The Chapter About الصِّيَامِ (Fasting) from the Matn Al Ashmaawiyyah

The Chapter About الصِّيَامِ (Fasting)

وَصَـوْمُ‮ ‬رَمَـضَانَ‮ ‬فَرِيضَةٌ (The fast of Ramaḍaan is an obligatory duty) يَـثْبُتُ‮ ‬بِكَمَالِ‮ ‬شُعْبَانَ‮  ‬ (which is fixed to the completion of the month of Shaʿbaan) أَوْ‮ ‬بِـرُؤُيَـةِ‮ ‬عَـدْلَـيْـنِ‮ ‬لِلْهِلاَلِ (or the sighting of the crescent moon by two reliable witnesses) أَوَ‮ ‬جَـمَاعَةٍ‮ ‬مُسْـتَفِيضَة (or the spread of the news among a large portion of the community) وَكَـذَالِـكَ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬الفِطْرِ (and it is the same as this with the ending the fast). وَيُـبَيِّتُ‮ ‬نِـيَّةَ‮ ‬الصِّيَامَ‮ ‬فِـي‮ ‬أَوَّلِـهِ‮ ‬ (The one who is fasting makes the intention to fast at the beginning of Ramaḍaan), وَلَـيْسَ‮ ‬عَـلَيْهِ (but it is not incumbent upon him) الْـبَيَاتُ‮ ‬فِـي‮ ‬بَـقِيَّتِهِ‮ ‬ (to do so for the rest of Ramaḍaan).

يُـتِمُّ‮  ‬الصِّيَامَ‮ ‬إِلَـى اللَّيْلِ (He should maintain the fast until nightfall), وَمِـنَ‮ ‬السُّنَّة تَعْجِيلُ‮ ‬الْـفِطْرِ (while it is the Sunnah to hurry to break the fast) وَتَـأْخِـيرُ‮ ‬السُّحُورِ (and to delay the Suḥuur).  وَحَيْثُ‮ ‬ثَـبُتَ‮ ‬الشَّهْـرُ‮ ‬قَـبْلَ‮ ‬الْفَجْـر (If the arrival of the month of Ramaḍaan is confirmed before Fajr (dawn), وَجَـبَ‮ ‬الصَّوْمُ (the fasting will become obligatory), وَإِنْ‮ ‬لَـمْ‮ ‬يَـثْبُتُ‮ ‬ (however, if it is not confirmed) إِلاَّ‮ ‬بَـعْدَ‮ ‬الْفَجْـرِ (until after Fajr, وَجَـبَ‮ ‬الإمْـسَاكُ (observing the fast will become [immediately] obligatory)). وَلاَ‮ ‬بُـدَّ  (That undoubtedly) مِـنْ‮ ‬قََـضَاءِ‮ ‬ذَالِـكَ‮ ‬الْـيَوْمِ (it is obligatory to make up that day).

 وَالنِّيَّة (The intention to fast [which has been made]) قَـبْلَ‮ ‬ثُـبُوتِ‮ ‬الشَّهْـرِ‮ ‬(before the arrival of the month of Ramaḍaan has been confirmed) بَـاطِـلَةٌ‮ ‬(is invalid), حَـتَّى لَـوْ‮ ‬نَـوَى (like when the individual who made the intention) قَـبْلَ‮ ‬الرُّؤْيَةِ (before the sighting of the hilaal), ثُـمَّ‮ ‬أَصْـبَحَ (then), وَلَـمْ‮ ‬يَـأْكُـلْ‮ ‬وَلَـمْ‮ ‬يَشْـرَبْ (and he didn’t eat nor drink), ثُـمَّ‮ ‬تَـبَيَّنَ‮ ‬لَـهُ (and then it became clear to him) أَنَّ‮ ‬ذَالِـكَ‮ ‬الْيَوْمَ‮ ‬مِـنْ‮ ‬رَمَـضَانَ (that that day was the first day of Ramaḍaan), لَـمْ‮ ‬يُجْزِهِ‮ ‬(that day is not permitted to him [as one of his fasting days of Ramaḍaan]). وَيُـمْسِكُ‮ ‬عَـنِ‮ ‬الأَكْـلِ‮ ‬وَالشُّرْبِ‮ ‬فِـهِ (however, he must  continue to abstain from eating and drinking in it), لِـحُـرْمَـةِ‮ ‬الشَّهْـرِ (because of the sacredness of the month), وَيَـقْضِيهِ (and he must make it up [the day’s fast as well.]).

