him. To Him belong the best names. 20:1

قُلِ ادْعُوا اللهُ أَوِ ادْعُوا الرَّحْمَـاـنَ  ۖ أَيًّا مَّا تَدْعُوا فَلَهُ الْأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَىٰ ۚ …

Say, “Call to Allah or call to ar-Raḥmān (The Most Gracious). Whichever [name] you call – to Him belong al-Asmaa’ al-Ḥusnaa (the best names)…” 17:110

They al-Asmaa’ al-Ḥusnaa are as follow:

Allah His unique name -untranslatable
Ar-Rahman 1 The All-Merciful
Ar-Rahim 2 The All-Beneficient
Al-Malik 3 The Absolute Ruler
Al-Quddus 4 The Pure One
As-Salam 5 The Source of Peace
Al-Mu’min 6 The Inspirer of Faith
Al-Muhaymin 7 The Guardian
Al-‘Aziz 8 The Victorious
Al-Jabbar 9 The Compeller
Al-Mutakabbir 10 The Greatest
Al-Khaliq 11 The Creator
Al-Bari’ 12 The Maker of Order
Al-Musawwir 13 The Shaper of Beauty
Al-Ghaffar 14 The Forgiving
Al-Qahhar 15 The Subduer
Al-Wahhab 16 The Giver of All
Ar-Razzaq 17 The Sustainer
Al-Fattah 18 The Opener
Al-‘Alim 19 The Knower of All
Al-Qabid 20 The Constrictor
Al-Basit 21 The Reliever
Al-Khafid 22 The Abaser
Ar-Rafi’ 23 The Exalter
Al-Mu’izz 24 The Bestower of Honors
Al-Mudhill 25 The Humiliator
As-Sami 26 The Hearer of All
Al-Basir 27 The Seer of All
Al-Hakam 28 The Judge
Al-‘Adl 29 The Just
Al-Latif 30 The Subtle One
Al-Khabir 31 The All-Aware
Al-Halim 32 The Forebearing
Al-‘Azim 33 The Magnificent
Al-Ghafur 34 The Forgiver and Hider of Faults
Ash-Shakur 35 The Rewarder of Thankfulness
Al-‘Ali 36 The Highest
Al-Kabir 37 The Greatest
Al-Hafiz 38 The Preserver
Al-Muqit 39 The Nourisher
Al-Hasib 40 The Accounter
Al-Jalil 41 The Mighty
Al-Karim 42 The Generous
Ar-Raqib 43 The Watchful One
Al-Mujib 44 The Responder to Prayer
Al-Wasi’ 45 The All-Comprehending
Al-Hakim 46 The Perfectly Wise
Al-Wadud 47 The Loving One
Al-Majíd 48 The Majestic One
Al-Ba’ith 49 The Resurrector
Ash-Shahid 50 The Witness
Al-Haqq 51 The Truth
Al-Wakil 52 The Trustee
Al-Qawi 53 The Possessor of All Strength
Al-Matin 54 The Forceful One
Al-Wáli 55 The Governor
Al-Hamid 56 The Praised One
Al-Muhsi 57 The Appraiser
Al-Mubdi 58 The Originator
Al-Mu’id 59 The Restorer
Al-Muhyi 60 The Giver of Life
Al-Mumit 61 The Taker of Life
Al-Hayy 62 The Ever Living One
Al-Qayyum 63 The Self-Existing One
Al-Wajid 64 The Finder
Al-Májid 65 The Glorious
Al-Wahid 66 The Only One
Al-Ahad 67 The One
As-Samad 68 The Satisfier of All Needs
Al-Qadir 69 The All Powerful
Al-Muqtadir 70 The Creator of All Power
Al-Muqaddim 71 The Expediter
Al-Mu’akhkhir 72 The Delayer
Al-Awwal 73 The First
Al-Akhir 74 The Last
Az-Zahir 75 The Manifest One
Al-Batin 76 The Hidden One
Al-Walí 77 The Protecting Friend
Al-Muta’ali 78 The Supreme One
Al-Barr 79 The Doer of Good
At-Tawwab 80 The Guide to Repentance
Al-Muntaqim 81 The Avenger
Al-Afu 82 The Forgiver
Ar-Ra’uf 83 The Clement
Malik al-Mulk 84 The Owner of All
Dhul-Jalali

Wal-Ikram

85 The Lord of Majesty and Bounty
Al-Muqsit 86 The Equitable One
Al-Jami 87 The Gatherer
Al-Ghani 88 The Rich One
Al-Mughni 89 The Enricher
Al-Mani’ 90 The Preventer of Harm
Ad-Darr 91 The Creator of The Harmful
An-Nafi 92 The Creator of Good
An-Nur 93 The Light
Al-Hadi 94 The Guide
Al-Badi 95 The Originator
Al-Baqi 96 The Everlasting One
Al-Warith 97 The Inheritor of All
Ar-Rashid 98 The Righteous Teacher
As-Sabur 99 The Patient One

Allah is a name which is connected to Tawhīd (Oneness in the Allah nature) and is untranslatable to or uninterpretable in English. ‘God’ or ‘the god’ is not a sufficient translation for Allah’s unique and majestic name, because the name Allah has no equivalent meaning in English.

The word ‘god’  came into the English language when the Bible was translated into Anglo-Saxon English, and comes from a pagan name for a deity – it’s a northern European understanding. The word ‘god’ isn’t found in original Scripture, The words ‘Elohim’ or ‘Yahweh’ are among the words found there. Christians have strict views on using the name Allah but are very happy to use the non-original word ‘god’ found in the King James translation of the Bible.

And although Allah has said in His noble book:

  وَإِلـَـاـهُكُمُ إِلـَـاـهٌ وَاحِدٌ ۖ لَا إِلـَـاـهَ إِلّاََََ هُوَ الرَّحْمَـاـنُ الرَّحِيمُ

  •   And your God is Ahadun (One). There is no god except Him, The Most Gracious, The Most Merciful. 2/163

إِنَّمَا  إِلـَـاـهُكُمُ اللَّهُ الَّذِي لَا  إِلـَـاـهَ  إِلّاََََ هُوَ ۚ وَسِعَ كُلَّ شَيْءٍ عِلْمًا

  •   Surely Ilaahukum (your God) is Allah, besides Whom there is no god except Him. He has comprehended everything (with) His Knowledge. 20/98

If we observe carefully, it should be noted that Al-Ilaahu (the God) is not mentioned among the ninety names of Allah, because Ilaahu-kum which is mentioned above is not mention to denote a name but rather it used to refer to the nature of Who is being worshipped meaning: “the Deity whom you worship is named Alllah“.

