AlMaliki22’s Channel: Course: Matn Al Ashmaawiyyah Taught in English by Ustadh Abdush Shakur Brooks


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AlMaliki22’s Channel

Published in: Uncategorized on March 25, 2012 at 16:33  Leave a Comment  
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From the History of the Mālikīs – 2 How the Mālikī School of Law Spread

From the History of the Mālikīs 

2 How the Mālikī School of Law Spread

Part One: The Initial Spread of the Mālikī Jurisprudence 

As we previously said, Imam Mālik was in Madinah. The significance of Madinah is that it is the city in which the Diin was first established, and Imam Mālik never left the city. He received his knowledge by direct transmission from hundreds of scholars, who themselves had received an unbroken and direct line of transmission from the Prophet صلّى الله عليه وسلّم‮.‬. In addition, the people of Madinah practiced the ʿamal, which was a prophetic behavior that was part of their the normal daily life.

As a result, Imam Mālik recognized that what was normal daily life in Madinah was also the most correct way of life for the entire Ummah. He therefore placed upon himself the duty of recording and codifying this Madani way life, so that it would be a model for the entire Ummah.

To Imam Malik, the ʿamal ahlu-l-Madinah was an accurate representation of what had been passed down from the Sunnah of the Prophet صلّى الله عليه وسلّم; passed down from father to son by way of the first three outstanding generations whom the Prophet صلّى الله عليه وسلّم held in high esteem. As Rabīʿah said  “A thousand from a thousand”, that is to say, thousands of great-grandfathers passed the ʿamal to  thousands of sons, who in turned passed it on to a thousand of grandsons, up until the time of Imam Mālik.

In Madinah, during the time of the Imam Mālik, a man could be called upon to report about or demonstrate behavior that had come directly to them from the time when The Prophet صلّى الله عليه وسلّم and the first three generations were alive in the city. This was the main thing that attracted so many of Imam Mālik’s student to come and study with him. It was Imam Mālik’s proximity to the source of the Sunnah that these students found most attractive.

No other city had such proximity to the Sunnah. After all, wasn’t Madinah the city to which The Prophet صلّى الله عليه وسلّم emigrated and established the Sunnah? Wasn’t it where he returned to live out the rest of his life after the conquest of Mecca and in turn was also buried there? No other city in the Ummah had such proximity to the legacy of the Prophet Muhammad صلّى الله عليه وسلّم as did Madinah al Munawwarah.

The students of Imam Mālik came from Egypt, North Africa, Spain, and Iraq.  Because of the the high regard throughout the Ummah for Imam Mālik’s scholarship, he drew  large numbers of students from these places, who in turn became highly respected scholars in those regions from which they came.

Imam Mālik’s book al Muwaṭṭa became a standard read, and as a result, it was widely circulated throughout the Ummah. His students, many of whom who became “little Mālik’s” were prolific writers. They also produced many volumes about Mālikī law. The most famous among these texts of law was the Mudawwanah of ʿAbdus Salaam at-Tanūkhī, more famously known as Ṣahnūn. He was the student of the student of Imam Mālik, Ibn al Qāṣim.

Among the more famous students who sat under the direct tutelage of Imam Mālik, and who aided in the broad spread of Mālikī jurisprudence was the Egyptians: ʿAbdullah ibn Wahb and ʿAbdur Rahmān ibn al-Qāṣim al-ʿUtqī, the Tunisians: Al Bahlul ibn Rashīd, ʿAbdullah Ibn Farrukh, Asad Ibn Al Furat who wrote the first Mudawwanah, and the Andulusian: Yaḥyā ibn Yaḥyā al Layth. These were the scholar’s who themselves produced scholars that spread the Mālikī school far and wide.

How to Perform Wuduu’ for Prayer: A Step by Step Chart for Children and New Muslims

How to Perform Wuduu’ for Prayer: A Step by Step Chart for Children and New Muslims

Keep clicking on the picture in order to enlarge the view:

After you clean your body and your clothes, you should prepare to perform wudū’ by filling a water container (i.e. small bucket or kettle) with clean water that is suitable for performing wudū’, then assume a sitting position, placing the water container in front of you and slightly to the right; then make your intention to perform wudu’, and thereafter say: Bis-mil-laah. Then perform the following sequential acts of wudu’:

1.  Wash your hands up to the wrist three times, then

2. rinse your mouth with water swishing the water in mouth and spitting it out three times, then

3. wash the inside of the noses by inhaling water and then exhaling it three times, then

4. wash the entire face three times, then

5. wash your right hands up to the elbow three times while combing through the fingers of the right hand with the fingers of the left hand, then

6. wash your left hand up to the elbow three times while combing through the fingers of the left hand with the fingers of the right hand , then

7. wipe over the head with wet hands from the front of the head to the nape of the neck and back to the front once (wet the hands for this wiping by putting water on them from the water container and then shaking off any excess water), then

8. wipe the inside of the ears along their folds and creases with wet index fingers and then wipe the outside of the ears with wet thumbs, starting from the bottom of the ears moving towards and ending at the top (wet the fingers for this wiping by putting water on them from the water container and then shaking off any excess water), then

9. wash the right foot to the ankle three times while combing through the toes of the right foot using the fingers of the hand, then

10.  wash the left foot to the ankle while combing through the toes of the left foot using the fingers of the hand  three times,l

Upon completion of wudu’ you should say: Ash-hadu an laa ilaaha illal laahu waḥ-dahu laa shariika lahu wa ash-hadu anna Muḥammadan ʿabduhu wa rasuuluhu. Allahumaj alnii minat-tawaabiina Allahumaj alnii minal muta-ṭah-hi-riina.

Translation:

I bear witness that there is no god but Allah Who is Alone without any partner for Him, and I bear witness that Muhammad is His slave and messenger. Oh Allah! place me among those who repent and place me among those who purify themselves.

AlMaliki22’s Channel – YouTube

AlMaliki22’s Channel – YouTube.