وَلاَيُـصَامُ (There should be no fasting) يَـوْمُ‮ ‬الشَّكِّ (on the Day of Doubt),  لِيُحْتَاطَ‮ ‬بِهِ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬رَمَضَانَ (in order to make sure it is not the first day of Ramaḍaan). وَيَـجُوزُ‮ ‬صِـيَامُـهُُ‮ ‬لِـلتَّطَوُّعِ‮ ‬وَالنَّذْرِ‮ ‬ (Performing voluntary fast and the fast that one has pledge to do is allowed), إِذَا صَـادَفَ (if it coincides with [the Day of Doubt]). وَيسْـتَحَبُّ‮ ‬الإمْسَاكُ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬أَوَّلِهِ (It is recommended however, to refrain from eating at the beginning of the day [the Day of Doubt]), لِــيَتَحَقَّقَ‮ ‬النَّاسُ‮ ‬الرُّأْيَةَ  (in order to allow the people to confirm the sighting [of the crescent moon of Ramaḍaan]). وَإِنَ‮ ‬ارْتَـفَعَ‮ ‬النَّهَـرُ (If the day passes) وَلمْ‮ ‬تظْهَـرْ‮ ‬رُؤْيَـةٌ‮ ‬ (and a sighting is not clear), أَفْـطَرُ‮ ‬النَّاسُ‮ ‬(the people must eat).

وَلاَ‮ ‬يُـفْطِرُ‮ ‬مَـنْ‮ ‬ذَرَعَـهُ‮ ‬قَـيْءٌ (The person who vomits does not break his fast), إِلاَّ‮ ‬أَنْ‮ ‬يُـعَالِـجَ‮ ‬خُـرُوجَـهُ‮ ‬ (unless he caused himself to regurgitate). فَعَلَيْهِ‮ ‬الْقَضَاءُ  (In that case, he must make up the fasting day). وَلاَ‮ ‬يُـفْطِرُ‮ ‬مَـنِ‮ ‬احْـتَلَمَ (The one who emits seminal fluid while dreaming doesn’t break his  fast) وَلاَ‮ ‬مَنِ‮ ‬احْتَجَمَ (nor does the one who is cupping break his fast), وَتُـكْرَهُ‮ ‬الْـحِجَامَـةُ‮ ‬لِلْمَرِيضِ‮ ‬خِـيفَة التَّغْرِيرِ (but cupping is disliked for a sick person who fears exhaustion / feeling faint).

وَمِـنْ‮ ‬شُـرُوطِ‮ ‬صِـحَّةِ‮ ‬الصَّوْمِ (Among the conditions of a sound fast is) النِّيَّةُ‮ ‬السَّابِـقَةُ‮ ‬لِـلْفَجِـرِ (the intention to fast which is made before dawn), سوَاءُ‮ ‬كَـانَ‮ ‬فَـرْضًـا (whether the fast is an obligatory) أَوْ‮ ‬نَـفْلاً (or a non-obligatory one which is being performed for additional reward from Allah). وَالنِّيَّةُ‮ ‬الْـوَاحِـدَة كَـافِـيَةٌ (One statement of intention is sufficient for [the entire] fasting period]). يَـجب تَـتَابُـعْهُ (The fast must be done immediately after the statement), كَـصِيَامِ‮ ‬رَمَـضَانَ (like the fast of Ramaḍaan), وَصِـيَامِ‮ ‬كَـفَّارَةِ‮ ‬الظِّهَارَةِ‮ ‬ (the fast of reparation for ḍhihārah) وَالْـقَتْلِ (killing someone by mistake), وَالنَّذْرِ‮ ‬الَّذِي‮ ‬أَوْجَـبَهُ‮ ‬الْـمُكَلَّفُ (and the vow that al-mukallaf who swears an oath which he  makes binding) عَـلَى نَـفْسِهِ (upon himself).  فَـأَمَّا الصِِّـيَامُ‮ ‬الـمَسْـرُودُِ (as for the [voluntary] fast that is done for a consecutive number of days),‮  ‬وَالْـيَوْمُ‮ ‬الْـمُعَيِّنُ (the [fast done on a] fixed  day), لاَ‮ ‬بُـدَّ‮ ‬مِنَ‮ ‬التبْيِيتِ‮ ‬فِِـيهِ‮ ‬كُلَّ‮ ‬اللَّيْلَةٍ (undoubtedly, the niyyah is made for it nightly / every night.)