فَاعْلَمْ أَنَّهُ لَا إِلـَـاـهَ  إِلّاَ الله وَاسْتَغْفِرْ لِذَنبِكَ وَلِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتِ ۗ وَللهُ يَعْلَمُ مُتَقَلَّبَكُمْ وَمَثْوَاكُمْ

  • So know, [O Muhammad], that there is no god except Allah, and ask forgiveness for your sin, and for the believing men and believing women. And Allah knows your movement and your resting place. Verse (47:19)

اللهُ لَا إِلـَـاـهَ إِلّاََََ هُوَ ۚ وَعَلَى اللَّهِ فَلْيَتَوَكَّلِ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ

  •   Allah, there is no god but Him; and therefore, let the believers rely upon Allah. 64/13

اللهُ لَا إِلـَـاـهَ إِلّاََََ هُوَ رَبُّ الْعَرْشِ الْعَظِيمِ ۩

  •   Allah, there is no god but Him, Lord of the Mighty Throne. 27/26  

اللهُ لَا إِلـَـاـهَ إِلّاََََ هُوَ الْحَيُّ الْقَيُّومُ

  •   Allah! There is no god except Him, al-Ḥayyu the Living, al-Qayyuum (the Self-Subsisting, the Eternal). 3/2

قُلْ إِنَّمَا أَنَا مُنذِرٌ ۖ وَمَا مِنْ إِلـَـاـهَ إِلّاََََ اللهُ الْوَاحِدُ الْقَهَّارُ

  • Say, [O Muhammad], “I am only a warner, and there is not any god except Allah , the One, theSubduer. 38:65

And in the Hadith from Sunan Ibn Majah » Book: The Greatest Name Of Allah: The Chapters of Supplication, it has been mentioned concerning Allah’s Greatest Name:

كتاب الدعاء: باب اسْمِ اللَّهِ الأَعْظَمِ

حَدَّثَنَا أَبُو بَكْرٍ، حَدَّثَنَا عِيسَى بْنُ يُونُسَ، عَنْ عُبَيْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ أَبِي زِيَادٍ، عَنْ شَهْرِ بْنِ حَوْشَبٍ، عَنْ أَسْمَاءَ بِنْتِ يَزِيدَ، قَالَتْ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ـ صلى الله عليه وسلم ـ ‏”‏ اسْمُ اللَّهِ الأَعْظَمُ فِي هَاتَيْنِ الآيَتَيْنِ ‏{وَإِلَهُكُمْ إِلَهٌ وَاحِدٌ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ الرَّحْمَنُ الرَّحِيمُ}‏ وَفَاتِحَةُ سُورَةِ آلِ عِمْرَانَ ‏{‏ الم * اللَّهُ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ الْحَىُّ الْقَيُّومُ ‏}‏ ‏.‏

Abu Bakr related to us, ʿĪsa bin Yūnus related from ʿUbaydallāh bin Abī Ziyād who related from Shahr bin Hawshab who related from Asmā’ bint Yazīd that she said:

“The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said, “The Greatest Name of Allah is in these two Verses: ‘And your God is Ilaahun Ahadun (One God). There is no god except Him, ar-Raḥmān (The Most Gracious), ar-Raḥīm (The Most Merciful).” (2:163) and the opening verse of Surah Al īmrān: “ALIF LAAM MIIM. Allah! There is no god but Him, al-Ḥayyu (the Living), al-Qayyuum (Self-Subsisting, the Eternal).” (3:2)

And from the Sunan Abī Dāwūd » the Book of Prayer: Detailed Injunctions about Witr:

 كتاب الصلاة

حَدَّثَنَا مُسَدَّدٌ، حَدَّثَنَا عِيسَى بْنُ يُونُسَ، عَنْ عُبَيْدِ اللَّه بْنِ أَبِي زِيَادٍ، عَنْ شَهْرِ بْنِ حَوْشَبٍ، عَنْ أَسْمَاءَ بِنْتِ يَزِيدَ، قَالَتْ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ـ صلى الله عليه وسلم ـ ‏”‏ اسْمُ اللَّهِ الأَعْظَمُ فِي هَاتَيْنِ الآيَتَيْنِ ‏{وَإِلَهُكُمْ إِلَهٌ وَاحِدٌ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ الرَّحْمَنُ الرَّحِيمُ}‏ وَفَاتِحَةُ سُورَةِ آلِ عِمْرَانَ ‏{‏ الم * اللَّهُ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ هُوَ الْحَىُّ الْقَيُّومُ ‏}‏ ‏.‏

Musaddad related to us, ʿĪsa bin Yūnus related from ʿUbaydallāh bin Abī Ziyād who related from Shahr bin Hawshab who related from Asmā’ bint Yazīd that she said:

“The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said, “The Greatest Name of Allah is in these two Verses: ‘And your God is Ilaahun Ahadun (One God). There is no god except Him, ar-Raḥmān (The Most Gracious), ar-Raḥīm (The Most Merciful)” (2:163) and the opening verse of Surah Al īmrān: “ALIF LAAM MIIM. Allah! There is no god but Him, al-Ḥayyu (the Living), al-Qayyuum (Self-Subsisting, the Eternal).” (3:2)

(*Note that the word ‘God’ which is used in the two above hadith is not used as a name of Allah, but rather it is used to denote Allah’s divine status, quality, and  nature.)

It should also be noted for the sake of further discussion about this topic, that Arabic is the only language in which the Holy Qur’an has been revealed, and therefore every other language in which the words of the Holy Qur’an appear is only an interpretation of the words of the Noble Book. This has been confirmed by the following verses:

إِنَّا أَنزَلْنَاهُ قُرْآنًا عَرَبِيًّا لَّعَلَّكُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ

  • Verily, We have sent it down as an Arabic Quran in order that you may understand. 12/2

قُرْآنًا عَرَبِيًّا غَيْرَ ذِي عِوَجٍ لَّعَلَّهُمْ يَتَّقُونَ

  • An Arabic Quran without any crookedness, that they may guard (against evil). 39/28

إِنَّا جَعَلْنَاهُ قُرْآنًا عَرَبِيًّا لَّعَلَّكُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ

  • Surely We have made it an Arabic Quran that you may understand. 43/3

كِتَابٌ فُصِّلَتْ آيَاتُهُ قُرْآنًا عَرَبِيًّا لِّقَوْمٍ يَعْلَمُونَ

  • A Book whereof the Verses are explained in detail; A Quran in Arabic for people who know. 41/3 

وَكَذَٰلِكَ أَنزَلْنَاهُ قُرْآنًا عَرَبِيًّا وَصَرَّفْنَا فِيهِ مِنَ الْوَعِيدِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَّقُونَ أَوْ يُحْدِثُ لَهُمْ ذِكْرًا

  • And thus have We sent it down an Arabic Quran, and have distinctly set forth therein a promise of  punishment that they may guard (against evil) or so that it may serve a reminder for them. 20/113

It is well understood that different cultures have different names for the Creator in different languages and in the monotheistic sense, for example: Ishvara is a theological concept in Hinduism translating to “lord,” applied to the “Supreme Being” or God in the monotheistic sense, or as an Ishta-deva in monistic thought, however the name Allah has been sent down to the Muslims for them to refer to Him. So Why should we call Allah god? 

Allah didn’t ask us to change His name under adverse conditions. What Allah did say in His Honor Book is:

وَلَا تَسُبُّوا الَّذِينَ يَدْعُونَ مِن دُونِ اللَّهِ فَيَسُبُّوا اللَّهَ عَدْوًا بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ ۗ…

  • And do not insult those they invoke other than Allah, lest they insult Allah in enmity without knowledge…6:108

Now lets reflect on the translation of this verse using the word ‘god’ instead of the Name of Allah. The word ‘god’ doesn’t give any definition to Allah’s uniqueness as  Allah has mentioned in regards to Himself when He said,

  • Say: He God is Ahadun (One). God is aṣ-Ṣamad (the Eternal, the Absolute); He has never brought any child into existence by the process of reproduction nor was He ever born at anytime or ever came into exist from any source; And there is nothing or no one comparable unto Him. 112:1-4

The word ‘god’  as used above reduces the rank and station of the One Who has defined Himself in the Qur’an as being incomparable when He says: 

…وَلَمْ يَكُن لَّهُ كُفُوًا أَحَدٌ

  • …And there is none comparable unto Him 112:4

There is no religion other than Islam that has the unique and incomparable Name Allah to define the Creator of creation. On the other hand, the word ‘god’ is commonly used by other religions and can be applied to anyone or anything: creator or creation.