التَّيَمُّمُ at-Tayammum (Dry ablution) from Matn al ʿIzziyyah

التَّيَمُّمُ at-Tayammum (Dry ablution) from Matn al ʿIzziyyah

التَّيَمُّمُ (Dry ablution) طَهَارَةٌ تُرابِيَّةٌ (is purification with earth). تَشْتَمِلُ عَلَى (It consists of)  مَسْحِ الْـوَجْهِ (wiping the face) وَالْـيَدَيْنِ (and the hands). وَسَـبَبُهُ (The reason for this),  فَقَدُ الْـمَاءِ حَـقِيقَةَ (is the failure to actually find water)  أَوْ مَـا هُـوَ فِـي حُـكْمِهِ (or the water has a ruling in regards to its use), مِثْلُ أَنْ يَكُونَ  مَعَهُ مِنَ الْـمَاءِ مَا لاَ يَكْفِيهِ (for example: the water isn’t enough) أَوْ مَاءٌ يُخَافُ بِـاسْـتِعْمَالِـهِ فَـوَاتَ نَـفْسِهِ (or it’s water, about which there is feared that its usability has passed),أَوْ  فَـوَاتَ مَـنْفَعَتٍ (or its usefulness has passed), أَوْ زِيَـادَةَ مَـرْضٍ (or it may increase an illness),  أَوْ تَأَخُّرَ بُرْءٍ (or delay recovery) أَوْ حَـدُوث مَـرضٍ (or can cause of illness).

يُـبَاحُ التَيَمُّمُ (Dry ablution is recommended)  مِـنَ الْـحَـدَثِ الأَصْـغَرِ وَلأَكْـبَرِ (for both small and large impurity) إِذَا وُجِدَ سَـبَبَهُ (when the reason for performing it is)  لِـلْمَرِيضِ (that the worshipper is  sick) وَالْـمُسَافِرِ (or he is traveling).  لِـكُلِّ صَـلاَةٍ  ([it can be performed] for every prayer).  وَلِـلصَّحيحِ الْـحَاضِـرِ ([It is also recommended] for the healthy person who is not traveling)  لِـصَلاَةِ الْـجَنَازَةِ ([who is] attending the funeral prayer),  إِذَا تَـعَيْـنَتْ (if it is incumbent upon him). وَلِـفَرْضِ (Iit is recommended] for obligatory prayers)  غََـيْرِ الْـجُـمُعَةِ (other than Jumuʿah prayer), بِشَـرْطِ (on the condition) أَنْ يَخْشَـى (that it is feared) فَـوَاتِ الْوَقتِ (that the time will pass) بِاسْتِعْمَالِ الْـمَاءِ (before water can be used). وَلاَيُعِيدُ (These prayers are not redone).  بِـخِلاَفَةِ الْـجَنَازَةِ (The exception, [where in tayammum may not be performed] is the funeral prayer)   إِذَا لَـمْ تَـتَعَيَّنْ (if it is not incumbent upon the person)  وَ فَـرْضِ الْـجُـمُعَةِ (and the obligatory Friday prayer)  وَلَـوْ خَشِـيَ فَـوَاتَـهُ (even if he fears the time for it will pass), وَسَـائِـرِ النَّوَافِـلِ (and the rest of supererogatory prayers)  سُـنَنِهَا (including those that are sunnah) وَمُسْـتَحَبَّاتِـهَا (and the ones that are meritorious).

وَيىَبْطَلُ التَّيَمَّمُ (Dry ablution becomes nullified)  بِـمَا يَبْطُلُ بِهِ الْوُضُوءُ (by the same things that nullify wuduu’),  وَبِـوُجُـودِ الْـمَاءِ (as well as the discovery of water)  قَـبْلَ الصَّلاَةِ (before the prayer), إِلاَّ أَنْ يَخْشَى فَوَاتِ الْوَقْتِ (unless the worshipper fears the time will pass) بِاسْتِعْمَالِهِ (by waiting to use water).

وإِذَا رَأَى الْـمَاءَ (If he sees water) وَهُوَ فِي الصَّلاَةِ (while he is praying), لَمْ تَبطُلْ صَلاَتِهِ (his prayer does not become nullified).

وَيَـتَيَمَّمُ بِـالصَّعِيدِ الطَّيِّبِ (The worshipper should perform dry ablution with pure earth). وَهُـوَ التَّرَابُ (It could be soil), وَالْـحَجَرُُ (stone) وَالرَّمْلُ (or sand)  وَجَمِيع أجْـزَاءِ الأَرْضِ (and all types of  natural earthly material)  مَــا دَامَـتْ عَـلَى هَـيْئَتَهَا لَمْ تُـغَيِّرْهَـا (as long as its condition has not been changed) صَـنْعَةُ آدَمِـيٍّ (by human fabrication) بِـطَبْخٍ (through [the process of] baking) وَنَـحْوِهِ (and what is similar). وَالتَّرَابُ أَفْضَلُ مِنْ غَيْرِهِ (Soil is better than the other things mentioned).

وَلاَيَتَيَمَّمُ (A worshipper should not perform dry ablution) عَلَى شَيْءٍ  نَـفِيسٍ (on precious things)  كَالْـذَهْـبِ وَالْـفِضَّةِ (like gold or silver) وَلاَ عَـلَى لِـبْدٍ  (nor on wool)  وَلاَ عَـلَى بِسَاطٍ (or carpets) وَلاَحَـصِيرٍ (or on mats) وَإِنْ كَـانَ فِـيهَا غُـبَارٌ (even if dust is on them).

وَيَـجُوزُ لِـلْمَرِيضِ (It is permissible for the sick person) إِذَا لَمْ نَـجِدْ (who can’t find) مَنْ يُنَاوِلُهُ تُرَابًا (someone to bring him earth) أَنْ يَـتَيَمَّمَ (to perform dry ablution) بِـالْـجِـدَارِ (on a wall)  الْـمَبْنِيِّ بِـطُوبِ النِّيءِ (which has been constructed from unbaked brick) أَوْ بِـالْـحِجَارَةِ (or stone) إِذَا كَانَتْ غَـيْرَ مَسْـتُورَةٍ (if it is not covered)  بِالْـجِيرِ (lime).