وَمِـنْ‮ ‬شُـرُوطِ‮ ‬صِـحَّةِ‮ ‬الصَّوْمِ (Among the conditions of a sound fast is) النَّقَاءُ‮ ‬مِـنْ‮ ‬دَمُ‮ ‬الْـحَيْضِ‮ ‬وَالنِّفاسِ (purity from the  blood of menstruation and the blood after childbirth). فَـإنَ‮ ‬انْـقَطَعَ‮ ‬دَمُ‮ ‬الْـحَيْضِ‮ ‬وَالنِّفاسِ (If the  blood of menstruation and the blood after childbirth stops flowing)‮ ‬قَـبْلَ‮ ‬الْفَجْـرِ (before dawn), وَلَـوْ‮ ‬بِلَحْـظَةِ (at that moment), وَجَـبَ‮ ‬عَـلَيْهَا صَـومُ‮ ‬ذَالكَ‮ ‬الْيَوْمِ (the fast of that day becomes incumbent upon the woman),وَلَـوْ‮ ‬لَـمْ‮ ‬تَغْتَسِـل (even if she did not bath) إلاَّ‮ ‬بَـعَدَ‮ ‬الْفَجْـرِ (until after fajr). وَتُــعَادُ‮ ‬النِّيَّةُ (The intention [to fast] should be repeated)  إِذَا انْـقَطَعَ‮ ‬التَّتَابِـعُ‮ ‬بِـ‮ ‬(when the following comes to an end): الْـمَرضِ‮ ‬وَالْـحَيْضِ‮ ‬وَالنَّفَاسِ‮ ‬وَشِـبْهِ‮ ‬ذَالِـكَ (sickness, menstruation, and parturition, and what is similar to these).

وَمِـنْ‮ ‬شُـرُوطِ‮ ‬صِـحَّةِ‮ ‬الصَّوْمِ (The other conditions of a sound fast that are): والْـعَقْلُ (full intellectual consciousness). فَـمَنْ‮ ‬لاَ‮ ‬عَـقْلَ‮ ‬لَـهُ (As for those who doe not have full intellectual consciousness), كَـالْـمَجْنُونِ (like the insane person) وَالْـمُغْمَى عَـلَيْهِ (and the person who is unconscious), لاَيَـصِحُّ‮ ‬مِِـنْهُ‮ ‬الصَّوْمُ‮ ‬فِـي‮ ‬تِـلْكَ‮ ‬الْـحَالَـةِ (fasting is not sound for them in that condition), وَيَـجِبُ‮ ‬عَـلَى الْـمَجْنُونِ‮ ‬إِذَا عَـادَ‮ ‬إِلَـيهِ‮ ‬عَـقْلُهُ‮ ‬ (It is requisite, for the insane person who regains his full intellectual consciousness) وَلَـوْ‮ ‬بَـعْدَ‮ ‬سَـنِيينَ‮ ‬كَـثِيرَةٍ (even if it is after a many of years) أَنْ‮ ‬يَـقْضِي‮ ‬ (to complete) مَـا فَـاتَـهُ‮ ‬مِنَ‮ ‬الصَّوْمِ (the fasting that he didn’t do) فِي‮ ‬حَالِ‮ ‬جُنُونِهِ (while he was in his state of insanity), وَمِـثْلُهُ‮ ‬الْـمُغٌمَى عَلَيْهِ (and it is the same for the unconscious person) إذَا أَفَاقَ (when he regains his consciousness).