We need not waste our time trying to make Islam more palatable to the taste and sensitivities of non-Muslims by changing Allah’s majestic name to god. Our time would probably be better spent teaching people about the majesty and might of the Owner of the name Allah, the uniqueness and beauty and sweetness of utterance the name and its correct pronunciation given to us through the Arabic language. This is more noble for Muslims than worrying about whether or not people are offended by hearing the name Allah.

Using the unique Name Allah not only defines who Allah is in relations to Muslims, but also defines who the Muslims are in relations to Allah.  Allah has said in the Holy Qur’an,

قُولُوا آمَنَّا بِاللَّهِ وَمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَيْنَا وَمَا أُنزِلَ إِلَىٰ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَإِسْحَاقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ وَالْأَسْبَاطِ وَمَا أُوتِيَ مُوسَىٰ وَعِيسَىٰ وَمَا أُوتِيَ النَّبِيُّونَ مِن رَّبِّهِمْ لَا نُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍ مِّنْهُمْ وَنَحْنُ لَهُ مُسْلِمُونَ

  • Say, [O believers], “We have believed in Allah and what has been revealed to us, and what has been revealed to Abraham and Ishmael and Isaac and Jacob and the Descendants, and what was given to Moses and Jesus, and what was given to the prophets from their Lord. We make no distinction between any of them, and we are Muslims [in submission] to Him.” 2|:36

Are these words not enough to say to remove any doubt from the hearts of the people of the other Abrahamic faiths and others as to whether or not Muslims worship the God of Abraham without “throwing out the baby with the bath water” by using the word god instead of Allah to avoid confusing them.

Many people have converted to Islam over the centuries after being given daʿwah where in the name of Allah was used untranslated. Why weren’t those people negatively impacted by hearing the name of Allah at the time. In fact, most of them were happy to abandon the word god and replace it with the name Allah without any hesitation or offense.

Why now all of a sudden, are Muslims being encouraged to abandon the Name of Allah in favor of the word ‘god’, in order to enhance the daʿwah being given at this time to English speakers?

The Prophet didn’t change the name of Allah to satisfy the lack of understanding of the non-Muslims? He didn’t change Allah’s name to that of one of the many idols of the Quraish? Did he change Allah’s name to call the Christians and Jews of Madinah to Islam? Did he change Allah’s name to invite Heraclius, Emperor of the Byzantines, or to invite Chosroes II Emperor of Persian Empire, or to invite Negus the King of Abyssinia, or invite to  Harith Gassani the Governor of Syria, or to invite Muqawqis the Ruler of Egypt, or  al-Mundhir bin Sawa, Ruler of Bahrain to Islam.

Let us not become cowards in the face of danger or in our attempts to win hearts and minds.

According to the Christian version of the story of the Prophet Isa (AS) as related in the Bible, the Prophet Isa (AS) told his disciple Peter, “Before the  cock (rooster) crows three times, you will deny (disavow) me.

Let us not us disown Allah’s beautiful name for the sake of convenient daʿwah or maintaining our comfort zone or political correctness.

We know that the word god  is often used to refer to  Allah, but is it right? We don’t need a big fatwah (Islamic legal ruling) from the grand shaykh for this one.

By the way, the name ‘Allah’ is not the only word that confuses or offends some negative minded non-Muslims. The word ‘Islam’ also offends them, as does the name ‘Muhammad’, as does the words ‘As-Salaamu Alaykum’ and the list goes on. 

If we see fit to translate Allah’s sacred named to accommodate the sensibilities and sensitivities of non-Muslims, why not take matters a step further and translate the name ‘Muhammad’ so that those among them who are offended by his name won’t be put off when they hear it’s utterance.  Shall the Muslims call him Prophet ‘Praiseworthy One’ instead of Prophet Muhammad? – while Allah Himself refers to him in verses of the Qur’an by the name Muhammad like when he said:

  • Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but (he is) the Messenger of Allah, and the Seal of the Prophets… 

مَّا كَانَ مُحَمَّدٌ أَبَا أَحَدٍ مِّن رِّجَالِكُمْ وَلَٰكِن رَّسُولَ اللَّهِ وَخَاتَمَ النَّبِيِّينَ ۗ

Are we going to resort to translating the word ‘Islam’ to English after Allah has said, 

  • “…This day I’ve perfected your religion for you and I’ve completed My favor unto you, and I’ve chosen Islam for you as a religion …” 5:3

الْيَوْمَ أَكْمَلْتُ لَكُمْ دِينَكُمْ وَأَتْمَمْتُ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعْمَتِي وَرَضِيتُ لَكُمُ الْإِسْلَامَ دِينًا ۚ

How far will this go?  Not only does translating change meaning, but it also at times change context.

Shall we give up using Arabic altogether and do as the Catholic church did when they gave up the Latin mass in order to reach a wider audience and to gain more acceptance, love, admiration and converts? Will this not diminished the need to learn Arabic among the Muslims?

Those Muslims who are proponents of the use of the word ‘god’ instead of the name Allah need to realize that at the end of the matter, it is Allah who causes people to become Muslims. Muslims don’t make Muslims. Allah said to the Prophet (SAW) in His Noble Noble book:

  • You (O Muhammad) are only a warner  35:23

(That is to say, your duty is to convey Allah’s Message to mankind but the guidance is in Allah’s Hand).

There is something awry when you change the message to accommodate people so that you can win their hearts and minds because Allah has said in His Noble Book:

 فَلَعَلَّكَ تَارِكٌ بَعْضَ مَا يُوحَى إِلَيْكَ وَضَآئِقٌ بِهِ صَدْرُكَ أَن يَقُولُواْ لَوْلاَ أُنزِلَ عَلَيْهِ كَنزٌ أَوْ جَاء مَعَهُ مَلَكٌ إِنَّمَا أَنتَ نَذِيرٌ وَاللَّهُ عَلَى كُلِّ شَيْءٍ وَكِيلٌ

  • Then would you possibly leave [out] some of what is revealed to you, or is your breast constrained by it because they say, “Why has there not been sent down to him a treasure or come with him an angel?” But you are only a warner. And Allah is Disposer of all things. 11:12

There are people among the disbelievers who have staunch hatred for Allah, His messenger, Muslims and Islam in general that are given more attention by some Muslims and their leaders than they deserve; they are given this attention in order to make Islam more acceptable in there eyes, mind and hearts. On the other hand, there are  Muslims and sincere people among the non-Muslims who readily accept the name Allah untranslated as the name of the Creator and Islam as their Dīn who deserve more attention.

Allah has said in His Noble, 

 أَمَّا مَنِ اسْتَغْنَى {5} فَأَنتَ لَهُ تَصَدَّى {6} وَمَا عَلَيْكَ أَلَّا يَزَّكَّى {7} وَأَمَّا مَن جَاءكَ يَسْعَى {8} وَهُوَ يَخْشَى {9} فَأَنتَ عَنْهُ تَلَهَّى {10}…

  • “…As for he who thinks himself without need, (5) to him you give  attention (6), even though there is no blame on you if he doesn’t become purified (from disbelief) (7)  But as for he who came to you striving (for guidance) (8) while he is fearful, (9) you are distracted from him… (10)” Chapter (80) sūrat ʿAbasa (He frowned) Verses 5-13

In our zeal to participate in interfaith dialogue and show tolerance, will “we throw the baby out with bath water” by means of a mamby pambykumbaya, I’m ok your ok approach to daʿwah?  