وَمَـنْ تَـيَمَّمَ (Whoever performs dry ablution)  عَـلى مَـوْضِـعِ نَـجَسٍ (on an unclean place) وَلَـمْ يَـعْلَمْ بِـنَجَاسَـتِهِ (while not knowing about its uncleanliness), أَعَادَ فِـي الْـوَقْـتِ (should repeat the [dry ablution] within the designated time [for the prayer]).

وَلاَ يُكْرَهُ التَّيَمَّمُ (Dry ablution is not disliked)  بِتُرَابٍ تُيُمَّمَ بِهِ (with earth that has been used to perform dry ablution) مَرَّةً أُخْرَى (more than once).

وَلاَ يَصِحُّ التَّيَمَّمُ (It is not sound to perform dry ablution) قَبْلَ دَخُولِ الْوَقْتِ  (before the time [of the specific prayer] comes in).

وَصِفَتُهُ (The characteristics of dry ablution are):  أَنْ يَنْوِيَ اسْتِبَاحَةَ الصَّلاَةِ (to intend to make the performance of prayer permissible)   وَيَـنْوِيَ مِـنَ الْـحَـدَثِ الأَكْـبَرِ (and to intend [to make prayer permissible] under the condition of major impurity),  إِنْ كَـانَ مُحْدِثًا حَدَثًا  أَكْبَرَ (when the impurity is major). ثُـمَّ يَـقُولُ (Then the worshipper says:) بِـسْمِ اللَّهِ (In the Name of Allah) وَيَسْـتَعْمِلُ الصَّعِيدَ (using pure earth).  يَـضْرِبُ عَـلَيهَا (He pats on it) بِـيَدَيْـهِ جَـمِيعًا (with both hands) ضَرْبَةً وَاحِدَةً (with one patting).  وإِنْ تَـعَلَّقَ بِـهِمَا شَـيْءٌ (If anything sticks to them [the hands]) (he should dust them)  نَـفْضًا خَـفِيفًا ( lightly),  وَيَـمْسَحُ بِـهَا وَجْـهَهُ (Then he wipes his face) ولِـحيَتَهُ (and beard). يَبْدَأُ مِنْ أَعْلاَهُ (He should start from the top [of the face]) إِلَـى أَنْ يَسْـتَوْفِيَهُ (until [he wipes over] it completely).  ثُمَّ يَضْرِبُ (Then the worshipper should pat [the the soil]) الأُخْرَى (another time) لِيَدَيْهِ (with his hands), ثُمَّ يَـمْسَحُ (then he should wipe) ظَاهِرَ يَدِهِ الْيُمْنَى (the outside of the right hand) بِيَدِهِ الْيُسْرَى (with his left hand) حَتََّى يَنْتَهِي إِلَى الْـمَرْفَقِ (until he finishes at the elbow)  ثُمَّ يَـمْسَحُ (then he wipes)  بَاطِنَهَا (over the inside of it [the of the right arm])  إِلى آخِرَ الأَصَـابِـعِ (to the tips of the fingers).  ثُمَّ يَـمْسَحُ (Then he should wipe) ظَاهِرَ الْيُسْـرَى (the outside of the left hand)  بِـيَدِهِ الْـيُمْنَى (with his right hand)  إِلَـى الْـمَرْفَقِ (to the elbow)  ثُـمَّ يَـمْسَحُ (Then he should wipe)  بَـاطِـنَهَا (over the inside of it [the of the left arm])  إِلى آخِرَ الأَصَابِعِ (to the tips of the fingers)  ويَجِبُ تَخْلِيلُ الأَصَابِعِ (and comb through the fingers is a necessity) وَنَـزْعُ الْـخَاتِـمِ (and [so is] removing the ring).  فَـإنْ لَـم يَـنْزِعْهُ (Not removing it)  لَـمْ يَجْزِهِ (is not permissible).

وَالضَّرْبَةُ الثَّانِيَّةُ (The second patting of the earth) سُنَّةٌ (is a prophetic practice)  وَكَدَا الـْمَسْحُ (and so is wiping) إلَـى الْـمَرْفَـقَيْـنِ (to the elbows).

[If the worshipper decides to]  وَلَوِ اقْـتَصَرَ عَـلَى ضَـرْبَـةٍ وَاحِـدَةٍ (limits [his dry ablution] to one patting of the earth)  لِـلْوَجْـهِ وَالْـيَدَينِ (for the face and the hands), أَجْـزَأَهُ (it’s permissible),  وَلَوِ اقْتَصَرَ (but if he limits it) فِي مَسْحِ يَدَيْهِ ( to wiping his hands) عَـلَى الْـكَوْعَينِ (up to his wrist) وَصَـلَّى (and prays), أَعَادَ فِي الْوَقْتِ (he should repeat [the dry ablution] within the time [of the specific prayer]).

فصْلٌ (Section)