وَمِـنْ‮ ‬شُـرُوطِ‮ ‬صِـحَّةِ‮ ‬الصَّوْمِ (The other conditions of a sound fast that are): تَـرْكُ‮ ‬الْـجِـمَاعِ‮ ‬ (to refrain from sexual intercourse), وَالأَكْـلِ‮ ‬(eating) وَالشَّرْبِ (and drinking). فَـمَنْ‮ ‬فَـعَلَ (The one who does) فِـي‮ ‬النَّهَارِ‮ ‬رَمَـضَانَ‮ ‬شَـيْئًا مِـنْ‮ ‬ذَالِـكَ (any of these things during the day during Ramaḍaan) مُتَعَمَّدًا (intentionally), مِـنْ‮ ‬غَـيْرِ‮ ‬تَـأْوِيلٍ‮ ‬قَرِيبٍ (and it is not from his own understanding (interpretation) وَلاَ جَهْـلٍ (nor out of ignorance), فَـعَلَيْهِ‮ ‬الْـقضَاءُ‮ ‬ (then he must make up the fast day) وَالْـكَفَّارَةُ (and do reparation for it). الْـكَفَّارَةُ‮ ‬فِـي‮ ‬ذَالِـكَ‮ ‬كُـلِّهِ (The reparation required for each of these cases) إِطْـعَامُ‮ ‬سِـتِّيـنَ‮ ‬مِـسْكِيـنًا‮ ‬ (is the feeding of sixty destitute people) مُـدًّا لِـكُلِّ‮ ‬مِـسْكِيـنٍ‮ ‬(with one mudd for each destitute person) بِـمُدِّ‮ ‬النَّبِيِّ (using the mudd of the Prophet), صَـلَّى اللَّهف عَـلَيْهِ‮ ‬وَ‮ ‬سلَّمَ‮ ‬(may Allah bless him and grant him peace). وَهُـوَ‮ ‬أَفْـضَلُ (It is what is most preferred). وَلَـهُ‮ ‬أَنْ‮ ‬يُـكَفَّرَ (The person who must do reparations can also do it) بِـعِتْقِ‮ ‬رُقْـبَةٍ‮ ‬مُـؤْمِـنَةٍ (by freeing a believing slave) أَوْ‮ ‬بِـصِيَامِ‮ ‬شَـعرَيْـنِ‮ ‬مُـتَتَابِـعَيْـنِ (or by fasting two consecutive months).

مَـا وَصَـلَ‮ ‬مِـنْ‮ ‬غَـيْرِ‮ ‬الْـفَمِ‮ ‬إِلَى الْـحَلْقِ (As for what arrives in the throat through a place other the mouth), مِـنْ‮ ‬أُذُنٍ (like the ear) أَوْ‮ ‬أَنْـفٍ (or the nose) أَوْ‮ ‬نَـحْوَ‮ ‬ذَالِـكَ (or what is similar), وَلَـوْ‮ ‬كَـانَ‮ ‬بَـخُورًا (even if it is incense), فَـعَلَيْهِ‮ ‬الْـقَضَاءُ (the person fasting only has to make up the fast). وَمِـثْلُهُ‮ ‬الْـبَلْغَمُ‮ ‬ (It is the same with regards to phlegm) الْـمُمْكِنُ‮ ‬طَـرْحُـهُ (which he can spit out), وَالْـغَالِـبُ (and what went down the throat beyond control)  مِـنَ‮ ‬الْــمَـضْمَضَةِ (from rinsing the mouth with water), وَالسِّواكِ (and the siwaak), وَكُـلُّ‮ ‬مَـا وَصَـلَ‮ ‬إِلَى الْـمَعِدَة‮ ‬ (everything that goes into the stomach), وَلَـوْ‮ ‬بِـالْـحُقْنَةِ‮ ‬الْـمَائِـعَةِ (even if by colonic iirigation), وَكَـذَا مَـنْ‮ ‬أَكَـلَ‮ ‬ (and similarly, the one who ate) بَـعَدَ‮ ‬شَـكِّهِ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬الْفَجْرِ (after having doubted that the dawn had come in), لَـيْسَ‮ ‬عَـلَيّهِ‮ ‬فِـي‮ ‬جَـمِيعِ‮ ‬ذَالك (he is not required to do anything in regards to any of these previously mentioned things)‮ ‬إِلاَّ‮ ‬الْـقَضَاءُ (except the making up the fast day).  وَلاَ‮ ‬يَـلْزَمُـهُ‮ ‬الْـقَضَاءُ (He is not required to complete the fast however), فِـي‮ ‬غَـالِـبٍ‮ ‬مِـنْ‮ ‬ذُبَـابٍ‮ ‬(if he is overcome by flies {enter his throat]),‮ ‬أَوْ‮ ‬غُـبَارِ‮ ‬طَـرِيقٍ (dust of the road), أَوْ‮ ‬دَقِيقٍ (flour), أَوْ‮ ‬كَيْلِ‮ ‬جِبْسٍ (or plaster) لِصَانِعِهِ (used by his workman), وَلاَ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬حُقْنَةٍ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬إِحْلِيلٍ (or an injection of a lawful substance into the penis), وَلاَ‮ ‬فِي‮ ‬دُهْنِ‮ ‬جَـائِفةٍ (nor putting any substance in the stomach).