A simple declaration of the message is sufficient. Let us not forget that by gentle persuasion, fair exhortation, and in a non-coercive manner we should challenge false notions and concepts about Allah.  

Allah has said:

ادْعُ إِلَىٰ سَبِيلِ رَبِّكَ بِالْحِكْمَةِ وَالْمَوْعِظَةِ الْحَسَنَةِ ۖ وَجَادِلْهُم بِالَّتِي هِيَ أَحْسَنُ ۚ إِنَّ رَبَّكَ هُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِمَن ضَلَّ عَن سَبِيلِهِ ۖ وَهُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِالْمُهْتَدِينَ

  • Invite to the way of your Lord with wisdom and good instruction, and argue with them in a way that is best. Indeed, your Lord is most knowing of who has strayed from His way, and He is most knowing of who is [rightly] guided. 16:125

Our attachment to the name Allah should not distract us from keeping in mind that when we we are doing daʿwah, that Allah makes Muslims:

لَا إِكْرَاهَ فِي الدِّينِ ۖ قَد تَّبَيَّنَ الرُّشْدُ مِنَ الْغَيِّ ۚ …

  • There shall be no compulsion in [acceptance of] the religion. The right course has become clear from the wrong… 2:256

Now we’ll present some of the arguments of some those who believe that Muslims especially in an English speaking non-Muslim environment should call Allah god:

They say:

1. The name Allah doesn’t have the same effect on non-Muslim, non-Arab listeners, and few of them have the capacity to develop our sensitivity for the word merely by being constantly bombarded by it. 

2. For some, non-Muslims, the name Allah evokes a wide range of deeply ingrained cultural prejudices and negative associations, conscious or subconscious. while the word “God” can creates greater connective response in non-Muslim native speakers of English that would be virtually impossible for “Allah” to evoke even after years of positive exposure. 

3. The partial translation of There is no god but Allah…” by putting god and Allah in the same phrase is likely to create unwarranted barriers for the non-Muslim listener and induce a multitude of negative connotations. and  will inevitably require further explanation that non-Muslims probably won’t understand or accept anyway.

4. Christians and Jews are justified in wondering why—if Allah and “God” do mean the same thing—Muslims systematically avoid using “God,” 

5. As a result of misplaced attachment to the name Allah, Muslims create the impression that we do not really worship the same God, after all, or that we believe our Allah tis better than the Biblical God, the God of Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, the tribes of Israel, Moses, Jesus, and all the prophets.

6. Use of “God” emphasizes the extensive middle ground we share with other Abrahamic and universal  traditions 

7. Failure to use “God” conceals our common belief in the God of Abraham and the continuity of the Abrahamic tradition, 

8. The word “God” empowers us to communicate with our Jewish, Christian, and other English-speaking neighbors in a meaningful way.

9. Muslims who insist on using the word “Allah” even when addressing non-Muslims, who are unfamiliar with Islam and the Arabic language, do both a disservice to themselves and their religion.

10. The problem is that some Christian leaders in our country are spreading the notion that “Allah” refers to a pagan deity and not to the God of Abraham and Jesus (peace be upon them both). Can we use the word God to avoid this confusion?

11. Some non-Muslims are under the misconception that Allah is some particular “Muslim God” and not the Creator of the Heavens and the Earth. Some religious groups encourage this misconception among their followers to keep their people away from Islam. When Muslims are too insistent upon using the name “Allah” with non-Muslims, they can unwittingly reinforce that misconception. 

12. Insisting on the use of the name “Allah” which is the Arabic word for “God” immediately creates the illusion that “Allah” is a totally different God than God of the whole world. It creates a god that belongs only to the Muslims, and this would tarnish the universality of Islam.

13.Those who insist that “Allah” is the personal name of God are somewhat short on Quranic knowledge. Let us read the following verse:

“Say, “Call Him Allah, or call Him the Rahman (The Almighty); whichever name you use, to Him belongs the “Asma al-Husna” (most beautiful names).” 17:110

14. The restriction to use the Arabic words to call God is not a condition set by God. For this would falsely imply that only the Arabic language is worthy of calling on God!

15. Moreover, if God wanted us to call Him specifically by the name Allah, He would not include the words “whichever name you use” in 17:110.

16. Believers thousands of years ago, at the time of Noah and Abraham lived long before the revelation of the Quran. They knew God and they called God with various names, this once again confirms that to insist that only the word Allah is appropriate to refer to God is incorrect.

17. Insisting upon the use of Allah at all times and refusing to use the word “God” can give non-Muslims the mistaken impression that we worship a different God than the God of Abraham, Moses, and Jesus (peace be upon them all) or that we worship other than the Creator of the Heavens and the Earth. 

18. By insisting upon the use of “Allah at all times, the Muslims create the impression that we do not really worship the same God, after all, or that we believe our Allah trumps the Biblical God, the God of Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, the tribes of Israel, Moses, Jesus, and all the prophets, or that we worship other than the Creator of the Heavens and the Earth.

Well in fact, it is true that we Muslims do not worship the same the god, if the god in question for example is one of the many Hindu gods, or the god of the trinitarian doctrine, or the god of the doctrine that god is a man or the doctrine that god comes to us in the person of  man to dwell among us or  the doctrine of god the father and we are his children whether metaphorically or literally speaking or the doctrine that Allah and Shaytaan are at war with each other for control of the universe or the hearts and minds of human beings.  These are all concepts based in shirk (associating partners)  with Allah. 

What these supporters of the use of the word god in place of Allah fail to realize is that the word god in some quarters comes with negative connotations and baggage, that we should not want to attach to Allah, Also, the word god doesn’t ‘always refer to the God of the Abrahamic faiths. that is to say it is not a sacred word, but rather its part of negative belief systems steep in ignorance and shirk. In some communities, the encouragement of the use of the word god over the sacred name of Allah will only re-enforce and drive them deeper into their madness.

 Case in point, as mentioned above there are some religions that say god is a perfected man or that god comes in the person of a perfected man dwelled among us. They say:

God came as man in the person of a man. The hypostatic union- the Son as the visible representation of the invisible Father, that he took on human flesh – two natures in one person, 100% humanity and 100% deity. Each are their own nature that did not intermingle but made up the person the divine man.

There are others who say:

GOD is the original Black man from Asia who bas the power to build or destroy; God is the Black man who bas knowledge of himself and all things around him.

God is a original Black man, accepting and living in the realm of reality of his true nature. God – cipher is divine, having no beginning nor ending. Allah is god, the supreme being. Black man who is the original is god Allah, lord of all the worlds, supreme ruler of the universe which is everything; sun, moon and stars (god is the sun in the solar system, the woman is the moon, the child is the stars). The best part which show.s gods power. God is one. God is life. God is love. God is intelligence. God is one who possesses the supreme power and force to govern all things in existence. (the universe which is everything) God is able to do all things.

God is Allah and Allah is god. God is who knows and understands all things which is right and exact. He is the supreme being in which is all wise and equal in each and every way. God is the maker, owner, and cream of the planet earth, the original Black man, Allah. Allah is Arm, Leg, Leg, Arm, Head, the bodily structure of the hunan creation. 

As can be seen from the two above paragraphs, they mix truth with falsehood in giving definition to Allah’s essence.