إِذَا كَـانَ (If there is) فِي أَعْضَاءِ الْوُضُوءِ  (on one of the limbs which require wuduu’)  أَو غَيْرِهَا (or any other limb) جُرْحٌ (a wound), وَخَـافَ مِـنْ غَسْـلِِهِ (and the worshipper fears that washing it)  بِـالْـمَاءِ  (with water ) فَـوَاتَ نَـفْسِهِ (will cause his passing [death]) أَوْ مَـنْفَعَةٍ (or incapacity) أَوْ زِيَادَةَ مَرْضٍ (or an increase in sickness) أَؤ تَـأَخُّرَ بُرْءٍ (or delay recovery) أَؤْ حُدُوثُ مَرْضٍ (or the occurrence of sickness)  فَـإِنَّّـهُ يَـمْسَحُ عَـلَيْهِ (then the worshipper should wipe over it). فَـإِنْ لَـمْ يَسْتَطِعِ الْـمَسْحَ عَـلَيْهِ (If he is not able to wipe over it), مَسَحَ عَلَى الْـجَبِيرَةِ  (then he should wipe over the dressing)  وَهِـيَ الدَّوَاءُ (which is the medical treatment and dressing)  الَّذِي يَـجْعَلُ عَـلَيْهِ (which he placed it  [on a wound]). فَإِنْ لَـمْ يَسْـتَطِعِ الْـمَسْحَ عَـلَيْهَا  (If he is not able to wipe over that), مَسَحَ عَـلَى الْـعِصَابَةِ (then he should wipe over the bandage) وَلَوْ عَلَى الزَّائِدِ غَيْرِ الْـمُقَابِلِ (even if it is bigger than the size)  لِلْجَـرْحِ (of the wound)  كَـفَصْدِ (it is similar in regards to a surgically opened or punctured vein) وَعِـمَامَـةٍ  (and a turban) خِيفَ بِنَزْعِهَا (when its removal is feared). وَيُشْـتَرطُ (There is a condition) فِي الْـمَسْحِ الْـمَذْكُـورِ (in regards to the wiping that has been mentioned)  أنْ يَـكُونَ جُـلُّّ جَسَـدِهِ  صَـحًيحًًا (that whether the majority of the body is uninjured) أَوْ جَرِيحًا (or wounded), وَلاَ يَـتَضَرَّرُ (it [the wounded are] should not be harmed)  إِذَا غَسْـلَ الصَّحِيحَ (by washing the uninjured area), فَـإِنْ كَـانَ يَـتَضَرَّرُ بِغَسْلِ الصَّحِيحِ (and if it is harmed by washing it [the uninjured area]) أَوْ كَانَ الصَّحِيحُ قَلِيلًا جِدًّا (or the uninjured area is very small) كَـانَ لَـمْ يَـبْقَ إِلاَّ يَـدٌ أَوْ رِجْـلٌ (to the extent that only a hand or leg remained [uninjured]),  فَإِنَّهُ لاَ يَغْسِلُ الصَّحِيحَ (then the worshipper should not wash the sound area)  وَلاَ يَـمْسَحُ عَلَى الْـجَرِيحِ (nor should he wipe over the wounded area),  بَـلْ يَـنْتَقِلُ  (but rather he should resort) إِلَى التَّيَمُّمِ (to dry ablution).  وَإِذَا تَعَذَّرَ مَسْحُ الْـجَـرِيحِ (If wiping over the wound is impractical),  بِـحََيْثِ لاَ يُـمْكِنُ  (because it is not possible) وَضْعُ شَيْءٍ  عَلَيّهِ (to put any thing on the wound)  وَلاَ مُلاَقَاتَهُ (and it should not come in contact)  بِالْـمَاءِ (with water) فَإِنْ كَـانَ فِي مَوْضِـعِ التَّيَمُّمِ (and if in the area where dry ablution [would be performed]) وَلاَ يُـمْكِنُ أَيْـضًا (its also not possible)  بِـالتُّرَابِ (to used soil), تَـرَكَـهُ (the worshipper should leave it [the wound]) بِـلاَ مَـسْحٍ (without wiping) وَلا غَسْـلٍ  (or washing [it]).  وَغَسَـلَ مَـا سِـوَاهُ (He should wash what similar to it) وَإِنْ لَـمْ يَـكُنْ فِـي أَعْـضَاءِ التَّيَمُّمِ (if it is not one of limbs on which  dry ablution [would be performed]), فَـإِنَّهُ لاَ يَغْسِـلُ الصَّحِيحَ (then he should not wash the uninjured area) وَيَتَيَمَّمُ عَلَى الْـجَرِيحِ (and he should perform dry ablution on the wound) عَـلَى أَحَـدِ الأَقْـوَالِ الأَرْبَـعَةِ (according to one of four opinions),  وَإِذَا مَسَحَ عَلَى الْـجَبِيرَةِ (and if he wipes over the dressing)  ثُمَّ نَزَعَهَا لِدَوَاءٍ (and then removes it for [the application of ] medicine)  أَوْ غَـيْرِهِ (or something else), أَوْ سَـقَطَتْ (or falls off) بِـنَفْسِهَا (by itself) بَـطَلَ الْـمَسْحُ عَـلَيْهَا (the wiping which was performed on it becomes nullified)  وَإِذَا رَدَّهَا (and if the worshipers replaces it [the dressing]), فَـلاَ بُـدَّ (undoubted) مِـنَ الْـمَسْحِ ثَـانِـيًا (the wiping [should be repeated] a second time).

مُقَدِّمَةُ الْكِتَابِ (The Introductory Chapter) from Matn al-Akhdarii

‏  ‬بسم اللهِ‏ الرحمن الرحيم‏   ‬‏  ‬

In the Name of Allah the Compassionate, the Merciful

وَصَلَّى اللهُ ‬عَلَى سََيِّدِنَا مُحَمَّدٍ‏ ‬وعَلَى آلِهِ‏ ‬وَصَحْبِهِ‏ ‬وَسَلَّمَ نَ

وَصَـلَّى اللهُ ‬عَـلَى سََـيِّدِنَـا (May Allah bless our master Muhammad) وعَلَى آلِـهِ‏ (and his family) ‬وَصَـحْبِهِ‏ (and his Companions) ‬وَسَـلَّمَ (and grant them peace).

الْـحَمْدُ‏ ‬اللهِ‏ِ‏ ‬رَبِّ‏ ‬الْعَالَـمِينَ‏ ‬وَالصَّلاَةُ‏ ‬وَالسَّلاَمُ‏ ‬عَلَى سَيِّدِناَ‏ ‬مُحَمَّدٍ‏ ‬خَاتِـمِ‏ ‬النَّبِيِّيِنَ‏ ‬وَإِمَامِ‏ ‬الـْمُرْسَلِي

الْـحَـمْدُ‏ ‬اللهِ‏ِ‏ (Praise belongs to Allah) رَبِّ‏ ‬الْعَالَـمِينَ‏  (Lord of all the worlds) وَالصَّلاَةُ‏ ‬وَالسَّلاَمُ‏ (and blessings and peace) عَلَى سَيِّدِناَ‏ ‬مُحَمَّدٍ (be upon our master Muhammad), خَـاتِـمِ‏ ‬النَّبِيِّيِنَ‏ (Seal of the Prophets) ‏ ‬وَإِمَـامِ‏ ‬الـْمُرْسَلِينَ(and Imām of the Messengers).