وَيَجُوزُ‮ ‬لِـلصِّيَامِ  is lawful in regards to the fast):1. السِّواكُ‮ ‬([the use of] Siwaak) فِـي‮ ‬جَمِيعِ‮ ‬النَّهَارِ (the entire day) 2. وَالْــمَـضْمَضَةُ (as well as rinsing the mouth with water) لِـلْعَطْشِ‮ ‬(because of thirst) 3. وَالإصْـبَاحُ‮ ‬بِـالْـجَنَابَـة (major impurity if it occurs). 4. وَالْـحَامِلَةُ‮ ‬ (If the pregnant woman) إِذَا خَـافَـتْ‮ ‬عَـلَى مَـا‮  ‬فِي‮ ‬بَـطَنِهَا‮ ‬(fears for what is in her stomach), أَفْطَرَتْ (she should break her fast). وَلَـمْ‮ ‬تُـطْعِمْ (and she does not have to feed anyone because if breaking her fast), وَقَـدْ‮ ‬قِـيلَ (It has also been said), تُـطْعِمُ (that she should feed people), وَالْـمُرْضِـعُ (and the nursing mother), إِذَا خَـافَـتْ‮ ‬عَـلَى وَلِـدِهَا (if she fears for her child), وَلَمْ‮ ‬تَـجِدْ‮ ‬مَـنْ‮ ‬تَسْـتَأْجِـرُهُ‮ ‬لَـهُ‮ ‬ (and she can’t hire a wet nurse for him) أَوْ‮ ‬يَـقْبَلُة (or the child doesn’t accept [being breast fed]) غَـيْرَهَـا (by anyone other than her), أَفْـطَرَتْ‮ ‬وَأَطْـعَمَتْ (she should break her fast and she must feed people). وَكَـذَالِـكَ‮ ‬الشَّيْخُ‮ ‬الْهَرِمُ (It is the same with the elderly person), يُـطْعِمُ‮ ‬إِذَا أَفْـطَرَ (it is recommended that he feed people, if he breaks his fast). وَمِـثْلُهُ‮ ‬مَـنْ‮ ‬فَـرَّطَ‮ ‬فِـي‮ ‬قَضَاءِ‮ ‬رَمَـضَانَ (and similar is someone who fails to make up missed days) حَـتَّى دَخَـلَ‮ ‬عَـلَيْهِ‮ ‬رَمَـضَانَ‮ ‬آخَرُ (until another Ramaḍaan comes). وَالإطْـعَامُ‮ ‬فِـي‮ ‬هَـاـذَا كُلِّهِ (The feeding in all of these cases) مُـدٌّ (is a mudd) عَـنْ‮ ‬كُـلِّ‮ ‬يَـوْمٍ‮ ‬يَـقْضِيهِ (each day that has to be completed).

وَيَستَحَبُّ‮ ‬لِـلصَّائِـمِ (It is highly recommended for the one fasting) كَـفُّ‮ ‬لِـسَانِـهِ (to guard his tongue), وَتُـعْجِيلُ‮ ‬قَـضَاءِ (to quickly complete), مَـا فِي‮ ‬ذِمَّتِهِ‮ ‬مِـنَ‮ ‬الصَّوْمِ (what he owes from the fast), and وَتَتَابُعُهُ (to do what’s owed in the correct order).