They attempt to corrupt the sacred Name of Allah for their purposes while exposing their lack of common sense to realize that the Holy Qur’an was not revealed in English, therefore how can Allah’s name be the acronym  A. L. L. A. H. (Arm, Leg, Leg, Arm, Head,) which has been constructed for English words while the Qur’an was revealed in  the Arabic language. If anything was near this as a reality, then the name “Allah” should be an acronym for words found in the Arabic language and script. As mentioned previously the Qur’an, as mentioned in Qur’an itself was revealed in the Arabic language:

إِنَّا أَنزَلْنَاهُ قُرْآنًا عَرَبِيًّا لَّعَلَّكُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ

  • Verily, We have sent it down as an Arabic Quran in order that you may understand. 12/2

Those who want a genuine understanding of the Holy Qur’an should learn Arabic not the reverse.

There are some who say that “dog” is “god” spelled backward. There are some who refer to idols as god.  There are some who say that god is the third of three. 

Yet none of these religions  can rightfully claim that the name of the god of their belief system is Allah. That right is reserved for the Muslims who are the followers of  the Prophet Muhammad (SAW). Allah has a direct emotional and spiritual efficacy which no other word for God can replace.

We seek refuge in Allah from belief in any of these polytheistic false concepts of Him.

Muslims aren’t the only ones who take issue with the idea of referring to Allah as God or God as Allah. Let’s look at the writings of one Christian followers of the evangelical Christian pastor Billy Graham who oppose calling God Allah: 

“Muslims do not speak of God as their heavenly Father. In the Islamic faith, Allah is not only a different name for god; the deity it designates is far more impersonal than the God of the Bible. Father—the very name that Jesus gave us as the designated name for use in prayer—is a name that simply does not fit Allah as depicted in the Quran.

Furthermore, Muslims claim that Allah has no son. This represents a head-on collision between the God of the Bible and Allah. For, as the Bible makes clear, the one and only true God is most perfectly revealed as the Father of the Son, Jesus Christ. In the Gospel of John, Jesus repeatedly teaches that no one has truly known the Father, except by the Son. In one of the most clarifying verses in the New Testament, Jesus declared Himself to be “the way, and the truth, and the life,” adding, “No one comes to the Father except through me” (John 14:6).

Because Muslims deny that God has a son, they explicitly reject any Trinitarian language. From the very starting point, Islam denies what Christianity takes as its central truth claim: the fact that Jesus Christ is the only begotten of the Father. If Allah has no son, then Allah is not the God who reveals Himself through the Son. How then can calling God “Allah” not lead to anything but confusion—and worse?

Islam teaches that the doctrine of the Trinity is blasphemous. But the Christian faith is essentially and irreducibly Trinitarian. The Bible reveals that the Father is God, that the Son is God, and that the Holy Spirit is God. Jesus is not merely a prophet, as acknowledged by Muslims, He is God in human flesh. This is precisely what Islam rejects.

The Trinitarian language is the language of the Bible, and it is essential to Christianity. Indeed, the Christian faith points to Christ and announces that we can only know the Father through the Son. Confusing the God of the Bible with Allah of the Quran is not only a mistake, it is a dangerous distortion of the Gospel of Christ.

The Trinitarian nature of God is embedded within the Great Commission. Jesus tells His disciples to go into the world and make disciples of all nations and to baptize them “in the name of the Father and of the Son and of the Holy Spirit” (Matthew 28:19). Christians are those who bear the names of God even in our baptism, and those names are Father, Son and Holy Spirit.

This has become a matter of significant controversy in recent years as some Christians, including some serving with mission agencies, have argued that Christians can use the name ‘Allah’ in talking about God. In some languages, especially those based on an Arabic source, there is no generic word for god. In such a situation, it might be necessary to begin a conversation by using this word, but the Christian cannot continue to call God ‘Allah’ It is hard to imagine that anyone can hear the name “Allah” without thinking of him as claimed in the Quran (see following article). Indeed, Muslims who speak languages other than Arabic use “Allah” as the name of god. But as soon as the Christian begins to explain that the true living God is the Father of Jesus Christ the Son, the Christian is making clear that the true living God is not Allah, but our Heavenly Father.

Continuing to use the name Allah to refer to the God of the Bible in such situations invites deep confusion. Some now argue that Muslims who come to faith in Christ can even remain within the mosque and continue to worship God as ‘Allah’. It is hard to see how that is anything other than a theological disaster.

We can now see that the name of God is no small matter. The deity we name is the God we believe in. Christians believe in only one God, and He is the Father who sent the Son to save us from our sins. Allah has no son, and, thus, Christians cannot know God as Allah. In this light, Muslims and Christians do not only use different names for God; in reality, these different names refer to different gods.

God takes His name with great seriousness, and so must we. Thankfully, we are not left in the dark, groping for adequate language. God has revealed His names to us, so that we can rightly know Him. We are not called to be clever or creative in referring to God, only faithful and accurate.

We are living in challenging days. One of the most pressing challenges of our times is the task of speaking rightly about God. This is particularly challenging when Christians encounter Muslims, but it is also a challenge when Christians encounter secular people in Western cultures. But this really isn’t a new challenge. It was the same challenge faced by the children of Israel as they encountered the Canaanites, and the same challenge faced by the Apostle Paul at Mars Hill.

Our challenge is to speak truthfully about God, and the only way we can do that is to use the names God gave Himself. The God of the Bible is not Allah, and Allah is not the God of the Bible. Any confusion about that undermines the very Gospel we preach.”  

In fact, after reading the above words of Billy Graham’s, Muslims should roundly concur that Allah is not the God of the Bible of the Trinitarian Doctrine because of what Allah has said about Himself in the Qur’an: 

…سُبْحَانَهُ وَتَعَالَىٰ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ

  • “…Exalted is He and High above what they associate with Him.” 16:1

So after hearing the discourse in the above article and not being able to persuade individuals who espouses the Trinitarian doctrine found in it that such ideas about Allah are false, all that is left for the Muslim to say is:

لَكُمْ دِينُكُمْ وَلِيَ دِينِ

  • For you is your religion, and for me is my religion. 109:6

There are some Christian dissimulators however who would prefer to call god Allah in order to hide their secret evangelizing among the Muslims. Lets look closely at what is said in the following article written by a Christian Evangelist who is Arab with regard to calling god Allah. 

They write:

What Does ‘Allah’ Actually Mean?

The term Allah (Arabic: الله, Allāh) is the standard Arabic word for God and is most likely derived from a contraction of the Arabic article al- and ilāh, which means “deity or god” to al-lāh meaning “the [sole] deity, God.” There is another theory that traces the etymology of the word to the Aramaic Alāhā.

Today’s Arabic speakers from all religious backgrounds (Muslims, Christians and Jews) use the word Allah to mean God. In pre-Islamic Arabia, pagan Meccans used Allah as a reference to the creator-god, possibly the supreme deity.

The first-known translation of the Bible into Arabic, which took place in the 9th century, uses the word Allah for God. In fact, Arab Christians were using the word Allah for God prior to the dawn of Islam, and it is important to note that they were using it in place of Elohim, but not in place of Yahweh. That means Allah is a generic word for God, but not the personal name of God. (Radical Muslims in the West claim that Allah, not Yahweh or any other Bible name, is the name of the one true God.)

As an example closer to home, Christians and non-Christians alike use the word “God” in English, but that does not make the God of the Bible the same as the god of the Mormons, Jehovah’s Witnesses or others. Another example is that when irreverent people use the expression “Oh my God!” in their day-to-day communications, they are not referring to the God of the Bible when they invoke that term.