أَوَّلُ‏ ‬مَا‏ ‬يَجِبُ‏ ‬عَلَى الـْمَُكَلَّفِِ‏ ‬تُصْحِيحُ‏ ‬إِيـمَانِهِ‏ ‬ثُمَّ‏ ‬مَعْرِفَةُ‏ ‬مَا‏ ‬يُصْلِحُ‏ ‬بِهِ‏ ‬فَرْضَ‏ ‬عَيْنِهِ‏  ‬كَاَحْكَامِ‏ ‬الصَّلاَةِ‏ ‬وَالطَّهَارَةِ‏ ‬وَالصِّيَامِ‏ ‬وَيَجِبُ‏ ‬عَلَيهِ أنْ‏ ‬يُحَافِظَ عَلَى حُدُودِ‏ ‬اللهِ‏ِ‏ ‬وَيَقِفَ‏ ‬عِنْدَ‏ ‬أَمْرِهِ‏ ‬وَنَهْيِهِ‏ ‬وَيَتُوبُ‏ ‬إِلَى اللهِ‏ِ‏ ‬سُبْحَانَهُ‏ ‬قَبُلَ‏ ‬أَنْ‏ ‬يَسْخَطَ‏ ‬عَلَيْهِ

أَوَّلُ‏ ‬مَـا‏ ‬يَـجِبُ‏ (The first obligation) عَـلَى الـْـمَُكَلَّفِِ (placed upon the mature person who is obligated to observe the precepts of the Diin) تُـصْحِيحُ‏ ‬إِيـمَانِـهِ‏ (is to make his belief sound), ثُـمَّ‏ ‬مَـعْرِفَـةُ‏ ‬ (then he should acquire knowledge of the things) مَـا‏ ‬يُـصْلِحُ‏ ‬بِـهِ‏ ‬فَـرْضَ‏ ‬عَـيْنِهِ‏ (which make his individual religious duties valid) –  كَـاَحْـكَامِ‏ ‬الصَّلاَةِ‏ (like the rules of prayer), وَالطَّهَارَةِ‏ ‏ (purification) ‬وَالصِّيَامِ (and  fasting). وَيَـجِبُ‏ ‬عَـلَيهِ ‏ (It is incumbent upon him) أنْ‏ ‬يُحَافِظَ عَلَى حُدُودِ‏ ‬اللهِ‏ِ (to be mindful of the bounds [that Allah has placed upon man]), وَيَـقِفَ‏ ‬عِـنْدَ‏ ‬أَمْـرِهِ‏ ‬وَنَهْـيِهِ‏ (to remain within Allah’s commands and prohibitions), ‬وَيَتُوبُ‏ ‬إِلَى اللهِ‏ِ‏ ‬سُبْحَانَهُ‏ (and to turn to Allah in repentance), ‬قَـبُلَ‏ ‬أَنْ‏ ‬يَسْخَـطَ‏ ‬عَـلَيْهِ (before Allah becomes displeased with him).

وَشُرُوطُ‏ ‬التَّوْبَةِ‏ ‬النَّدَمُ‏ ‬عَلَى مَا فَاتَ‏ ‬وَالنِّيَّةُ‏ ‬أَلاَّ‏ ‬يَعُودُ‏ ‬إِلَى ذَنْبٍ‏ ‬فِيمَا بَقِيَ‏ ‬عَلَيْهِ‏ ‬مِنْ‏ ‬عُمُرِهِ‏  ‬وَأَنْ‏ ‬يَتْرُكَ‏ ‬الْـمَعْصِيَةَ‏ ‬فِي‏ ‬سَاعَتِهَا إنْ‏ ‬كَانَ‏ ‬مُتَلَبِّسًا بِهَا وَلاَ‏ ‬يَحِلُّ‏ ‬لَهُ‏ ‬أَنْ‏ ‬يُؤَخِّرَ‏ ‬التَّوْبَةَ‏ ‬وَلاَ‏ ‬يَقُولَ‏ ‬حَتَّى‏ ‬يَهْدِينِي‏ ‬اللهُ ‬فَإِنَّهُ‏ ‬مِنْ‏ ‬عَلاَمَةِ‏ ‬الشَّفَاءِ‏ ‬وَالْـخِذلاَنِ‏ ‬وَطَمْسِ‏ ‬الْبَصِيرَةِ‏ ‬

‏‬ وَشُرُوطُ‏ ‬التَّوْبَةِ‏(The conditions of repentance [which have been placed upon the slave of Allah]) النَّدَمُ‏ (are to have regret) عَـلَى مَـا فَـاتَ‏ (for what has already happened [in regards to his wrong actions]), وَالنِّيَّةُ‏ ‬أَلاَّ‏ ‬يَـعُودُ‏ ‬إِلَـى ذَنْـبٍ‏ (the intention not to return to sin)  ‬فِـيمَا بَـقِيَ‏ ‬عَـلَيْهِ‏ ‬مِـنْ‏ ‬عُـمُرِهِ‏ (for the remainder of his life), يَتْرُكَ‏ ‬الْـمَعْصِيَةَ‏ ‬فِي‏ ‬سَاعَتِهَا (and to cease and desist from sin immediately), إنْ‏ ‬كَانَ‏ ‬مُتَلَبِّسًا بِـهَا (if he is presently involved in it). وَلاَ‏ ‬يَحِلُّ‏ ‬لَهُ (It is unlawful for him) ‬أَنْ‏ ‬يُؤَخِّرَ‏ ‬التَّوْبَـةَ (to delay repentance). ‬وَلاَ‏ ‬يَـقُولَ (He should not say), ‬حَتَّى‏ ‬يَهْدِينِي‏ ‬اللهُ (“until Allah guides me”) ‬فَإِنَّهُ‏ ‬مِـنْ‏ ‬عَـلاَمَـةِ‏ ‬الشَّفَاءِ‏ (This [kind of statement] is a sign of wretchedness), وَالْـخِذلاَنِ‏ (abandonment) ‬وَطَمْسِ‏ ‬الْبَصِيرَةِ‏ (and a loss of spiritual vision).