وَيَستَحَبُّ‮ ‬صَـوْمُ‮ ‬يَوْمِ‮ ‬عَرَفَةَ (Fasting is highly recommended on the Day of ʿArafat)لِـغَيْرِ‮ ‬الْـحَاجِّ (for those who are not performing the Ḥajj), وَعَـاشُـورَاءَ (alsoʿĀshūrā’), وَصَوْمُ‮ ‬عَشَـرِ‮ ‬ذِي‮ ‬الْـحِجَّةِ (the Fast of the 10 days of Dhū-l-Ḥijr), والْـمُحَـرَّمِ (al-Muḥarram), وَرَجَـبٍ (Rajab), وَشَـعْبَانَ (and Shaʿbān),  وَثَـلاَثَـةِ‮ ‬أَيَّامٍ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬كُـلِّ‮ ‬شَهْرٍ‮ ‬(and three (3) days every month).

وَكَـرِهَ‮ ‬مَـالِـكَ‮ ‬‮ ‬(Mālik disapproved) أَنْ‮ ‬تَـكُونَ‮ ‬الْـبِيضَ‮ ‬لِـفِرَارِهِ (them [the fasting days] to be the “Bright  Days” )‮ ‬لِـفِرَارِهِ‮ ‬مِـنَ‮ ‬التَّحْـدِيدِ (in order for them [these fasting days] avoid the limiting of them).

وَكَـذَا كَـرِهَ‮ ‬صِـيَامَ‮ ‬سِـتَّةِ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬شَـوَالِ (Similarly, he disliked fasting the 6 days of Shawaal) مُـحَافَـةَ‮ ‬أَنْ‮ ‬يُحلْحِقَهَا الْـجَاهِـلُ‮ ‬بِـرَمَـضَانَ (fearing that the ignorant person would join them with Ramaḍān).

وَيَـكْرَهُ‮ ‬ذَوْقُ‮ ‬الْـمِلِحِ‮ ‬لِلصَّائِمِ (Tasting salt is disliked for the person whose fasting). إِنْ‮ ‬فَعَلَ‮ ‬ذَالك (If he does that) وَمَـجَّهُ (and spits it out), وَلَمْ‮ ‬يَـصًلْ‮ ‬إِلَى حَـلْقِهِ‮ ‬مًـنْهُ‮ ‬شَـيْءٌ (and none of it goes down his throat), فَلاَ‮ ‬شَىْءَ‮ ‬عَلَيْهِ (he is not required to do anything).

وَمُـقدِّمَـاتُ‮ ‬الْـجِـمَاعَـةِ‮ ‬مَـكرُوهَـةٌ (Sexual foreplay is disliked) لِلصَّائِمِ (for the person who is fasting), كَـالْـقُبْلَةِ (for example: kissing), وَالْـجَسَّةِ (touching), ‮ ‬النَّظَرِ‮ ‬مُسْـتَدَامِ (continuous gazing [with lust]), وَالْـمُلاَعَـبَةِ (and playing around) إنْ‮ ‬عُلِمًتِ‮  ‬السّلْاَمَةُ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬ذَالك (when it is know how to prevent it), ‮ ‬إلاَّ‮ ‬حُـرِمَ‮ ‬عَـلَيْهِ‮ ‬ذَالك‮ ‬(unless the foreplay is unlawful for him), وَلَـكِنَّهُ‮ ‬إِنْ‮ ‬إِمْـذَى (but if he emits prostatic fluid) مِـنْ ذَالك (as result of it), فَـعَلَيْهِ‮ ‬الْـقَضاءُ‮ ‬فَـقَطْ (he only has to make up that fast day),   وَإنْ‮ ‬إِمْـنَى (but if he emits sperm), فَـعَلَيْهِ‮ ‬الْـقَضاءُ (then he must make up the fast day) وَالْكَفَّارَةُ (and do reparations as well).