When the prophet of Islam started his ministry in Mecca, he considered at one point uniting the Arabs under a different name for God. His favorite was Al-Rahman but he chose Allah to name his god. After the spread of Islam in the Middle East, Arab Christians continued to use word Allah since it did not have any negative connotations to them personally. Once again, it is important to understand that both before and after Muhammad, the Allah of the Arabs was not the Allah of the Arab Christians.

Today, Muslims claim they worship the same God as Christians and Jews. In fact, the Islamic propaganda machine in the West is attempting to change our English vocabulary to accommodate Islamic beliefs. Before tackling that topic, however, I’d like to address a controversial subject that is gaining momentum among American Christians, and is greatly harming the propagation of the Gospel among Muslims: the notion that Allah was the name for a pagan moon god of pre-Islamic time. I believe this theory is greatly misunderstood by American Evangelicals, and is being mixed up with the Islamic push to use Allah in our vocabulary as His name or as an alternative to the word God.

Is Allah a ‘Moon God’?

Currently, there is an ongoing debate as to whether the Allah of the Qur’an is in fact a pagan Arab moon god of pre-Islamic times. This idea has been mentioned in literature for more than a century, but only recently has it been seriously promoted. The theory is particularly used in one leading evangelical author’s books and pamphlets, which has set the stage for many Christian evangelical authors to adopt it and assert it in their writings about Islam.

This theory claims that a pagan deity, a moon god named Allah, was married to the sun goddess, and the stars were his daughters. Proponents of this theory point to the fact that the crescent moon symbol is found on many flags of Islamic countries and on top of mosques. I have encountered many questions during my seminars on Islam about Allah, and have even been challenged that I should not use the word Allah during some of my lectures on Islam because Allah is the moon god. The theory is becoming so controversial that some Christian ministries on the Internet replaced the word Allah with the word ilah (“deity god”) in the most common version of the Arabic Bible (Vandyke version) on their websites. One ministry went as far as producing CDs for the Arabic Bible exchanging the word Allah with ilah.

Such chaos is greatly harming the cause of Christ among Muslims and other Arabic-speaking individuals. Here is a summary of my objections:

It is an unproven theory, so it may well be false. Even if it turns out to be true, it has little bearing on the Muslim faith since Muslims do not worship a moon god. That would be blasphemy in Islamic teachings.

If we use the moon-god theory to discredit Islam, we discredit the Christian Arabic speaking churches and missions throughout the Middle East. This point should not be discounted lightly because the word Allah is found in millions of Arabic Bibles and other Arabic Christian materials.

The moon-god theory confuses evangelism. When Christians approach Muslims, they do not know whether they need to convince them that they worship the wrong deity, or to present them the simple Gospel message of our Lord Jesus Christ.

The moon-god theory promotes an “us versus them” mentality. Most Christians in the U.S.A. seem to be living in fear about their Muslims neighbors, but instead our Lord calls us to be reaching out in love to Muslims and not to alienate them.

As far as the moon symbol on the mosques or on the flags, the simple reason behind it is that Islam depends on the moon for their religious calendar (lunar calendar) specially during the Ramadan (month of fasting). Islam forbids symbols or pictures of God.

Can ‘Allah’ Refer to the God of the Bible?

The Islamic propaganda machine in the West is actively pushing for the use of the word Allah instead of God in the Western languages, especially in English. The sole purpose of this push is to promote Islam and render it an acceptable mainstream religion alongside Christianity in the West, not just from man’s perspective but from God’s.

A quick look at Islamic English Web sites and Islamic English literature reveals how widely the word Allah is used instead of God. Christians should be very concerned about the use of the word Allah in the English language since it is not only accommodating Islamic beliefs, but also transforming the word Allah into a NAME for the God of the Bible.

I think that what the church needs is to stand against and not to be entangled with the moon god theory, which has no scholastic proof and hinders evangelism to Muslims in the USA and the West.

I was particularly saddened to see several English Christian Web sites posting the English Bible text with the word Allah substituting for God as an attempt to witness to Muslims. In doing so, they have inadvertently asserted the Muslim claim that Allah is the name of the one true God!

Should I Refer to ‘Allah’ When I Share the Gospel With Muslims?

I have found that in a personal witnessing situation, it is best to share my faith with a Muslim by assuming that we are both talking about the same God, the One who created the heavens and the earth. The apostle Paul used that approach in Acts 17 when he came to Athens and his spirit was stirred in him when he saw the city wholly given to idolatry (Verse 16). He later addressed the pagan Greeks telling them about the one true God who is the Lord of heaven and earth who cannot dwell in temples made with hands (verses 22-24).

I have also found that the issues regarding the term Allah are difficult for many American Christians to sort through when it comes to understanding Islam. We need wisdom and we need to be vigilant. Allah should not be the subject matter of our evangelism with Muslims, and Allah should not be accepted as an alternative word for God in the English language.

As a ministry, we are committed to helping Christians better comprehend the tenets of Islam, and to support Christian workers who are actively reaching Muslims.

Conclusion

Arabic-speaking Christians should continue to use the word Allah in their language to address God since it is their generic word for the one true God, even though the understanding of His character is horribly messed up in Islam, which happens to share the same Arabic language. The Arab Christians will always be challenged to maintain that distinction and to remain biblical.

The Christians in the West should not be entangled with the moon-god theory, especially when witnessing to Muslims. In addition, English-speaking believers should resist the use of Allah in their own language and refrain from using it in any English Christian media or publications aimed at Muslims.

May the Lord fuel our evangelism to Muslims in the U.S.A. and abroad with wisdom, passion and love!”

The author of the above article wrote:

“The Islamic propaganda machine in the West is actively pushing for the use of the word Allah instead of God in the Western languages, especially in English. The sole purpose of this push is to promote Islam and render it an acceptable mainstream religion alongside Christianity in the West, not just from man’s perspective but from God’s.”

Actually the above view of some Cristians not quite correct, because some of the Muslims in the West want to use the word god to achieve acceptance as we have mention.  They are actively pushing for the use of the word God instead of Allah to be used in the Western languages, especially in English. The sole purpose of this push is to promote Islam and render it an acceptable mainstream religion alongside Christianity in the West, “not just from man’s perspective but from God’s.

In any case, this sounds like dissimulation which in reality is the concealment of one’s thoughts, feelings, or character or true intent; pretense.

Due to this kind of dissimulation by some evangelical organizations, The Malaysian government passed a law banning non-Muslims from using the name of Allah to refer to the god of their religion.

In Malaysia the issue of referring to god as Allah is quite the opposite. 

They have outlaw the use of the name of Allah by non-Muslims who the government suspects are attempting to convert the Muslims to Christianity by using the name of Allah as a cover for their evangelizing activities among Malay Muslims.

We will review the following article written by a Christian as a case in point:

The language used in the Bible has long been the subject of contention – not least in Malaysia, where authorities ruled this week that non-Muslims cannot refer to God as ‘Allah’.

A Muslim-majority country, many Malays believe that the national conscience must be firmly rooted in Islam, and therefore resent the influence of the Chinese Christian population who are active in evangelizing among Malays.

However, Mark Beaumont, senior lecturer in Islam and mission at the London School of Theology, says

that while there is controversy regarding the way that God and Allah are referred in Malaysia, in other parts of the world it’s considered far less of a contentious issue”

“In the Arab speaking world there’s no difficulty in calling God ‘Allah‘ – they’ve been doing it in the Christian church and in the Bible for hundreds of years,” he explains.