وَيَجِبُ‏ ‬عَلَيْهِ‏ ‬حِفْظُ‏ ‬لِسَانِهِ‏ ‬مِنَ‏ ‬الَفَحْشَاءِ‏ ‬وَالْكَلاَمِ‏ ‬الْقَبِيحِ‏ ‬وَأَيْـمَانِ‏ ‬الطَّلاَقِ‏ ‬وَانْتِهًارِ‏ ‬الـْمُسْلِمِ‏ ‬وَإِهَايَتِهِ‏ ‬وَسَبِّهِ‏ ‬وَ‏تَخْوِيفِهِ‏ ‬فِي‏ ‬غَيْرِ‏ ‬حَقٍّ‏ ‬شَرْعِيٍّ‏ ‬

وَيَـجِبُ‏ ‬عَـلَيْهِ‏ (It is obligatory for him) حِـفْظُ‏ ‬لِـسَانِـهِ (to guard his tongue) وَالْـكَلاَمِ‏ ‬الْـقَبِيحِ (from foul and disgraceful speech), وَأَيْـمَانِ‏ ‬الطَّلاَقِ (pronouncement of divorce), ‬وَانْـتِهًارِ‏ ‬الـْمُسْـلِمِ‏ (and from  rebuffing a [fellow] Muslim), وَإِهَـايَـتِهِ‏ ‬وَسَـبِّهِ‏ ‬وَ‏تَـخْوِيفِهِ (and humiliating, insulting and intimidating him) فِي‏ ‬غَيْرِ‏ ‬حَقٍّ‏ ‬شَرْعِيٍّ‏ (without having a legitimate reason).

وَيَجِبُ‏ ‬عَلَيْهِ‏ ‬حِفْظُ‏ ‬بًصَرِهِ‏ ‬مِنَ‏ ‬النَّظَرِ‏ ‬إِلَى الْحَرَامِ‏ ‬وَلاَ‏ ‬يَحِلُّ‏ ‬لَهُ‏ ‬أَنْ يَنْظُرَ‏ ‬إِلَى مُسْلِمٍ‏ ‬بِنَظْرَةِ‏ ‬تُؤْذِيهِ‏ ‬إِلاَّ‏ ‬أَنْ‏ ‬يَكُونَ‏ ‬فَاسِقٍا فَيَجِبُ‏ ‬هِجْرَانُهُ

وَيَـجِبُ‏ ‬عَـلَيْهِ (He must)  حِـفْظُ‏ ‬بًـصَرِهِ‏ (guard his vision) مِـنَ‏ ‬النَّظَرِ‏ ‬إِلَـى الْـحَـرَامِ‏  (from looking at what is unlawful). وَلاَ‏ ‬يَحِـلُّ‏ ‬لَـهُ (It is unlawful for him)  ‬أَنْ يَـنْظُرَ‏ ‬إِلَى مُسْـلِمٍ‏ (to look at [another] Muslim) ‬بِـنَظْرَةِ‏ ‬تُـؤْذِيهِ‏  (with a harmful glance), إِلاَّ‏ ‬أَنْ‏ ‬يَـكُونَ‏ ‬فَاسِـقًا (unless that Muslim is a transgressor).  [In such case], فَيَجِبُ‏ ‬هِجْـرَانُـهُ (his disassociation from him would become obligatory).

يَجِبُ‏ ‬عَلَيْهِ‏ ‬حِفْظُ‏ ‬جَمِيعِ‏ ‬جَوَارِحِهِ‏ ‬مَا اسْتَطَاعَ‏ ‬وَأَنْ‏ ‬يُحِبُّ‏ ِللهِ ‏‬وَيَبْغَضَ‏ ‬لَهُ‏ ‬وَ‏ ‬يَرْضَى لَهُ‏ ‬وَ‏‬بَغْضَبَ‏ ‬لَهُ‏ ‬وَيَأْمَرَ‏ ‬بِالْـمَعْرُوفِ‏ ‬وَ‏يَنْهَى عَنَ‏ ‬الْمُنْكَرِ‏

  يَـجِبُ‏ ‬عَـلَيْهِ (He must)  حِـفْظُ‏ ‬جَـمِيعِ‏ ‬جَـوَارِحِـهِ‏ (guard all of his limbs [from performing haraam actions]), ‬مَـا اسْـتَطَاعَ‏ (as much as possible). وَأَنْ‏ ‬يُـحِبُّ‏ ِللهِ (He must love for the sake of Allah), ‏‬وَيَـبْغَضَ‏ ‬لَـهُ‏ (hate for His [Allah’s] sake), ‬وَ‏ ‬يَـرْضَـى لَـهُ‏ (be pleased for His sake) ‬وَ‏‬بَغْضَبَ‏ ‬لَهُ (and be angry for His sake). وَيَـأْمَـرَ‏ ‬بِـالْـمَعْرُوفِ (He is obligated to command good deeds) ‬وَ‏يَنْهَـى عَـنَ‏ ‬الْـمُنْكَرِ‏ (and to prohibit evil and reprehensible actions).

وَ‏‬يَحْرُمُ‏ ‬عَلَيْهِ‏ ‬الْكَذِبُ‏ ‬وَالْغِيبَةُ‏ ‬والنَّمِيمَةُ‏ ‬وَالْكِبْرُ‏ ‬وَالْعُجْبُ‏ ‬وَالرِّيَاءُ‏ ‬وَ‏‬السَّمْعَةُ‏ ‬وَالْحَسَدُ‏ ‬وَالْبَغْضُ‏ ‬وَرُؤْيَةُ‏ ‬الْفَضْلِ‏ ‬عَلَى الْغَيْرِ‏ ‬وَالْهَمْزُ‏ ‬واللَّمْزُ وَالْعَبَثُ‏ ‬وَالسُّخْرِيَةُ‏ ‬وَالزِّنَى‏ ‬وَالنَّظَرُ‏ ‬إِلَى الأَجْنَبِيَّةِ‏ ‬وَ‏التَّلَذُّذُ‏ ‬بِكَلاَمِهَا ‬وَ‏‬أَكْلُ‏ ‬الأَمْوَالِ‏ ‬النَّاسِ‏ ‬بِغَيْرِ‏ ‬طِيبِ‏ ‬نَفْسٍ‏ ‬وَالأَكْلُ‏ ‬بِالشَّفَاعَةِ‏ ‬أَوْ‏ ‬بِالدِّينِ‏ ‬وَتَأْخِيرُ‏ ‬الصَّلاَةِ‏ ‬عَنْ‏ ‬أَوْقَاتِهَا‏