قِيَامُ‮ ‬وَمَضانَ (Standing during Ramadān) مُسْـتَحَابٌ (is highly recommended). قَالَ‮ ‬رَسُولُ‮ ‬اللهِ (The Messenger of Allah صَـلَّي‮ ‬اللهُ‮ ‬عَـلَيْهِ‮ ‬وَسَـلَّمَ said), مَـنْ‮ ‬قَـامَ‮ ‬رَمَـضَانَ‮ ‬ (“Whoever stands in Ramaḍān) إِمَانًا (with belief) وَإِحْـتِسَابًا (with anticipation of his reward from Allah) غُفِرَ‮ ‬لَهُ‮ ‬مَا تَقَدَّمَ‮ ‬مِنْ‮ ‬ذَنْـبهِ (will have his prior sins forgiven).” ويَسْـتََبُّ‮ ‬الاَنْـفِرادُ‮ ‬بِهِ (It is recommended do it alone [at home]), إِنْ‮ ‬لَـمْ‮ ‬تُـعَطَّلْ  (if does not lead to the masjids being empty). وَاللهُ‮ ‬أَعْـلَمُ (Allah is the best Knower).

From the History of the Mālikīs – 2 How the Mālikī School of Law Spread

From the History of the Mālikīs 

2 How the Mālikī School of Law Spread

Part One: The Initial Spread of the Mālikī Jurisprudence 

As we previously said, Imam Mālik was in Madinah. The significance of Madinah is that it is the city in which the Diin was first established, and Imam Mālik never left the city. He received his knowledge by direct transmission from hundreds of scholars, who themselves had received an unbroken and direct line of transmission from the Prophet صلّى الله عليه وسلّم‮.‬. In addition, the people of Madinah practiced the ʿamal, which was a prophetic behavior that was part of their the normal daily life.

As a result, Imam Mālik recognized that what was normal daily life in Madinah was also the most correct way of life for the entire Ummah. He therefore placed upon himself the duty of recording and codifying this Madani way life, so that it would be a model for the entire Ummah.

To Imam Malik, the ʿamal ahlu-l-Madinah was an accurate representation of what had been passed down from the Sunnah of the Prophet صلّى الله عليه وسلّم; passed down from father to son by way of the first three outstanding generations whom the Prophet صلّى الله عليه وسلّم held in high esteem. As Rabīʿah said  “A thousand from a thousand”, that is to say, thousands of great-grandfathers passed the ʿamal to  thousands of sons, who in turned passed it on to a thousand of grandsons, up until the time of Imam Mālik.

In Madinah, during the time of the Imam Mālik, a man could be called upon to report about or demonstrate behavior that had come directly to them from the time when The Prophet صلّى الله عليه وسلّم and the first three generations were alive in the city. This was the main thing that attracted so many of Imam Mālik’s student to come and study with him. It was Imam Mālik’s proximity to the source of the Sunnah that these students found most attractive.

No other city had such proximity to the Sunnah. After all, wasn’t Madinah the city to which The Prophet صلّى الله عليه وسلّم emigrated and established the Sunnah? Wasn’t it where he returned to live out the rest of his life after the conquest of Mecca and in turn was also buried there? No other city in the Ummah had such proximity to the legacy of the Prophet Muhammad صلّى الله عليه وسلّم as did Madinah al Munawwarah.

The students of Imam Mālik came from Egypt, North Africa, Spain, and Iraq.  Because of the the high regard throughout the Ummah for Imam Mālik’s scholarship, he drew  large numbers of students from these places, who in turn became highly respected scholars in those regions from which they came.

Imam Mālik’s book al Muwaṭṭa became a standard read, and as a result, it was widely circulated throughout the Ummah. His students, many of whom who became “little Mālik’s” were prolific writers. They also produced many volumes about Mālikī law. The most famous among these texts of law was the Mudawwanah of ʿAbdus Salaam at-Tanūkhī, more famously known as Ṣahnūn. He was the student of the student of Imam Mālik, Ibn al Qāṣim.

Among the more famous students who sat under the direct tutelage of Imam Mālik, and who aided in the broad spread of Mālikī jurisprudence was the Egyptians: ʿAbdullah ibn Wahb and ʿAbdur Rahmān ibn al-Qāṣim al-ʿUtqī, the Tunisians: Al Bahlul ibn Rashīd, ʿAbdullah Ibn Farrukh, Asad Ibn Al Furat who wrote the first Mudawwanah, and the Andulusian: Yaḥyā ibn Yaḥyā al Layth. These were the scholar’s who themselves produced scholars that spread the Mālikī school far and wide.

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