“In the Coptic Church in Egypt, the church in Syria, Jordan, Iraq and even Iran, it’s always been the practice to call God ‘Allah‘ using the Arabic form. Although the Arabic Bible wasn’t translated fully before Islam came, it’s obvious that people were reading the Gospels using ‘Allah‘ before the rise of Islam.

Published in: Uncategorized on August 2, 2020 at 20:18  Leave a Comment  

Duʿah (Supplication) of the Prophet Muhammad That Have Been Mentioned in Saḥīh Muslim and Abū Dāwūd

Duʿah (Supplication) of the Prophet Muhammad That Have Been Mentioned in Saḥīh Muslim and Abū Dāwūd

Allah has mentioned part of this duʿah in His Holy Book:

Qur'an Verses (1)Surely I have turned my face towards He who created the heavens and the Earth as one who is upright, and I am not of the polytheists.  Chapter (6) Sūratu-l-Anʿaam (The Cattle) Verse 79

 

Qur'an Verses (2)

Say. Surely my prayer and my sacrifice and my life and my death are (all) for Allah, the Lord of the worlds. Chapter (6) Sūratu-l-Anʿaam (The Cattle) Verse 162

 

Qur'an Verses (3)There is no partner for Him, and by this I am commanded; I am the first of those who submit. (i.e. the first of the Muslims) Chapter (6) Sūratu-l-Anʿaam (The Cattle) Verse 163

 

The following is the complete duʿah as has been transmitted and recorded in Saḥīh Muslim:

6 كتاب صلاة المسافرين وقصرها (26) باب الدُّعَاءِ فِي صَلاَةِ اللَّيْلِ وَقِيَامِهِ 

حَدَّثَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ أَبِي بَكْرٍ الْمُقَدَّمِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا يُوسُفُ الْمَاجِشُونُ، حَدَّثَنِي أَبِي، عَنْ عَبْدِ، الرَّحْمَنِ الأَعْرَجِ عَنْ عُبَيْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ أَبِي رَافِعٍ، عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَبِي طَالِبٍ، عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم  أَنَّهُ كَانَ إِذَا قَامَ إِلَى الصَّلاَةِ قَالَ: 

‏وَجَّهْتُ وَجْهِيَ لِلَّذِي فَطَرَ السَّمَوَاتِ وَالأَرْضَ حَنِيفًا وَمَا أَنَا مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ إِنَّ صَلاَتِي وَنُسُكِي وَمَحْيَاىَ وَمَمَاتِي لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ لاَ شَرِيكَ لَهُ وَبِذَلِكَ أُمِرْتُ وَأَنَا مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ 

اللَّهُمَّ أَنْتَ الْمَلِكُ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ أَنْتَ ‏.‏ أَنْتَ رَبِّي وَأَنَا عَبْدُكَ ظَلَمْتُ نَفْسِي وَاعْتَرَفْتُ بِذَنْبِي فَاغْفِرْ لِي ذُنُوبِي جَمِيعًا إِنَّهُ لاَ يَغْفِرُ الذُّنُوبَ إِلاَّ أَنْتَ وَاهْدِنِي لأَحْسَنِ الأَخْلاَقِ لاَ يَهْدِي لأَحْسَنِهَا إِلاَّ أَنْتَ وَاصْرِفْ عَنِّي سَيِّئَهَا لاَ يَصْرِفُ عَنِّي سَيِّئَهَا إِلاَّ أَنْتَ لَبَّيْكَ وَسَعْدَيْكَ وَالْخَيْرُ كُلُّهُ فِي يَدَيْكَ وَالشَّرُّ لَيْسَ إِلَيْكَ أَنَا بِكَ وَإِلَيْكَ تَبَارَكْتَ وَتَعَالَيْتَ أَسْتَغْفِرُكَ وَأَتُوبُ إِلَيْكَ ‏”‏ ‏.‏ 

وَإِذَا رَكَعَ قَالَ: ‏

اللَّهُمَّ لَكَ رَكَعْتُ وَبِكَ آمَنْتُ وَلَكَ أَسْلَمْتُ خَشَعَ لَكَ سَمْعِي وَبَصَرِي وَمُخِّي وَعَظْمِي وَعَصَبِي‏.‏ 

وَإِذَا رَفَعَ قَالَ: 

اللَّهُمَّ رَبَّنَا لَكَ الْحَمْدُ مِلْءَ السَّمَوَاتِ وَمِلْءَ الأَرْضِ وَمِلْءَ مَا بَيْنَهُمَا وَمِلْءَ مَا شِئْتَ مِنْ شَىْءٍ بَعْدُ ‏”‏ ‏.‏ 

وَإِذَا سَجَدَ قَالَ: ‏

“‏ اللَّهُمَّ لَكَ سَجَدْتُ وَبِكَ آمَنْتُ وَلَكَ أَسْلَمْتُ سَجَدَ وَجْهِي لِلَّذِي خَلَقَهُ وَصَوَّرَهُ وَشَقَّ سَمْعَهُ وَبَصَرَهُ تَبَارَكَ اللَّهُ أَحْسَنُ الْخَالِقِينَ ‏”‏ ‏.‏ 

ثُمَّ يَكُونُ مِنْ آخِرِ مَا يَقُولُ بَيْنَ التَّشَهُّدِ وَالتَّسْلِيمِ 

‏اللَّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِي مَا قَدَّمْتُ وَمَا أَخَّرْتُ وَمَا أَسْرَرْتُ وَمَا أَعْلَنْتُ وَمَا أَسْرَفْتُ وَمَا أَنْتَ أَعْلَمُ بِهِ مِنِّي أَنْتَ الْمُقَدِّمُ وَأَنْتَ الْمُؤَخِّرُ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ أَنْتَ ‏ ‏.‏

English Translation:

From Book 6 -The Book of the Prayer of the Travelers and the Shortening of It – Chapter 26 – The Prayer and the Supplication of the Prophet (ﷺ) At Night

ʿAli bin Abī Ṭālib reported that when the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) got up during the night for prayer he would say:

I turn my face to He Who is the Creator of the heavens and the Earth and I am not of the polytheists. 6:79

Surely my prayer, my sacrifice, my life and my death are (all) for Allah, the Lord of the worlds.  6:162

There is no partner for Him, and by this I have been , and I am from among those who submit (i.e. The Muslims). 6:163

“Oh Allah, You art the King. There is no God but You. You are my Lord and I am Your slave. I have wronged myself, and I acknowledge my sin, so forgive me all my sins; there is no one who can forgive sin except for you, and guide me to the best character;  there is no one who can guide to the good character except for you; there is no one who can guide (the soul) away from bad character except for you.  

Here I am at Your service, every good matter is in Your hand, and evil does not come from Your direction. I am Yours, and I turn to You. You are the Blessed and You are the Exalted; I seek forgiveness from You, and turn to You in repentance.”

and when he’d bow, he (ﷺ) would say: 

“Oh Allah, it is for You that I bowed; I affirm my faith in You and I submit to You, and submit humbly before You my hearing, my eyesight, my marrow, my bone, my sinew”, 

and when he’d raise his head, he (ﷺ) would say: 

“Oh Allah, our Lord, to You is due the Praise  which fills the heavens and the Earth, and fills that which exists between them, and fills anything that You desires afterward.” 