وَ‏‬يَحْـرُمُ‏ ‬عَـلَيْهِ‏ (Among the those things that are unlawful for him [the Muslim] are): الْـكَذِبُ‏ (Lying), وَالْـغِيبَةُ‏ (slander), والنَّمِيمَةُ‏ (defamation), وَالْـكِبْرُ‏ (arrogance), وَالْـعُجْبُ‏ (conceit), وَالرِّيَـاءُ‏ (showing off [religiously]), وَ‏‬السَّمْعَةُ‏ (seeking reputation), وَالْحَسَـدُ‏ (envy), وَالْـبَغْضُ‏ (hatefulness), وَرُؤْيَـةُ‏ الْـفَضْلِ‏ (self-centered pre-occupation with one’s good deeds) عَـلَى الْـغَيْرِ (done for others), وَالْـهَمْزُ‏ (defamatory insinuation), واللَّمْزُ (back-biting), وَالْـعَبَثُ‏ (scorn [of others]), وَالسُّخْـرِيَـةُ‏ (mockery), وَالزِّنَـى‏ (adultery), وَالنَّظَرُ‏ ‬إِلَـى الأَجْـنَبِيَّةِ‏ (looking at a female who is unlawful [to him]) وَ‏التَّلَذُّذُ‏ ‬بِـكَلاَمِـهَا (and finding pleasure in her speech), ‬وَ‏‬أَكْـلُ‏ ‬الأَمْـوَالِ‏ ‬النَّاسِ (consuming the property or wealth of someone else) ‬بِـغَيْرِ‏ ‬طِـيبِ‏ ‬نَـفْسٍ (who has not willingly turned it over to him in good spirit), وَالأَكْـلُ‏ ‬بِـالشَّفَاعَـةِ (subsisting by acts of intercession [he has done for others]) ‬أَوْ‏ ‬بِـالدِّينِ‏ (read: aw bi-diin [or by means of the Diin]; and read:   أَوْ‏ ‬بِـالدِّينِ‏ (aw bi-dayn  [or by owed debt]) وَتَـأْخِـيرُ‏ ‬الصَّلاَةِ‏ (and delaying the prayer) عَنْ‏ ‬أَوْقَـاتِـهَا‏ (beyond its prescribed time).

وَلاَ‏ ‬يَحِلُّ‏ ‬لَهُ‏ ‬صَحُبَةُ‏ ‬الْفَاسِقِ‏ ‬وَلاَ‏ ‬مُجَالَسَتُهُ‏ ‬لِغَيرِ‏ ‬ضُرُورَةٍ‏ ‬

وَلاَ‏ ‬يَحِـلُّ‏ ‬لَـهُ (It is unlawful for the Muslim) ‬صَحُبَةُ‏ ‬الْفَاسِقِ‏ (to keep the company of anyone who transgresses the bounds of Allah), ‬وَلاَ‏ ‬مُـجَالَسَـتُهُ‏ (and he [a good Muslim] should not sit with him [the transgressor]) ‬لِـغَيرِ‏ ‬ضُرُورَةٍ‏ (without having the necessity to do so).

وَلاَ‏ ‬يَطْلُبُ‏ ‬رِضَاءَ‏ ‬الْـمَخْلُوقِينَ‏ ‬بِسَخْطِ‏ ‬الْخَالِقِ‏ ‬قَالَ اللّهُ سُبْحَانَهُ‏ ‬وَتَعَالَى‏: ‬وَاللهُ ‬وَرسُولُهُ‏ ‬أَحَقُّ‏ ‬أَنْ‏ ‬يَرْضَوهُ‏ ‬إِنْ‏ ‬كَانُواْ‏ ‬مُومِنِينَ‏ .‬

وَلاَ‏ ‬يَـطْلُبُ (He should not seek) ‬رِضَـاءَ‏ ‬الْـمَخْـلُوقِـينَ‏ (the pleasure of he who has been created) بِسَخْطِ‏ ‬الْخَالِقِ (at the expense of invoking the anger of the Creator). ‬قَـالَ اللّهُ سُـبْحَانَـهُ‏ ‬وَتَـعَالَـى (Allah glory be to Him has said), وَاللهُ ‬وَرسُولُهُ‏ ‬أَحَقُّ‏ ‬أَنْ‏ ‬يَرْضَوهُ‏ ‬إِنْ‏ ‬كَانُواْ‏ ‬ مُومِنِينَ‏ (“…and Allah and His messenger, it is more appropriate that they please Him if they are believers” 9:62).

وَقَالَ‏ ‬عَلَيْهِ‏ ‬االسَّلاَمُ‏  ‬لاَ‏ ‬طَاعَةَ‏ ‬لِـمَخْلُوقٍ‏ ‬فِي‏ ‬مَعْصِيَةِ‏ ‬الْـخَالِقِ

وَقَـالَ‏ ‬عَـلَيْهِ‏ ‬االسَّلاَمُ‏ (And he [the Messenger of Allah] upon him be peace has said), لاَ‏ ‬طَاعَةَ‏ ‬لِـمَخْلُوقٍ‏ ‬فِي‏ ‬مَعْصِيَةِ‏ ‬الْـخَالِقِ (“No obedience is owed to that which has been created for the sake of disobedience to the Creator”).