And when he’d prostrated himself, he (ﷺ) would say: 

“Oh Allah, it is You to Whom I prostrate myself, and it is You in Whom I put my trust, and it is You to Whom I submit while lowering my face towards the One Who created it, and shaped it, and separated it’s (ability) to hear and see. Blessed is Allah, and He is the Best of Creators”; 

and he (ﷺ) would then say between Tashahhud and the pronouncing of salutation: 

“Forgive me for what I have done earlier and what I did after, both openly and in secret, and (forgive me) for the matters wherein I transgressed the bounds, and those matters You know about more than me. You are the First and the Last. There is no god, but You.”

The following is the same duʿah as has been transmitted and recorded in Sunan Abī Dāwūd:

(123) باب مَا يُسْتَفْتَحُ بِهِ الصَّلاَةُ مِنَ الدُّعَاءِ

حَدَّثَنَا عُبَيْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مُعَاذٍ، حَدَّثَنَا أَبِي، حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الْعَزِيزِ بْنُ أَبِي سَلَمَةَ، عَنْ عَمِّهِ الْمَاجِشُونِ بْنِ أَبِي سَلَمَةَ، عَنْ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ الأَعْرَجِ، عَنْ عُبَيْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ أَبِي رَافِعٍ، عَنْ عَلِيِّ بْنِ أَبِي طَالِبٍ، – رضى الله عنه – قَالَ كَانَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صلى الله عليه وسلم إِذَا قَامَ إِلَى الصَّلاَةِ كَبَّرَ ثُمَّ قَالَ 

‏وَجَّهْتُ وَجْهِيَ لِلَّذِي فَطَرَ السَّمَوَاتِ وَالأَرْضَ حَنِيفًا مُسْلِمًا وَمَا أَنَا مِنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ 

إِنَّ صَلاَتِي وَنُسُكِي وَمَحْيَاىَ وَمَمَاتِي لِلَّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ لاَ شَرِيكَ لَهُ وَبِذَلِكَ أُمِرْتُ وَأَنَا أَوَّلُ الْمُسْلِمِينَ

 

اللَّهُمَّ أَنْتَ الْمَلِكُ لاَ إِلَهَ لِي إِلاَّ أَنْتَ أَنْتَ رَبِّي وَأَنَا عَبْدُكَ ظَلَمْتُ نَفْسِي وَاعْتَرَفْتُ بِذَنْبِي فَاغْفِرْ لِي ذُنُوبِي جَمِيعًا إِنَّهُ لاَ يَغْفِرُ الذُّنُوبَ إِلاَّ أَنْتَ وَاهْدِنِي لأَحْسَنِ الأَخْلاَقِ لاَ يَهْدِي لأَحْسَنِهَا إِلاَّ أَنْتَ وَاصْرِفْ عَنِّي سَيِّئَهَا لاَ يَصْرِفُ سَيِّئَهَا إِلاَّ أَنْتَ لَبَّيْكَ وَسَعْدَيْكَ وَالْخَيْرُ كُلُّهُ فِي يَدَيْكَ وَالشَّرُّ لَيْسَ إِلَيْكَ أَنَا بِكَ وَإِلَيْكَ تَبَارَكْتَ وَتَعَالَيْتَ أَسْتَغْفِرُكَ وَأَتُوبُ إِلَيْكَ ‏‏.‏ 

وَإِذَا رَكَعَ قَالَ: 

اللَّهُمَّ لَكَ رَكَعْتُ وَبِكَ آمَنْتُ وَلَكَ أَسْلَمْتُ خَشَعَ لَكَ سَمْعِي وَبَصَرِي وَمُخِّي وَعِظَامِي وَعَصَبِي.‏ 

وَإِذَا رَفَعَ قَالَ: ‏

سَمِعَ اللَّهُ لِمَنْ حَمِدَهُ رَبَّنَا وَلَكَ الْحَمْدُ مِلْءَ السَّمَوَاتِ وَالأَرْضِ وَمِلْءَ مَا بَيْنَهُمَا وَمِلْءَ مَا شِئْتَ مِنْ شَىْءٍ بَعْدُ‏.‏ 

وَإِذَا سَجَدَ قَالَ: ‏

اللَّهُمَّ لَكَ سَجَدْتُ وَبِكَ آمَنْتُ وَلَكَ أَسْلَمْتُ سَجَدَ وَجْهِي لِلَّذِي خَلَقَهُ وَصَوَّرَهُ فَأَحْسَنَ صُورَتَهُ وَشَقَّ سَمْعَهُ وَبَصَرَهُ وَتَبَارَكَ اللَّهُ أَحْسَنُ الْخَالِقِينَ ‏.‏ 

وَإِذَا سَلَّمَ مِنَ الصَّلاَةِ قَالَ ‏

اللَّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِي مَا قَدَّمْتُ وَمَا أَخَّرْتُ وَمَا أَسْرَرْتُ وَمَا أَعْلَنْتُ وَمَا أَسْرَفْتُ وَمَا أَنْتَ أَعْلَمُ بِهِ مِنِّي أَنْتَ الْمُقَدِّمُ وَالْمُؤَخِّرُ لاَ إِلَهَ إِلاَّ أَنْتَ .‏

Book 2 – The  Book of Prayer – Chapter 123: The Chapter About the Duʿah (Supplication) With Which The Prayer Should Be Started  (Arabic version)

باب  123 –  مَا يُسْتَفْتَحُ بِهِ الصَّلاَةُ مِنَ الدُّعَاءِ 123

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Book 2 – The  Book of Prayer – Chapter 272: The Chapter About the Duʿah (Supplication) With Which The Prayer Should Be Started (English Version)

‘Ali b. Ali Talib said:When the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) stood up for prayer, he uttered the takbir (Allah is the Greatest), then said: 

I turn my face to He Who is the Creator of the heavens and the Earth, and I am not of the polytheists. 6:79

Surely my prayer, my sacrifice, my life and my death are (all) for Allah, the Lord of the worlds.  6:162

There is no partner for Him, and by this I have been , and I am from among those who submit (i.e. The Muslims). 6:163

“Oh Allah, You are the King. There is no God but You. You are my Lord and I am Your slave. I have wronged myself, and I acknowledge my sin, so forgive all my sins; there is no one who can forgive sin except for you, and guide me to the best character; there is no one who can guide to the best character except for you; and guide me away from bad character; there is no one who can guide (the soul) away from bad character except for you. 

Here I am at Your service, every good matter is in Your hand, and evil does not come from Your direction. I am Yours, and I turn to You. You are the Blessed and You are the Exalted; I seek forgiveness from You, and turn to You in repentance.” 

When he (ﷺ) bowed, he’d  say: 

“Oh Allah, it is for You that I bowed; I affirm my faith in You and I submit to You, and submit humbly before You my hearing, my eyesight, my marrow, my bone, my sinew”, 

When he (ﷺ) raised his head, he’d  say: 

“Oh Allah, our Lord, to You is due the Praise  which fills the heavens and the Earth, and fills that which exists between them, and fills anything that You desires afterward.”

When he (ﷺ) prostrated himself, he’d  say: 

“Oh Allah, to You I prostrate myself, to You I trust, and to You I submit myself. My face prostrated itself before Him Who created it, fashioned it, and fashioned it in the best shape, and brought forth its hearing and seeing. Blessed is Allah, the best of creators.” 

When he (ﷺ) made the final Salaam at the end of the prayer, he’d say: 

“Forgive me for what I have done earlier and what I did after, both openly and in secret, and (forgive me) for the matters wherein I transgressed the bounds, and those matters You know about more than me. You are the First and the Last. There is no god, but You.”

Published in: Uncategorized on August 2, 2020 at 02:01  Leave a Comment  
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