وَلاَ‏ ‬يَحِلُّ‏ ‬لَهُ‏ ‬أَنْ‏ ‬يَفْعَلَ‏ ‬فِعْلاً‏ ‬حَتَّى‏ ‬يَعْلَمَ‏ ‬حُكْمَ‏ ‬اللّهِ‏ ‬فِيهِ‏ ‬وَيَسْأَلَ‏ ‬العُلَمَاءَ‏ ‬وَيَقْتَدِي‏ ‬بِالْـمُتَّبِعِينَ‏ ‬لِسُنَّةِ‏ ‬مُحَمَّدٍ‏ ‬صَلَّى اللهُ ‬عَلَيْهِ‏ ‬وَسَلَّمَ‏ ‬وَالَّذِينَ‏ ‬يَدُلُّونَ‏ ‬عَلَى طَاعَةِ‏ ‬اللّهِ ‬وَيُحَذَّرُونَ‏ ‬مِنَ ‬اتِّبَاعِ‏ ‬الشَّيْطَانِ‏ ‬

وَلاَ‏ ‬يَحِـلُّ‏ ‬لَـهُ‏ (It is unlawful for him) ‬أَنْ‏ ‬يَـفْعَلَ‏ ‬فِـعْل (to perform an action) حَـتَّى‏ ‬يَـعْلَمَ (until he knows) حُـكْمَ‏ ‬اللّهِ‏ ‬فِـيهِ (Allah’s judgment concerning it). وَيَـسْأَلَ‏ ‬العُلَمَاءَ‏ (He should ask the ʿulamaa’), وَيَـقْتَدِي (and he should follow the example) ‬بِالْـمُتَّبِعِينَ‏ ‬لِسُنَّةِ‏ ‬مُحَمَّدٍ‏ ‬صَلَّى اللهُ ‬عَلَيْهِ‏ ‬وَسَلَّمَ‏ (of those who follow the Sunnah of Muhammad, Allah send prayers and peace and blessings upon him)  وَالَّذِينَ‏ ‬يَـدُلُّونَ‏ ‬عَـلَى طَـاعَـةِ‏ ‬اللّهِ (and those who show obedience to Allah) وَيُحَـذَّرُونَ (and who are on guard) ‬مِـنَ ‬اتِّبَاعِ‏ ‬الشَّيْطَانِ‏ (against following Shayṭaan).

وَلاَ‏ ‬يَر ضَى لِنَفْسِهِ‏ ‬مَا رَضِيَهُ‏ ‬الْـمُفْلِسُونَ‏ ‬الَّذِينَ‏ ‬ضَاعَتْ‏ ‬أَعْمَارُهُمْ‏ ‬فِي‏ ‬غَيْرِ‏ ‬طَاعَةِ‏ ‬اللهِ‏ِ‏ ‬تَعَالَى فَيَا حَسْرَتَهُمْ‏ ‬وَ‏يَا طُولَ‏ ‬بُكائِهِمْ‏ ‬يَومَ‏ ‬الْقِيَامَةِ

وَلاَ‏ ‬يَر ضَى لِنَفْسِهِ‏ (He should not desire for himself) ‬مَا رَضِيَهُ‏ ‬الْـمُفْلِسُونَ (that which those who have been brought to ruin desired [for themselves]),  ‬الَّذِينَ‏ ‬ضَاعَتْ‏ ‬أَعْمَارُهُمْ (those whose lives have been wasted)  ‬فِي‏ ‬غَيْرِ‏ ‬طَاعَةِ‏ ‬اللهِ‏ِ‏ ‬ (in disobedience to Allah the Most High). فَيَا حَسْرَتَهُمْ‏ (Oh! What grief will be theirs), وَ‏يَا طُولَ‏ ‬بُكائِهِمْ‏ (and how lengthy will their tears be) ‬يَومَ‏ ‬الْقِيَامَةِ (on the Day of Rising).

نَسْأَلُ‏ ‬اللهِ‏َ‏ ‬سُبْحَانَهُ‏ ‬أَنْ‏ ‬يُوَفِّقَنَا لإِتِّبَاعِ‏ ‬سُنَّةِ‏ ‬نَبِيِّنَا وَشَفِيعِنَا وَسَيِّدِنَا مُحَمَّدٍ‏ ‬صَلَّى اللهُ ‬عَلَيْهِ‏ ‬وَسَلَّمَ‏ ‬

نَـسْأَلُ‏ ‬اللهِ‏َ‏ ‬سُـبْحَانَـهُ‏ (We implore Allah, glory be to Him) ‬أَنْ‏ ‬يُوَفِّقَنَا (to grant us success) لإِتِّبَاعِ‏ ‬سُـنَّةِ‏ ‬نَـبِيِّنَا (in following the Sunnah of our Prophet) وَشَـفِيعِنَا (and intercessor) وَسَـيِّدِنَـا مُحَـمَّدٍ‏ ‬صَـلَّى اللهُ ‬عَـلَيْهِ‏ ‬وَسَـلَّمَ‏ ‬ (and master Muhammad, Allah send prayers and peace and blessings upon him).

The Section about الطَّهَارَة – At-Ṭahaarah (Purity) from Matn al-Akhdarii

Sections About the Obligatory, Prophetic and Meritorious Acts of Wuḍuu’ from Matn al-Akhḍarii

Section: نَـوَاقـضُ‏ الْـوُضُـوء (Nawaaqiḍu-l-Wuḍuu’ [The Nullification of Wuḍuu’]) from Matn al-Akhḍarii

Section About Ghusl: Its Obligatory, Sunnah and Meritorious Actions from Matn al-Akhḍarii

The Section About التَّيَمُّم At-Tayammum (Dry Ablution) from Matn al-Akhḍarii

The Sections About الْـحَيْض Al-Ḥayḍ (Menstruation) and النَّفَاس An-Nafaas (The Blood Of Parturition [Child Birth]) from Matn al-Akhḍarii

The Section About الأَوْقَاتُ‏ الصَّلاَةِ Al-Awqaatu-ṣ-Salaah [The Times Of Prayer] from Matn al-Akhḍarii

The Section Concerning شُرُوطُ‏ الصَّلاَة (The Conditions of Ṣalaah) from Matn al-Akhḍarii

Section الصَّلاَّةُ‏ الـْـمَفْرُوضَـة (Aṣ-Ṣalaatu-l-Mafruuḍah [The Obligatory Prayer]) from Matn al-Akhḍarii

Section فصل قُـضَاءُ‏ مَـا فِـي‏ الذِّمَّةِ‏ مِـنَ‏ الصَّلَوَات (Making Up What is Owed from Prayers [That Have Passed]) from Matn al-Akhḍarii

A Chapter About السَّهْو (as-Sahw [Forgetfulness During Prayer] from Matn al-Akhḍarii

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